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Bioprospecting

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666226/discovery-of-recombinases-enables-genome-mining-of-cryptic-biosynthetic-gene-clusters-in-burkholderiales-species
#1
Xue Wang, Haibo Zhou, Hanna Chen, Xiaoshu Jing, Wentao Zheng, Ruijuan Li, Tao Sun, Jiaqi Liu, Jun Fu, Liujie Huo, Yue-Zhong Li, Yuemao Shen, Xiaoming Ding, Rolf Müller, Xiaoying Bian, Youming Zhang
Bacterial genomes encode numerous cryptic biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) that represent a largely untapped source of drugs or pesticides. Mining of the cryptic products is limited by the unavailability of streamlined genetic tools in native producers. Precise genome engineering using bacteriophage recombinases is particularly useful for genome mining. However, recombinases are usually host-specific. The genome-guided discovery of novel recombinases and their transient expression could boost cryptic BGC mining...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662476/improvement-of-the-uranium-sequestration-ability-of-a-chlamydomonas-sp-chlsp-strain-isolated-from-extreme-uranium-mine-tailings-through-selection-for-potential-bioremediation-application
#2
Beatriz Baselga-Cervera, Julia Romero-López, Camino García-Balboa, Eduardo Costas, Victoria López-Rodas
The extraction and processing of uranium (U) have polluted large areas worldwide, rendering anthropogenic extreme environments inhospitable to most species. Noticeably, these sites are of great interest for taxonomical and applied bioprospection of extremotolerant species successfully adapted to U tailings contamination. As an example, in this work we have studied a microalgae species that inhabits extreme U tailings ponds at the Saelices mining site (Salamanca, Spain), characterized as acidic (pH between 3 and 4), radioactive (around 4 μSv h-1 ) and contaminated with metals, mainly U (from 25 to 48 mg L-1 ) and zinc (from 17 to 87 mg L-1 )...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649122/production-and-characterization-of-an-extracellular-acid-protease-from-thermophilic-brevibacillus-sp-oa30-isolated-from-an-algerian-hot-spring
#3
Mohamed Amine Gomri, Agustín Rico-Díaz, Juan-José Escuder-Rodríguez, Tedj El Moulouk Khaldi, María-Isabel González-Siso, Karima Kharroub
Proteases have numerous biotechnological applications and the bioprospection for newly-thermostable proteases from the great biodiversity of thermophilic microorganisms inhabiting hot environments, such as geothermal sources, aims to discover more effective enzymes for processes at higher temperatures. We report in this paper the production and the characterization of a purified acid protease from strain OA30, a moderate thermophilic bacterium isolated from an Algerian hot spring. Phenotypic and genotypic study of strain OA30 was followed by the production of the extracellular protease in a physiologically-optimized medium...
April 12, 2018: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614961/phylogenomics-and-barcoding-of-panax-toward-the-identification-of-ginseng-species
#4
V Manzanilla, A Kool, L Nguyen Nhat, H Nong Van, H Le Thi Thu, H J de Boer
BACKGROUND: The economic value of ginseng in the global medicinal plant trade is estimated to be in excess of US$2.1 billion. At the same time, the evolutionary placement of ginseng (Panax ginseng) and the complex evolutionary history of the genus is poorly understood despite several molecular phylogenetic studies. In this study, we use a full plastome phylogenomic framework to resolve relationships in Panax and to identify molecular markers for species discrimination. RESULTS: We used high-throughput sequencing of MBD2-Fc fractionated Panax DNA to supplement publicly available plastid genomes to create a phylogeny based on fully assembled and annotated plastid genomes from 60 accessions of 8 species...
April 3, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564093/bioprospecting-of-powdered-pineapple-rind-as-an-organic-supplement-of-composted-sawdust-for-pleurotus-ostreatus-mushroom-cultivation
#5
Deborah L Narh Mensah, Peter Addo, Matilda Dzomeku, Mary Obodai
Pineapple rind is a by-product of the pineapple processing industry and contains nutrients and other compounds which must be utilized as a bioresource for socio-economic benefits while preventing the potential problems of improper agroindustrial biomass disposal methods. Pleurotus ostreatus is an edible oyster mushroom with medicinal properties and can be cultivated on various agroindustrial biomass, including sawdust containing supplements. Pineapple rind was powdered and used as a supplement of composted sawdust at 2%, 5%, 10%, 12%, 15%, and 20% (w/w) on dry weight basis...
