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Hugo Pereira, Katkam N Gangadhar, Peter S C Schulze, Tamára Santos, Carolina Bruno de Sousa, Lisa M Schueler, Luísa Custódio, F Xavier Malcata, Luísa Gouveia, João C S Varela, Luísa Barreira
Bioprospecting for novel microalgal strains is key to improving the feasibility of microalgae-derived biodiesel production. Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 (Chlorophyta, Chlorodendrophyceae) was isolated using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) in order to screen novel lipid-rich microalgae. CTP4 is a robust, euryhaline strain able to grow in seawater growth medium as well as in non-sterile urban wastewater. Because of its large cell size (9-22 μm), CTP4 settles down after a six-hour sedimentation step. This leads to a medium removal efficiency of 80%, allowing a significant decrease of biomass dewatering costs...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Bishnu Joshi, Sarah Hendrickx, Lila Bahadur Magar, Niranjan Parajuli, Pierre Dorny, Louis Maes
BACKGROUND: Nepal is very rich in biodiversity, and no extensive effort has yet been carried out to screen plants that are used by traditional healers against parasitic diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antileishmanial and antimalarial activity of crude methanolic or ethanolic extracts of 29 plant species that are currently used by local people of Nepal for treating different ailments. METHODS: Crude extracts of leaves, twigs, aerial parts, and/or roots of the selected plants were evaluated for in vitro inhibitory activity against intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and against erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Rousel A Orozco, István Molnár, Helge Bode, S Patricia Stock
Crude extracts of in vitro and in vivo cultures of two strains of Photorhabdus l. sonorensis (Enterobacteriaceae) were analyzed by TLC, HPLC-UV and LC-MS. Nine unique compounds with mass/charge ratios (m/z) ranging from 331.3 to 713.5 were found in MS analyses. Bioactivity of extracts was assessed on a selection of plant pathogens/pests and non-target species. Caborca strain extracts showed the highest activity against Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) neonates at all concentrations tested. Mortality ranged from 11% (at 10μg/ml) to 37% (at 40 μg/ml)...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Fiyinfoluwa A Adesioye, Thulani P Makhalanyane, Peter Biely, Don A Cowan
Acetyl xylan esterases (AcXEs), also termed xylan deacetylases, are broad specificity Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZymes) that hydrolyse ester bonds to liberate acetic acid from acetylated hemicellulose (typically polymeric xylan and xylooligosaccharides). They belong to eight families within the Carbohydrate Esterase (CE) class of the CAZy database. AcXE classification is largely based on sequence-dependent phylogenetic relationships, supported in some instances with substrate specificity data. However, some sequence-based predictions of AcXE-encoding gene identity have proved to be functionally incorrect...
November 2016: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Eugenia Gentile, Grazia M Liuzzi
Alterations in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and activity are recognized as key pathogenetic events in several neurological disorders. This evidence makes MMPs possible therapeutic targets. The search for substances that can inhibit MMPs is moving progressively toward the screening of natural products. In particular, marine bioprospecting could be promising for the discovery of marine natural products with anti-MMP activities. Despite recent advances in this field, the possibility of using marine MMP inhibitors (MMPIs) for the treatment of neuroinflammation is still under-investigated...
September 30, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
Iain Dickinson, William Goodall-Copestake, Michael A S Thorne, Thomas Schlitt, Maria L Ávila-Jiménez, David A Pearce
Recent attempts to explore marine microbial diversity and the global marine microbiome have indicated a large proportion of previously unknown diversity. However, sequencing alone does not tell the whole story, as it relies heavily upon information that is already contained within sequence databases. In addition, microorganisms have been shown to present small-to-large scale biogeographical patterns worldwide, potentially making regional combinations of selection pressures unique. Here, we focus on the extremophile community in the boundary region located between the Polar Front and the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the Southern Ocean, to explore the potential of metagenomic approaches as a tool for bioprospecting in the search for novel functional activity based on targeted sampling efforts...
January 11, 2016: Microorganisms
Anita Kumari, Dharam Singh, Sanjay Kumar
Podophyllotoxin is an aryltetralin lignan synthesized in several plant species, which is used in chemotherapies for cancers and tumor treatment. More potent semisynthetic derivatives of podophyllotoxin such as etoposide and teniposide are being developed and evaluated for their efficacy. To meet the ever increasing pharmaceutical needs, species having podophyllotoxin are uprooted extensively leading to the endangered status of selective species mainly Sinopodophyllum hexandrum. This has necessitated bioprospection of podophyllotoxin from different plant species to escalate the strain on this endangered species...
