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Bioprospecting

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900683/constructing-and-screening-a-metagenomic-library-of-a-cold-and-alkaline-extreme-environment
#1
Mikkel A Glaring, Jan K Vester, Peter Stougaard
Natural cold or alkaline environments are common on Earth. A rare combination of these two extremes is found in the permanently cold (less than 6 °C) and alkaline (pH above 10) ikaite columns in the Ikka Fjord in Southern Greenland. Bioprospecting efforts have established the ikaite columns as a source of bacteria and enzymes adapted to these conditions. They have also highlighted the limitations of cultivation-based methods in this extreme environment and metagenomic approaches may provide access to novel extremophilic enzymes from the uncultured majority of bacteria...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896615/bioprospecting-hot-spring-metagenome-lipase-for-the-production-of-biodiesel
#2
Rajesh Kumar Sahoo, Mohit Kumar, Lala Behari Sukla, Enketeswara Subudhi
Screening of metagenomic library from Taptapani Hot Spring (Odisha) yielded a positive lipase clone (pUC-lip479). Sequence analysis showed an ORF (RK-lip479) of 416 amino acid residues which was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Optimum pH and temperature of purified lipase RK-lip479 were 8.0 and 65 °C, respectively, and found to be stable over a pH range of 7.0-9.0 and temperatures 55-75 °C. RK-lip479 could hydrolyse a wide range of 4-nitrophenyl esters (4-nitrophenyoctanoate, 4-nitrophenyldodecanoate, 4-nitrophenylpalmitate, 4-nitrophenylmyristate and 4-nitrophenylstearate), and maximum activity was observed with 4-nitrophenyldodecanoate...
November 28, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890726/sources-of-antibiotics-hot-springs
#3
REVIEW
Girish B Mahajan, Lakshmi Balachandran
The discovery of antibiotics heralded an era of improved health care. However, the over-prescription and misuse of antibiotics resulted in the development of resistant strains of various pathogens. Since then, there has been an incessant search for discovering novel compounds from bacteria at various locations with extreme conditions. The soil is one of the most explored locations for bioprospecting. In recent times, hypersaline environments and symbiotic associations have been investigated for novel antimicrobial compounds...
November 24, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866010/the-botanical-explorer-s-legacy-a-promising-bioprospecting-tool
#4
Axel Helmstädter
Records about the traditional uses of medicinal plants can be considered useful in bioprospecting (i.e., the search for new active agents or lead structures in nature). Several sources like Egyptian papyri, early modern herbals and pharmacopoeias have been studied in this respect. It is proposed to use recordings of botanically interested explorers of the 19th and early 20th centuries as well. Some of them give detailed information about traditionally used medicinal plants and analysis shows that a considerable number of these have never been scientifically investigated...