March 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561792/high-throughput-sequencing-analysis-of-the-actinobacterial-spatial-diversity-in-moonmilk-deposits
#6
Marta Maciejewska, Magdalena Całusińska, Luc Cornet, Delphine Adam, Igor S Pessi, Sandrine Malchair, Philippe Delfosse, Denis Baurain, Hazel A Barton, Monique Carnol, Sébastien Rigali
Moonmilk are cave carbonate deposits that host a rich microbiome, including antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria, making these speleothems appealing for bioprospecting. Here, we investigated the taxonomic profile of the actinobacterial community of three moonmilk deposits of the cave "Grotte des Collemboles" via high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. Actinobacteria was the most common phylum after Proteobacteria, ranging from 9% to 23% of the total bacterial population. Next to actinobacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) attributed to uncultured organisms at the genus level (~44%), we identified 47 actinobacterial genera with Rhodoccocus (4 OTUs, 17%) and Pseudonocardia (9 OTUs, ~16%) as the most abundant in terms of the absolute number of sequences...
March 21, 2018: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550636/bioprospection-of-eugenia-brasiliensis-a-brazilian-native-fruit-as-a-source-of-anti-inflammatory-and-antibiofilm-compounds
#7
Josy Goldoni Lazarini, Janaina de Cássia Orlandi Sardi, Marcelo Franchin, Bruno Dias Nani, Irlan Almeida Freires, Juliana Infante, Jonas Augusto Rizzato Paschoal, Severino Matias de Alencar, Pedro Luiz Rosalen
The anti-inflammatory and antibiofilm activities as well as toxicity and chemical profile of Eugenia brasiliensis pulp extract (EBE), were evaluated. EBE chemical profile and phenolic content were determined by LC-MS/MS. EBE was tested for its in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity, including TNF-α release, NF-кB activation, neutrophil migration and paw edema. The MIC/MBC and antibiofilm activities were tested against methicillin sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomona aeruginosa, Streptococcus mutans, and Lactobacillus acidophilus...
March 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537727/volatile-constituents-from-baccharis-spp-l-asteraceae-chemical-support-for-the-conservation-of-threatened-species-in-uruguay
#8
Manuel Minteguiaga, H Andrés González, Eduardo Cassel, Noelia Umpierrez, Laura Fariña, Eduardo Dellacassa
Chemical bioprospecting is an important tool for generating knowledge regarding local human-threatened floras and for conservation management. For Baccharis L. (Asteraceae), several volatile components have been reported for Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile as a result of bioprospection, but not for Uruguayan flora, which is composed of more than 50 native species. In this work, through collection of aerial parts of different species and volatile simultaneous-distillation extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, 12 native species of Baccharis were studied (B...
March 14, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530765/complete-genome-sequence-of-pseudomonas-frederiksbergensis-erdd5-01-revealed-genetic-bases-for-survivability-at-high-altitude-ecosystem-and-bioprospection-potential
#9
Rakshak Kumar, Vishal Acharya, Srijana Mukhia, Dharam Singh, Sanjay Kumar
Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis ERDD5:01 is a psychrotrophic bacteria isolated from the glacial stream flowing from East Rathong glacier in Sikkim Himalaya. The strain showed survivability at high altitude stress conditions like freezing, frequent freeze-thaw cycles, and UV-C radiations. The complete genome of 5,746,824 bp circular chromosome and a plasmid of 371,027 bp was sequenced to understand the genetic basis of its survival strategy. Multiple copies of cold-associated genes encoding cold active chaperons, general stress response, osmotic stress, oxidative stress, membrane/cell wall alteration, carbon storage/starvation and, DNA repair mechanisms supported its survivability at extreme cold and radiations corroborating with the bacterial physiological findings...
