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Pulmonary artery hypertension

Dae Woo Park, Andrea Sebastiani, Choon Hwai Yap, Marc A Simon, Kang Kim
Mechanical and structural changes of right ventricular (RV) in response to pulmonary hypertension (PH) are inadequately understood. While current standard biaxial testing provides information on the mechanical behavior of RV tissues using surface markers, it is unable to fully assess structural and mechanical properties across the full tissue thickness. In this study, the mechanical and structural properties of normotensive and pulmonary hypertension right ventricular (PHRV) myocardium through its full thickness were examined using mechanical testing combined with 3D ultrasound speckle tracking (3D-UST)...
2016: PloS One
Silin Sa, Mingxia Gu, James Chappell, Ning-Yi Shao, Mohamed Ameen, Kathryn A T Elliott, Dan Li, Fabian Grubert, Caiyun G Li, Shalina Taylor, Aiqin Cao, Yu Ma, Ryan Fong, Long Nguyen, Joseph C Wu, Michael P Snyder, Marlene Rabinovitch
RATIONALE: Idiopathic or heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension is characterized by loss and obliteration of lung vasculature. Endothelial cell dysfunction is pivotal to the pathophysiology but different causal mechanisms may reflect a need for patient-tailored therapies. OBJECTIVES: Endothelial cells differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells were compared to pulmonary arterial endothelial cells from the same patients with idiopathic or heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension, to determine whether they shared functional abnormalities and altered gene expression patterns, that differed from those in unused donor cells...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Satoshi Akagi, Kazufumi Nakamura, Teiji Akagi, Koji Nakagawa, Yoichi Takaya, Toshihiro Sarashina, Kentaro Ejiri, Hiroshi Ito
A treatment strategy for patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) and atrial septal defect (ASD) remains unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of initial repair of ASD followed by treatment with PH-specific drugs in patients with PH and ASD. Eligible patients receive transcatheter ASD closure followed by treatment with bosentan and sildenafil. Right heart catheterization is performed at baseline and at 12, 24 and 48 weeks. The primary endpoint is change in pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance from baseline to follow-up...
October 2016: Acta Medica Okayama
Ming Zhang, Ya-Li Li, Xia Yang, Hu Shan, Qiu-Hong Zhang, Xiang-Li Feng, Ying-Ying Xie, Jing-Jing Tang, Jie Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To study the serum level of carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) and its relation with pulmonary hypertension. METHODS: Forty-six patients with AECOPD complicated by pulmonary hypertension, 46 with AECOPD and 38 healthy control subjects were examined for their clinical data, pulmonary function, echocardiographic findings, and serum levels of lung tumor markers and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)...
October 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Nadera Methia, Samia Latreche, Omar Ait Mokhtar, Jean-Jacques Monsuez, Salim Benkhedda
BACKGROUND: Prognosis of systemic sclerosis (SSc) is affected by pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). METHODS: Among 202 patients (mean age: 46.1 ± 13.3 years; 177 women) with SSc, those with a tricuspid regurgitation (TR) jet maximal velocity at 2D-echocardiography (2DE) < 2.8m/second were not considered at high risk for PAH, whereas those with a TR velocity >3m/second or between 2.8 and 3m/second and associated with dyspnea were. RESULTS: Among 22 patients at risk, 15 (mean age: 50...
October 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Bedros Taslakian, Larry A Latson, Mylene T Truong, Eric Aaltonen, Maria C Shiau, Francis Girvin, Jeffrey B Alpert, Maj Wickstrom, Jane P Ko
Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has become the primary imaging modality for evaluating the pulmonary arteries. Although pulmonary embolism is the primary indication for CTPA, various pulmonary vascular abnormalities can be detected in adults. Knowledge of these disease entities and understanding technical pitfalls that can occur when performing CTPA are essential to enable accurate diagnosis and allow timely management. This review will cover a spectrum of acquired abnormalities including pulmonary embolism due to thrombus and foreign bodies, primary and metastatic tumor involving the pulmonary arteries, pulmonary hypertension, as well as pulmonary artery aneurysms and stenoses...
