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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026943/quorum-sensing-inhibitors-can-endophytes-be-prospective-sources
#1
Abhirup Mookherjee, Shivangi Singh, Mrinal K Maiti
Endophytes are microbes which reside inside the plant tissues asymptomatically or causing pathogenicity to the host plant for a brief period. Owing to their presence in a specialized niche, endophytes are capable of synthesizing diverse types of bioactive molecules. Continuous development of resistance mechanism by pathogens to the currently available health treatments and pharmaceuticals has led researchers to explore new therapeutic agents. Quorum sensing has a role in the development of microbial pathogenic traits including biofilm formation...
October 12, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025413/carbohydrate-active-enzymes-in-trichoderma-harzianum-a-bioinformatic-analysis-bioprospecting-for-key-enzymes-for-the-biofuels-industry
#2
Jaire Alves Ferreira Filho, Maria Augusta Crivelente Horta, Lilian Luzia Beloti, Clelton Aparecido Dos Santos, Anete Pereira de Souza
BACKGROUND: Trichoderma harzianum is used in biotechnology applications due to its ability to produce powerful enzymes for the conversion of lignocellulosic substrates into soluble sugars. Active enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism are defined as carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), and the most abundant family in the CAZy database is the glycoside hydrolases. The enzymes of this family play a fundamental role in the decomposition of plant biomass. RESULTS: In this study, the CAZymes of T...
October 12, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993256/biochemical-characterization-and-low-resolution-saxs-structure-of-an-exo-polygalacturonase-from-bacillus-licheniformis
#3
Danilo Elton Evangelista, Evandro A de Araújo, Mario Oliveira Neto, Marco Antonio Seiki Kadowaki, Igor Polikarpov
Among the structural polymers present in the plant cell wall, pectin is the main component of the middle lamella. This heterogeneous polysaccharide has an α-1,4 galacturonic acid backbone, which can be broken by the enzymatic action of pectinases, such as exo-polygalacturonases, that sequentially cleave pectin from the non-reducing ends, releasing mono or di-galacturonic acid residues. Constant demand for pectinases that better suit industrial requirements has motivated identification and characterization of novel enzymes from diverse sources...
October 6, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989862/bioprospecting-north-atlantic-microalgae-with-fast-growth-and-high-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-pufa-content-for-microalgae-based-technologies
#4
Pia Steinrücken, Svein Rune Erga, Svein Are Mjøs, Hans Kleivdal, Siv Kristin Prestegard
Microalgae are considered to be an important and sustainable alternative to fish oil as a source for the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Due to their health benefits, there is an increasing interest in the commercial application of these fatty acids (FA) to health and dietary products, and to aquaculture feeds. However, FA from microalgae are still expensive to produce compared to fish or plant oils. With only a few microalgal strains being cultivated on a large scale for commercial PUFA production, prospecting for new, robust and fast-growing strains with increased PUFA content is essential in order to reduce production costs...
September 2017: Algal research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955634/bioprospecting-endophytic-diazotrophic-lysinibacillus-sphaericus-as-biocontrol-agents-of-rice-sheath-blight-disease
#5
S Shabanamol, J Sreekumar, M S Jisha
The present study tried to explore the possible in vitro biocontrol mechanisms of Lysinibacillus sphaericus, a diazotrophic endophyte from rice against the rice sheath blight pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. The in vivo biocontrol potential of the isolate and the induction of systemic resistance under greenhouse conditions have also been experimented employing different treatments with positive control carbendazim, the chemical fungicide. The endophytic isolate showed 100% growth inhibition of the fungal pathogen via volatile organic compound production and was positive for the production of siderophores, biosurfactants, HCN, and ammonia...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953997/antimycobacterial-and-antimalarial-activities-of-endophytic-fungi-associated-with-the-ancient-and-narrowly-endemic-neotropical-plant-vellozia-gigantea-from-brazil
#6
Mariana C Ferreira, Charles L Cantrell, David E Wedge, Vívian N Gonçalves, Melissa R Jacob, Shabana Khan, Carlos A Rosa, Luiz H Rosa
BACKGROUND: Endophytic fungi, present mainly in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla, are associated with different plants and represent important producers of bioactive natural products. Brazil has a rich biodiversity of plant species, including those reported as being endemic. Among the endemic Brazilian plant species, Vellozia gigantea (Velloziaceae) is threatened by extinction and is a promising target to recover endophytic fungi. OBJECTIVE: The present study focused on bioprospecting of bioactive compounds of the endophytic fungi associated with V...
October 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952531/molecular-diagnostic-for-prospecting-polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing-bacteria
#7
Eduarda Morgana da Silva Montenegro, Gabriela Scholante Delabary, Marcus Adonai Castro da Silva, Fernando Dini Andreote, André Oliveira de Souza Lima
The use of molecular diagnostic techniques for bioprospecting and microbial diversity study purposes has gained more attention thanks to their functionality, low cost and quick results. In this context, ten degenerate primers were designed for the amplification of polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase (phaC) gene, which is involved in the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-a biodegradable, renewable biopolymer. Primers were designed based on multiple alignments of phaC gene sequences from 218 species that have their genomes already analyzed and deposited at Biocyc databank...
May 25, 2017: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930185/bioprospecting-for-exopolysaccharides-from-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vent-bacteria-relationship-between-bacterial-diversity-and-chemical-diversity
#8
Christine Delbarre-Ladrat, Marcia Leyva Salas, Corinne Sinquin, Agata Zykwinska, Sylvia Colliec-Jouault
Many bacteria biosynthesize structurally diverse exopolysaccharides (EPS) and excrete them into their surrounding environment. The EPS functional features have found many applications in industries such as cosmetics and pharmaceutics. In particular, some EPS produced by marine bacteria are composed of uronic acids, neutral sugars, and N-acetylhexosamines, and may also bear some functional sulfate groups. This suggests that they can share common structural features with glycosaminoglycans (GAG) like the two EPS (HE800 and GY785) originating from the deep sea...