March 9, 2018: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522462/venomics-accelerated-cone-snail-venom-peptide-discovery
#10
REVIEW
S W A Himaya, Richard J Lewis
Cone snail venoms are considered a treasure trove of bioactive peptides. Despite over 800 species of cone snails being known, each producing over 1000 venom peptides, only about 150 unique venom peptides are structurally and functionally characterized. To overcome the limitations of the traditional low-throughput bio-discovery approaches, multi-omics systems approaches have been introduced to accelerate venom peptide discovery and characterisation. This "venomic" approach is starting to unravel the full complexity of cone snail venoms and to provide new insights into their biology and evolution...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497981/bioprospecting-of-diaporthe-terebinthifolii-lgmf907-for-antimicrobial-compounds
#11
Aliandra G de Medeiros, Daiani C Savi, Prithiba Mitra, Khaled A Shaaban, Amit K Jha, Jon S Thorson, Jürgen Rohr, Chirlei Glienke
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been observed with increasing frequency over the past decades, driving the search for new drugs and stimulating the interest in natural products sources. Endophytic fungi from medicinal plants represent a great source of novel bioactive compounds useful to pharmaceutical and agronomical purposes. Diaporthe terebinthifolii is an endophytic species isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius, a plant used in popular medicine for several health problems. The strain D. terebinthifolii LGMF907 was previously reported by our group to produce secondary metabolites with biological activity against phytopathogens...
March 1, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458872/diversity-of-cultivable-bacterial-endophytes-in-paullinia-cupana-and-their-potential-for-plant-growth-promotion-and-phytopathogen-control
#12
Rhavena Graziela Liotti, Maria Isabela da Silva Figueiredo, Gilvan Ferreira da Silva, Elisabeth Aparecida Furtado de Mendonça, Marcos Antônio Soares
Endophytic bacteria occupy the same niche of phytopathogens and may produce metabolites that induce the host plant systemic resistance and growth. Host and environmental variables often determine the endophytic community's structure and composition. In this study, we addressed whether the plant genotype, organ, and geographic location influence the structure, composition, and functionality of endophytic bacterial communities in Paullinia cupana. To characterize the communities and identify strains with potential application in agriculture, we analyzed two P...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458865/diversity-and-bioprospecting-of-extremely-halophilic-archaea-isolated-from-algerian-arid-and-semi-arid-wetland-ecosystems-for-halophilic-active-hydrolytic-enzymes
#13
Taha Menasria, Margarita Aguilera, Hacene Hocine, Leyla Benammar, Ammar Ayachi, Abdelkrim Si Bachir, Ahmed Dekak, Mercedes Monteoliva-Sánchez
The diversity of haloarchaea associated with different dry salt lakes in northeastern Algeria was investigated together with their potential of hydrolytic enzyme production. A total of 68 aerobic halophilic archaea were isolated from saline sediments. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the isolates were assigned to seven phylotypes within the class Halobacteria, namely Haloarcula, Halococcus, Haloferax, Halogeometricum, Haloterrigena, Natrialba, and Natrinema. The results showed that Haloferax group was found to be dominant in all samples (30 isolates) (44%) with high diversity, followed by Halococcus spp...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458472/polyphasic-data-support-the-splitting-of-aspergillus-candidus-into-two-species-proposal-of-aspergillus-dobrogensis-sp-nov
#14
Vit Hubka, Alena Nováková, Željko Jurjević, František Sklenář, Jens C Frisvad, Jos Houbraken, Maiken C Arendrup, Karin M Jørgensen, João P Z Siqueira, Josepa Gené, Miroslav Kolařík
Aspergillus candidus is a species frequently isolated from stored grain, food, indoor environments, soil and occasionally also from clinical material. Recent bioprospecting studies highlighted the potential of using A. candidus and its relatives in various industrial sectors as a result of their significant production of enzymes and bioactive compounds. A high genetic variability was observed among A. candidus isolates originating from various European countries and the USA, that were mostly isolated from indoor environments, caves and clinical material...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441125/saccharis-an-automated-pipeline-to-streamline-discovery-of-carbohydrate-active-enzyme-activities-within-polyspecific-families-and-de-novo-sequence-datasets
#15
Darryl R Jones, Dallas Thomas, Nicholas Alger, Ata Ghavidel, G Douglas Inglis, D Wade Abbott
Background: Deposition of new genetic sequences in online databases is expanding at an unprecedented rate. As a result, sequence identification continues to outpace functional characterization of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes). In this paradigm, the discovery of enzymes with novel functions is often hindered by high volumes of uncharacterized sequences particularly when the enzyme sequence belongs to a family that exhibits diverse functional specificities (i.e., polyspecificity)...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424627/bioprospecting-microbes-for-single-cell-oil-production-from-starchy-wastes
#16
Shivani Chaturvedi, Arti Kumari, Lata Nain, Sunil K Khare
Production of lipid from oleaginous yeast using starch as carbon source is not a common practice, therefore the purpose of this investigation was to explore the capability of starch assimilating microbes to produce oil, which was determined in terms of biomass weight, productivity & lipid yield. Saccharomyces pastorianus, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, R. glutinis, and fungal isolate Ganoderma wiiroense were screened for the key parameters. The optimization was also carried out by one factor at a time approach. Considering the specific yield of lipid and cell dry weight yield, R...