November 2016: European Journal of Radiology
Hirotsugu Hashimoto, Masahiro Yanagiya, Masashi Kusakabe, Atsushi Kurata, Sayaka Ohara, Yoshio Suzuki, Jun Matsumoto, Hajime Horiuchi
Vascular changes observed in intralobar pulmonary sequestration (PS) have been reported to be similar to those observed in pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, atherosclerosis in the pulmonary artery, which is one of the characteristic arterial changes of PH, has scarcely been reported in PS. Here, we report this unique manifestation in a 66-year-old man, in whom an intralobar PS fed by an aberrant artery branching from the left gastric artery had been identified 10 years earlier, and who was diagnosed with pneumonia after having symptoms of fever and cough...
October 5, 2016: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Osami Kawarada, Ryota Kitajima, Yasuo Sugano, Teruo Noguchi, Toshihisa Anzai, Hisao Ogawa, Satoshi Yasuda
Recurrent congestive heart failure related to renal artery disease is an important clinical entity that is typically observed in bilateral renal artery stenosis or solitary functioning kidney. However, the relationship between heart failure and unilateral renal artery disease, especially that with total occlusion, remains unclear. We report a successful management by unilateral renal artery total occlusion stenting with an evidence of improvement of left ventricular filling and pulmonary artery pressure in case of a patient suffering from medical therapy resistant recurrent congestive heart failure with preserved ejection fraction...
December 2015: ESC Heart Failure
Ahmed F Abdel-Magid
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Milena V Oliveira, Soraia C Abreu, Gisele A Padilha, Nazareth N Rocha, Lígia A Maia, Christina M Takiya, Debora G Xisto, Bela Suki, Pedro L Silva, Patricia R M Rocco
Many experimental models have been proposed to study the pathophysiological features of emphysema, as well as to search for new therapeutic approaches for acute or chronically injured lung parenchyma. We aimed to characterize an emphysema model induced by multiple instillations of elastase by tracking changes in inflammation, remodeling, and cardiac function after each instillation. Forty-eight C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned across two groups. Emphysema (ELA) animals received 1, 2, 3, or 4 intratracheal instillations of pancreatic porcine elastase (PPE, 0...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Alem Mehari, Alvin V Thomas, Alicia N Thomas, Mark S Johnson
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a leading cause of morbidity and early mortality in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). However, the prevalence, hemodynamic profile and prognosis of SCD-PH remain controversial and need frequent updates. Pulmonary hypertension determined by right heart catheterization (RHC) occurs in 6% to 10% of adults with SCD. Hemodynamically, SCD-PH may be pre-capillary or post-capillary in nature. The exact etiology is unknown and often multifactorial; hence a thorough diagnostic evaluation following established PH guidelines is essential to determine disease prevalence, etiology and outcomes...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
S Harikrishnan, G Sanjay, M Ashishkumar, Jaideep Menon, G Rajesh, R Krishna Kumar
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a disease associated with a high morbidity and mortality. There is paucity of data regarding PH from the developing countries including India. Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension is the most important etiological factor in the western world, but PH secondary to rheumatic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and untreated congenital heart disease could well be the predominant causes in developing countries like India. The main objective of the PROKERALA study - Pulmonary hypertension Registry Of Kerala is to collect data regarding the etiology, practice patterns and one-year outcomes of patients diagnosed to have PH...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
Alberto M Marra, Nicola Benjamin, Christina Eichstaedt, Andrea Salzano, Michele Arcopinto, Luna Gargani, Michele D Alto, Paola Argiento, Lorenzo Falsetti, Paolo Di Giosia, Andrea M Isidori, Francesco Ferrara, Eduardo Bossone, Antonio Cittadini, Ekkehard Grünig
During the last 15 years, a real "paradigm-shift" occurred, due to the development of PAH-targeted drugs, leading to crucial improvements in symptoms, exercise capacity, hemodynamics and outcome of PAH patients. In order to describe differences regarding epidemiology and therapy in PAH according to gender, we performed a review of the available literature in "PubMed" and "Web of Science" databases. In order to find relevant articles, we combined each of the following the keywords "pulmonary arterial hypertension", "gender", "sex", "men", "woman", "male", "female", "phosphodiesterase inhibitors", "endothelin receptor antagonists", "prostanoids"...