September 20, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Marcelo M P Tangerina, Hebelin Correa, Brad Haltli, Wagner Vilegas, Russell G Kerr
Shrimp fisheries along the Brazilian coast have significant environmental impact due to high by-catch rates (21 kg per kilogram of shrimp). Typically discarded, by-catch contains many invertebrates that may host a great variety of bacterial genera, some of which may produce bioactive natural products with biotechnological applications. Therefore, to utilize by-catch that is usually discarded we explored the biotechnological potential of culturable bacteria of two abundant by-catch invertebrate species, the snail Olivancillaria urceus and the sea star Luidia senegalensis...
September 19, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
Soha Al-Amoudi, Rozaimi Razali, Magbubah Essack, Mohammad Shoaib Amini, Salim Bougouffa, John A C Archer, Feras F Lafi, Vladimir B Bajic
Since the composition of soil directs the diversity of the contained microbiome and its potential to produce bioactive compounds, many studies has been focused on sediment types with unique features characteristic of extreme environments. However, not much is known about the potential of microbiomes that inhabit the highly saline and hot Red Sea lagoons. This case study explores mangrove mud and the microbial mat of sediments collected from the Rabigh harbor lagoon and Al Kharrar lagoon for antimicrobial bioprospecting...
December 15, 2016: Gene
Soha Al-Amoudi, Magbubah Essack, Marta F Simões, Salim Bougouffa, Irina Soloviev, John A C Archer, Feras F Lafi, Vladimir B Bajic
Microorganisms that inhabit unchartered unique soil such as in the highly saline and hot Red Sea lagoons on the Saudi Arabian coastline, represent untapped sources of potentially new bioactive compounds. In this study, a culture-dependent approach was applied to three types of sediments: mangrove mud (MN), microbial mat (MM), and barren soil (BS), collected from Rabigh harbor lagoon (RHL) and Al-Kharrar lagoon (AKL). The isolated bacteria were evaluated for their potential to produce bioactive compounds. The phylogenetic characterization of 251 bacterial isolates based on the 16S rRNA gene sequencing, supported their assignment to five different phyla: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Planctomycetes...
September 10, 2016: Marine Drugs
Adele Williamson, Concetta De Santi, Bjørn Altermark, Christian Karlsen, Erik Hjerde
The marine Arctic isolate Halomonas sp. R5-57 was sequenced as part of a bioprospecting project which aims to discover novel enzymes and organisms from low-temperature environments, with potential uses in biotechnological applications. Phenotypically, Halomonas sp. R5-57 exhibits high salt tolerance over a wide range of temperatures and has extra-cellular hydrolytic activities with several substrates, indicating it secretes enzymes which may function in high salinity conditions. Genome sequencing identified the genes involved in the biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant ectoine, which has applications in food processing and pharmacy, as well as those involved in production of polyhydroxyalkanoates, which can serve as precursors to bioplastics...
2016: Standards in Genomic Sciences
Anastasia Albert, J Johannes Eksteen, Johan Isaksson, Myagmarsuren Sengee, Terkel Hansen, Terje Vasskog
Within the field of bioprospecting, disulfide-rich peptides are a promising group of compounds that has the potential to produce important leads for new pharmaceuticals. The disulfide bridges stabilize the tertiary structure of the peptides and often make them superior drug candidates to linear peptides. However, determination of disulfide connectivity in peptides with many disulfide bridges has proven to be laborious and general methods are lacking. This study presents a general approach for structure elucidation of disulfide-rich peptides...
October 4, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Pankaj Verma, Rangamaran Vijaya Raghavan, Che Ok Jeon, Hyo Jung Lee, Padmanaban Vishnu Priya, Gopal Dharani, Ramalingam Kirubagaran
Deep-sea environments are gaining global attention as potential sources of useful microorganisms, thereby warranting a better understanding of the diversity and genomic potential of the microbes present. To this end, here we provide the first insights into the composition of the bacterial communities in deep-sea sediment samples from the southwestern Bay of Bengal and the geographically distinct volcanic Barren Island in the Andaman Sea. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the sediments revealed the presence of >44,000 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in each of the samples, suggesting high bacterial diversity...