February 9, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413932/hypocholesterolemic-and-bioactive-potential-of-exopolysaccharide-from-a-probiotic-enterococcus-faecium-k1-isolated-from-kalarei
#17
Bilqeesa Bhat, Bijender Kumar Bajaj
Bioprospecting of novel probiotic strains especially from unexplored eco-niches has been a continuous practice. Enterococcus faecium K1, an isolate from indigenously fermented milk product kalarei possesses numerous desirable functional attributes. In current study, E. faecium K1 has been used for EPS production, and it yielded 355 ± 0.019 mg/L EPS. EPS demonstrates remarkable hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, antibiofilm, and emulsification characteristics. EPS is constituted of mannose, glucose and galactose...
January 30, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396619/untapped-bacterial-diversity-and-metabolic-potential-within-unkeshwar-hot-springs-india
#18
Gajanan Mehetre, Manan Shah, Syed G Dastager, Mahesh S Dharne
Hot springs support diverse and interesting groups of microorganisms adapted to extreme conditions and gaining attention in biotechnological applications. However, due to limitations of cultivation methods, a majority of such extremophiles remain uncultivated and unexplored. The advent of multiple cultivation conditions and specialized culture media could possibly aid to access the unexplored microbial portion of hot springs. In the present study, different media and isolation strategies were applied to isolate hitherto unexplored bacterial taxa in the water samples collected from Unkeshwar hot springs, India...
February 2, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390204/insights-in-fungal-bioprospecting-in-mexico
#19
Rachel Mata, Mario Figueroa, Isabel Rivero-Cruz, Martha L Macías-Rubalcava
Fungi have consistently been one of the richest sources of natural products, with unprecedented chemical scaffolds and potent biological activities. During the last 20 years, pharmacognosy researchers in Mexico, in collaboration with mycologists, have discovered many novel bioactive fungi natural products and new fungal species. To date, more than 100 bioactive secondary metabolites from 20 fungi from different ecosystems throughout Mexico have been documented in peer-reviewed literature according to Scopus and SciFinder databases...
February 1, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382578/the-pectinases-from-sphenophorus-levis-potential-for-biotechnological-applications
#20
Olivier Habrylo, Danilo Elton Evangelista, Priscila Vasques Castilho, Jérôme Pelloux, Flávio Henrique-Silva
Pectinases represent about one fifth of the enzyme worldwide market due their wide range of biotechnological applications. Current commercial pectinases are exclusively obtained from microbial sources, but here we report a pectin methylesterase (Sl-PME) and an endo-polygalacturonase (Sl-EPG) bioprospected from the sugarcane weevil, Sphenophorus levis, which revealed good potential for industrial applications. Sl-PME and Sl-EPG were overexpressed in Pichia pastoris, purified and enzymatically characterized. Sl-EPG presents optimal activity at pH 4-5 and 50 °C, showing that it can be used for juice extraction and clarification...
January 27, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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