October 19, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Haiying Chen, Hongli Yang, Hongmei Yue, Pádraig Michael Strappe, Peng Xia, Li Pan, Yingxin Zhang, Shoudong Chai, Shuangfeng Chen, Longle Ma, Lexin Wang
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effect of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) transduced with lentiviral vectors expressing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and/or a mutant caveolin-1(F92A-Cav1), on the pulmonary haemodynamics and structure in a rat model of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). METHODS: Pulmonary arterial hypertension was induced with monocrotaline (MCT) in 60 adult male Wistar rats prior to delivery of lentiviral vector transduced rBMSCs expressing Cav1, eNOS and/or F92A-Cav1...
September 9, 2016: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Y Huo, Z C Jing, X F Zeng, J M Liu, Z X Yu, G C Zhang, Y Li, Y Wang, Q S Ji, P Zhu, B X Wu, Y Zheng, P P Wang, J Li
BACKGROUND: Although several new drugs have been approved in recent years, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains a rapidly progressive disease with a poor prognosis. Ambrisentan, a selective endothelin type A antagonist, has been approved for treatment of PAH. This open label study assessed the efficacy and safety of ambrisentan in Chinese subjects with PAH. METHODS: Eligible patients with PAH (World Health Organisation [WHO] functional class [FC] II orIII) were enrolled and received Ambrisentan (5 mg) once daily for a 12-week preliminary evaluation period, and a 12-week dose-adjustment period (dose titration to 10 mgallowed)...
October 22, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Lijiang Ma, Wendy K Chung
Group 1 pulmonary hypertension or pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease characterized by proliferation and occlusion of small pulmonary arterioles, leading to progressive elevation of pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance, and right ventricular failure. Historically it has been associated with a high mortality rate, although over the last decade, treatment has improved survival. PAH includes idiopathic PAH (IPAH), heritable PAH (HPAH), and PAH associated with certain medical conditions...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Pathology
P X Kuan, P W Tan, A T Jobli, A R Norsila
INTRODUCTION: Differences in systolic blood pressure reading between arms are common but could signal trouble if the discrepancy is significant. Early detection of aortic dissection could invariably determine patient's survivability. Hence, a high index of suspicion with prompt diagnostic imaging is vital for accurate diagnosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 35-year-old lady was referred from district hospital for hypertensive cardiomyopathy complicated by acute pulmonary oedema...
August 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
Anne-Maree Kelly, Sharon Klim
BACKGROUND: To determine the rate of all cause and cardiac death, new myocardial infarction (MI) or coronary revascularisation at over three years from index visit in emergency department chest pain patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) at index presentation who had a negative electrocardiogram (ECG) and biomarker workup for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: An unplanned sub-study of a prospective observational study of consecutive adult patients presenting to the ED with atraumatic chest pain (or equivalents)...
September 13, 2016: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Yitao Zhang, Weijie Zeng, Shiyao Cheng, Zhichong Chen, Jiaojie Xue, Qing Wang, Maode Ou, Kanglin Cheng
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a serious disease, and treatment is a continuing challenge. Some in vitro and in vivo studies identified that statins were effective for PH. However, results of some randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have been controversial. The objective of our study was to clarify whether statins are effective and safe for pulmonary hypertension. METHODS: We systematically searched for eligible RCTs from PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library during January 2016...
September 15, 2016: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Anukul Ghimire, Mads Andersen, Lindsay M Burrowes, James Christopher Bouwmeester, Andrew D Grant, Israel Belenkie, Nowell M Fine, Barry A Borlaug, John V Tyberg
Using the reservoir-wave approach (RWA) we previously characterized pulmonary vasculature mechanics in a normal canine model. We found reflected backward-travelling waves that decrease pressure and increase flow in the proximal pulmonary artery (PA). These waves decrease right ventricular (RV) afterload and facilitate RV ejection. With pathological alterations to the pulmonary vasculature, these waves may change and impact RV performance. Our objective in this study was to characterize PA wave reflection and the alterations in RV performance in cardiac patients, using the RWA...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
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