November 16, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856231/bioprospecting-thermotolerant-ethanologenic-yeasts-for-simultaneous-saccharification-and-fermentation-from-diverse-environments
#5
Jairam Choudhary, Surender Singh, Lata Nain
Lignocellulosic biomass, a promising renewable energy source, can be used for the production of second generation bioethanol. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), the process which alleviates the problem of separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), requires thermotolerant ethanologenic yeast for bioethanol production. Therefore, ten yeast strains isolated from diverse sources, belonging to various genera like Saccharomyces, Candida, Pichia and Wickerhamomyces were evaluated for their thermotolerance, sugar utilization pattern, inhibitor tolerance and ethanol production potential with glucose, xylose and alkali pretreated paddy straw...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844243/analysis-of-chemical-constituents-antimicrobial-and-anticancer-activities-of-dichloromethane-extracts-of-sordariomycetes-sp-endophytic-fungi-isolated-from-strobilanthes-crispus
#6
Elaine Chin Jinfeng, Mohamed Ikhtifar Mohamad Rafi, Khoo Chai Hoon, Ho Kok Lian, Cheah Yoke Kqueen
Plants are primary source of natural product drugs. However, with every new bioactive molecule reported from a plant source, there follows reports of endangered status or even extinction of a medicinally important plant due to over-harvesting. Hence, the attention turned towards fungi namely the endophytes, which reside within medicinally important plants and thus may have acquired their medicinal properties. Strobilanthes crispus is a traditional medicinal plant which has been used traditionally to treat kidney stones, diabetes, hypertension and cancer as well as having antimicrobial activities...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822535/an-integrated-metabolomic-and-genomic-mining-workflow-to-uncover-the-biosynthetic-potential-of-bacteria
#7
Maria Maansson, Nikolaj G Vynne, Andreas Klitgaard, Jane L Nybo, Jette Melchiorsen, Don D Nguyen, Laura M Sanchez, Nadine Ziemert, Pieter C Dorrestein, Mikael R Andersen, Lone Gram
Microorganisms are a rich source of bioactives; however, chemical identification is a major bottleneck. Strategies that can prioritize the most prolific microbial strains and novel compounds are of great interest. Here, we present an integrated approach to evaluate the biosynthetic richness in bacteria and mine the associated chemical diversity. Thirteen strains closely related to Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea isolated from all over the Earth were analyzed using an untargeted metabolomics strategy, and metabolomic profiles were correlated with whole-genome sequences of the strains...
May 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774089/the-madeira-archipelago-as-a-significant-source-of-marine-derived-actinomycete-diversity-with-anticancer-and-antimicrobial-potential
#8
Alejandra Prieto-Davó, Tiago Dias, Sofia E Gomes, Sara Rodrigues, Yessica Parera-Valadez, Pedro M Borralho, Florbela Pereira, Cecilia M P Rodrigues, Ilda Santos-Sanches, Susana P Gaudêncio
Marine-derived actinomycetes have demonstrated an ability to produce novel compounds with medically relevant biological activity. Studying the diversity and biogeographical patterns of marine actinomycetes offers an opportunity to identify genera that are under environmental pressures, which may drive adaptations that yield specific biosynthetic capabilities. The present study describes research efforts to explore regions of the Atlantic Ocean, specifically around the Madeira Archipelago, where knowledge of the indigenous actinomycete diversity is scarce...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770865/bioprospects-of-microbial-enzymes-from-mangrove-associated-fungi-and-bacteria
#9
K Saravanakumar, N Rajendran, K Kathiresan, J Chen
Mangroves ecosystem provides the unique habitat for the colonization of fungi and bacteria. Interestingly, the enzymes derived from mangroves associated microorganisms have enormous economic value in industries of agriculture, pulp, paper, medicine, sewage treatments, etc. Microbial enzyme activity is required for the metabolism of plants and animals. In addition, the enzymes are also involved in aquatic animal food cycle and degradation of mangroves detritus. However, the understanding of current status of mangroves associated microorganism-derived enzymes and its application is required to improve the future omics studies...