August 25, 2016: Marine Genomics
Greice H S Peil, Anelise V Kuss, Andrés F G Rave, José P V Villarreal, Yohana M L Hernandes, Patrícia S Nascente
The lipases have ability to catalyze diverse reactions and are important in different biotechnological applications. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize microorganisms that produce lipases, from different food industry effluents localized in Pelotas, RS/Brazil. Bacteria were identified using Gram stain and biochemical tests (Vitek 2(r)). Fungi were identified according to macro and micromorphology characteristics. The extracellular lipase production was evaluated using the Rhodamine B test and the enzymatic activity by titration...
August 18, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Dennis Eckelmann, Souvik Kusari, Michael Spiteller
Maytansinoids possess remarkable antibiotic activities along with high cytotoxicity, many of which are currently used (or in clinical trials) in the treatment of breast cancer. Celastraceous plants and their associated microorganisms serve as an important resource of maytansinoids. Here, we report the occurrence and structural elucidation of several maytansinoids in Putterlickia pyracantha plants bioprospected in South Africa. In addition to maytansine, which is already known to be present in this species, we show the presence of maytanprine, maytanbutine, maytanvaline, normaytancyprine and an abundant maytansine precursor in different tissues using high-resolution mass spectrometry...
September 2016: Fitoterapia
Aditi V Bagade, Sachin P Bachate, Bhushan B Dholakia, Ashok P Giri, Kisan M Kodam
The metalloid arsenic predominantly exists in the arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)]. These two forms are respectively oxidized and reduced by microbial redox processes. This study was designed to bioprospect arsenic tolerating bacteria from Lonar lake and to characterize their arsenic redoxing ability. Screening of sixty-nine bacterial species isolated from Lonar lake led to identification of three arsenic-oxidizing and seven arsenic-reducing species. Arsenite oxidizing isolate Roseomonas sp. L-159a being closely related to Roseomonas cervicalis ATCC 49957 oxidized 2mM As(III) in 60h...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Carlos Rial, Benito F García, Rosa M Varela, Ascensión Torres, José M G Molinillo, Francisco A Macías
The work described herein is a continuation of a previous study centered on the bioprospect of cardoon (Cynara cardunculus) leaf extracts through the isolation of secondary metabolites with phytotoxic activity. Chromatographic fractionations of the ethyl acetate extract and spectroscopic analysis showed that the majority of the components were sesquiterpene lactones. Of these compounds, aguerin B, grosheimin, and cynaropicrin were very active on etiolated wheat coleoptile, standard target species, and weed growth...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Agustina Undabarrena, Fabrizio Beltrametti, Fernanda P Claverías, Myriam González, Edward R B Moore, Michael Seeger, Beatriz Cámara
Bioprospecting natural products in marine bacteria from fjord environments are attractive due to their unique geographical features. Although, Actinobacteria are well known for producing a myriad of bioactive compounds, investigations regarding fjord-derived marine Actinobacteria are scarce. In this study, the diversity and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria isolated from marine sediments within the Comau fjord, in Northern Chilean Patagonia, were assessed by culture-based approaches. The 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that members phylogenetically related to the Micrococcaceae, Dermabacteraceae, Brevibacteriaceae, Corynebacteriaceae, Microbacteriaceae, Dietziaceae, Nocardiaceae, and Streptomycetaceae families were present at the Comau fjord...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Auxiliadora Prieto
Global warming, market and production capacity are being the key drivers for selecting the main players for the next decades in the market of bio-based plastics. The drop-in bio-based polymers such as the bio-based polyethylene terephtalate (PET) or polyethylene (PE), chemically identical to their petrochemical counterparts but having a component of biological origin, are in the top of the list. They are followed by new polymers such as PHA and PLA with a significant market growth rate since 2014 with projections to 2020...
September 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Guoxiu Zhang, Pei Liu, Lei Zhang, Wei Wei, Xuedong Wang, Dongzhi Wei, Wei Wang
Glycoside hydrolases (GHases) of higher performance are immediately needed for efficient degradation of plant biomass into fermentable sugars in industrial processes. The current study represents functional characterization of the enzymatic repertoire involved in crude cotton biomass degradation. Physical contact between cells and substrate is necessary for efficient hydrolysis of cellulose. Cytophagales, which plays a major role in cotton biomass decomposition, was identified as a prevalent community member by 16S rRNA analysis...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
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