2016: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767051/isolation-of-a-euryhaline-microalgal-strain-tetraselmis-sp-ctp4-as-a-robust-feedstock-for-biodiesel-production
#10
Hugo Pereira, Katkam N Gangadhar, Peter S C Schulze, Tamára Santos, Carolina Bruno de Sousa, Lisa M Schueler, Luísa Custódio, F Xavier Malcata, Luísa Gouveia, João C S Varela, Luísa Barreira
Bioprospecting for novel microalgal strains is key to improving the feasibility of microalgae-derived biodiesel production. Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 (Chlorophyta, Chlorodendrophyceae) was isolated using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) in order to screen novel lipid-rich microalgae. CTP4 is a robust, euryhaline strain able to grow in seawater growth medium as well as in non-sterile urban wastewater. Because of its large cell size (9-22 μm), CTP4 settles down after a six-hour sedimentation step. This leads to a medium removal efficiency of 80%, allowing a significant decrease of biomass dewatering costs...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757268/in-vitro-antileishmanial-and-antimalarial-activity-of-selected-plants-of-nepal
#11
Bishnu Joshi, Sarah Hendrickx, Lila Bahadur Magar, Niranjan Parajuli, Pierre Dorny, Louis Maes
BACKGROUND: Nepal is very rich in biodiversity, and no extensive effort has yet been carried out to screen plants that are used by traditional healers against parasitic diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antileishmanial and antimalarial activity of crude methanolic or ethanolic extracts of 29 plant species that are currently used by local people of Nepal for treating different ailments. METHODS: Crude extracts of leaves, twigs, aerial parts, and/or roots of the selected plants were evaluated for in vitro inhibitory activity against intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and against erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702563/bioprospecting-for-secondary-metabolites-in-the-entomopathogenic-bacterium-photorhabdus-luminescens-subsp-sonorensis
#12
Rousel A Orozco, István Molnár, Helge Bode, S Patricia Stock
Crude extracts of in vitro and in vivo cultures of two strains of Photorhabdus l. sonorensis (Enterobacteriaceae) were analyzed by TLC, HPLC-UV and LC-MS. Nine unique compounds with mass/charge ratios (m/z) ranging from 331.3 to 713.5 were found in MS analyses. Bioactivity of extracts was assessed on a selection of plant pathogens/pests and non-target species. Caborca strain extracts showed the highest activity against Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) neonates at all concentrations tested. Mortality ranged from 11% (at 10μg/ml) to 37% (at 40μg/ml)...
November 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702488/phylogeny-classification-and-metagenomic-bioprospecting-of-microbial-acetyl-xylan-esterases
#13
Fiyinfoluwa A Adesioye, Thulani P Makhalanyane, Peter Biely, Don A Cowan
Acetyl xylan esterases (AcXEs), also termed xylan deacetylases, are broad specificity Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZymes) that hydrolyse ester bonds to liberate acetic acid from acetylated hemicellulose (typically polymeric xylan and xylooligosaccharides). They belong to eight families within the Carbohydrate Esterase (CE) class of the CAZy database. AcXE classification is largely based on sequence-dependent phylogenetic relationships, supported in some instances with substrate specificity data. However, some sequence-based predictions of AcXE-encoding gene identity have proved to be functionally incorrect...
November 2016: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697495/marine-pharmacology-therapeutic-targeting-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-neuroinflammation
#14
Eugenia Gentile, Grazia M Liuzzi
Alterations in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and activity are recognized as key pathogenetic events in several neurological disorders. This evidence makes MMPs possible therapeutic targets. The search for substances that can inhibit MMPs is moving progressively toward the screening of natural products. In particular, marine bioprospecting could be promising for the discovery of marine natural products with anti-MMP activities. Despite recent advances in this field, the possibility of using marine MMP inhibitors (MMPIs) for the treatment of neuroinflammation is still under-investigated...
September 30, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681902/extremophiles-in-an-antarctic-marine-ecosystem
#15
Iain Dickinson, William Goodall-Copestake, Michael A S Thorne, Thomas Schlitt, Maria L Ávila-Jiménez, David A Pearce
Recent attempts to explore marine microbial diversity and the global marine microbiome have indicated a large proportion of previously unknown diversity. However, sequencing alone does not tell the whole story, as it relies heavily upon information that is already contained within sequence databases. In addition, microorganisms have been shown to present small-to-large scale biogeographical patterns worldwide, potentially making regional combinations of selection pressures unique. Here, we focus on the extremophile community in the boundary region located between the Polar Front and the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the Southern Ocean, to explore the potential of metagenomic approaches as a tool for bioprospecting in the search for novel functional activity based on targeted sampling efforts...
January 11, 2016: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644897/biotechnological-interventions-for-harnessing-podophyllotoxin-from-plant-and-fungal-species-current-status-challenges-and-opportunities-for-its-commercialization
#16
Anita Kumari, Dharam Singh, Sanjay Kumar
Podophyllotoxin is an aryltetralin lignan synthesized in several plant species, which is used in chemotherapies for cancers and tumor treatment. More potent semisynthetic derivatives of podophyllotoxin such as etoposide and teniposide are being developed and evaluated for their efficacy. To meet the ever increasing pharmaceutical needs, species having podophyllotoxin are uprooted extensively leading to the endangered status of selective species mainly Sinopodophyllum hexandrum. This has necessitated bioprospection of podophyllotoxin from different plant species to escalate the strain on this endangered species...
September 20, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644133/bioprospecting-from-cultivable-bacterial-communities-of-marine-sediment-and-invertebrates-from-the-underexplored-ubatuba-region-of-brazil
#17
Marcelo M P Tangerina, Hebelin Correa, Brad Haltli, Wagner Vilegas, Russell G Kerr
Shrimp fisheries along the Brazilian coast have significant environmental impact due to high by-catch rates (21 kg per kilogram of shrimp). Typically discarded, by-catch contains many invertebrates that may host a great variety of bacterial genera, some of which may produce bioactive natural products with biotechnological applications. Therefore, to utilize by-catch that is usually discarded we explored the biotechnological potential of culturable bacteria of two abundant by-catch invertebrate species, the snail Olivancillaria urceus and the sea star Luidia senegalensis...
September 19, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642121/metagenomics-as-a-preliminary-screen-for-antimicrobial-bioprospecting
#18
Soha Al-Amoudi, Rozaimi Razali, Magbubah Essack, Mohammad Shoaib Amini, Salim Bougouffa, John A C Archer, Feras F Lafi, Vladimir B Bajic
Since the composition of soil directs the diversity of the contained microbiome and its potential to produce bioactive compounds, many studies has been focused on sediment types with unique features characteristic of extreme environments. However, not much is known about the potential of microbiomes that inhabit the highly saline and hot Red Sea lagoons. This case study explores mangrove mud and the microbial mat of sediments collected from the Rabigh harbor lagoon and Al Kharrar lagoon for antimicrobial bioprospecting...
December 15, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626430/bioprospecting-red-sea-coastal-ecosystems-for-culturable-microorganisms-and-their-antimicrobial-potential
#19
Soha Al-Amoudi, Magbubah Essack, Marta F Simões, Salim Bougouffa, Irina Soloviev, John A C Archer, Feras F Lafi, Vladimir B Bajic
Microorganisms that inhabit unchartered unique soil such as in the highly saline and hot Red Sea lagoons on the Saudi Arabian coastline, represent untapped sources of potentially new bioactive compounds. In this study, a culture-dependent approach was applied to three types of sediments: mangrove mud (MN), microbial mat (MM), and barren soil (BS), collected from Rabigh harbor lagoon (RHL) and Al-Kharrar lagoon (AKL). The isolated bacteria were evaluated for their potential to produce bioactive compounds. The phylogenetic characterization of 251 bacterial isolates based on the 16S rRNA gene sequencing, supported their assignment to five different phyla: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Planctomycetes...
September 10, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610212/complete-genome-sequence-of-halomonas-sp-r5-57
#20
Adele Williamson, Concetta De Santi, Bjørn Altermark, Christian Karlsen, Erik Hjerde
The marine Arctic isolate Halomonas sp. R5-57 was sequenced as part of a bioprospecting project which aims to discover novel enzymes and organisms from low-temperature environments, with potential uses in biotechnological applications. Phenotypically, Halomonas sp. R5-57 exhibits high salt tolerance over a wide range of temperatures and has extra-cellular hydrolytic activities with several substrates, indicating it secretes enzymes which may function in high salinity conditions. Genome sequencing identified the genes involved in the biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant ectoine, which has applications in food processing and pharmacy, as well as those involved in production of polyhydroxyalkanoates, which can serve as precursors to bioplastics...
2016: Standards in Genomic Sciences
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