September 20, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918535/bioprospecting-of-novel-and-bioactive-compounds-from-marine-actinomycetes-isolated-from-south-china-sea-sediments
#9
Na Yang, Fuhang Song
Marine actinomycetes are less investigated compared to terrestrial strains as potential sources of natural products. To date, few investigations have been performed on culturable actinomycetes associated with South China Sea sediments. In the present study, twenty-eight actinomycetes were recovered from South China Sea sediments after dereplication by traditional culture-dependent method. The 16S rRNA gene sequences analyses revealed that these strains related to five families and seven genera. Twelve representative strains possessed at least one of the biosynthetic genes coding for polyketide synthase I, II, and nonribosomal peptide synthetase...
September 16, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892512/grape-microbiome-as-a-reliable-and-persistent-signature-of-field-origin-and-environmental-conditions-in-cannonau-wine-production
#10
Valerio Mezzasalma, Anna Sandionigi, Ilaria Bruni, Antonia Bruno, Gianni Lovicu, Maurizio Casiraghi, Massimo Labra
Grape berries harbor a wide range of microbes originating from the vineyard environment, many of which are recognized for their role in the must fermentation process shaping wine quality. To better clarify the contribution of the microbiome of grape fruits during wine fermentation, we used high-throughput sequencing to identify bacterial and fungi communities associated with berries and musts of Cannonau. This is the most important cultivar-wine of Sardinia (Italy) where most vineyards are cultivated without phytochemical treatments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892017/biodiversity-of-actinobacteria-from-the-south-pacific-and-the-assessment-of-streptomyces-chemical-diversity-with-metabolic-profiling
#11
Andrés Cumsille, Agustina Undabarrena, Valentina González, Fernanda Claverías, Claudia Rojas, Beatriz Cámara
Recently, bioprospecting in underexplored habitats has gained enhanced focus, since new taxa of marine actinobacteria can be found, and thus possible new metabolites. Actinobacteria are in the foreground due to their versatile production of secondary metabolites that present various biological activities, such as antibacterials, antitumorals and antifungals. Chilean marine ecosystems remain largely unexplored and may represent an important source for the discovery of bioactive compounds. Various culture conditions to enrich the growth of this phylum were used and 232 bacterial strains were isolated...
September 11, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882448/paenibacillus-ihbetae-sp-nov-a-cold-adapted-antimicrobial-producing-bacterium-isolated-from-high-altitude-suraj-tal-lake-in-the-indian-trans-himalayas
#12
Shashi Kiran, Mohit Kumar Swarnkar, Shanmugam Mayilraj, Rupinder Tewari, Arvind Gulati
The assessment of bacterial diversity and bioprospection of the high-altitude lake Suraj Tal microorganisms for potent antimicrobial activities revealed the presence of two Gram-stain-variable, endospore-forming, rod-shaped, aerobic bacteria, namely IHBB 9852(T) and IHBB 9951. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed the affiliation of strains IHBB 9852(T) and IHBB 9951 within the genus Paenibacillus, exhibiting the highest sequence similarity to Paenibacillus lactis DSM 15596(T) (97.8% and 97...
August 16, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876382/detection-purification-and-characterization-of-a-lectin-from-freshwater-green-algae-spirogyra-spp
#13
Antônia S DE Oliveira, Cláudia F Lóssio, Anne J Rangel, Maria G Q Martins, Fernando E P DO Nascimento, Maria L L DE Andrade, Benildo S Cavada, Sírleis R Lacerda, Kyria S DO Nascimento
Freshwater algae are rich sources of structurally biologically active metabolites, such as fatty acids, steroids, carotenoids and polysaccharides. Among these metabolites, lectins stand out. Lectins are proteins or glycoproteins of non-immune origin which bind to carbohydrates or glycoconjugates, without changing ligand structure. Many studies have reported on the use of Spirogyra spp. as effective bioindicators of heavy metals; however, reports on Spirogyra molecular bioprospecting are quite limited. Therefore, this study aimed to detect, isolate, purify and characterize a lectin present in the freshwater green algae Spirogyra...
August 31, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871494/delignification-and-detoxification-of-peanut-shell-bio-waste-using-an-extremely-halophilic-laccase-from-an-aquisalibacillus-elongatus-isolate
#14
Rezvan Rezaie, Shahla Rezaei, Nasrin Jafari, Hamid Forootanfar, Mohammad Reza Khoshayand, Mohammad Ali Faramarzi
Lignocellulose bioconversion is a harsh process requiring the use of surfactants and organic solvents. Consequently, the incorporation of laccases in this bioconversion requires the bioprospecting of enzymes that can remain stable under extreme conditions. An extracellular, highly stable laccase was produced by the halophilic isolate Aquisalibacillus elongatus in submerged liquid culture fermentation. Statistical and non-statistical strategies gave the highest enzymatic activity (8.02 U mL(-1)) following addition of glucose (1...
September 5, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867956/meggasense-the-metagenome-genome-annotated-sequence-natural-language-search-engine-a-platform-for-%C3%A2-the-construction-of-sequence-data-warehouses
#15
Ranko Gacesa, Jurica Zucko, Solveig K Petursdottir, Elisabet Eik Gudmundsdottir, Olafur H Fridjonsson, Janko Diminic, Paul F Long, John Cullum, Daslav Hranueli, Gudmundur O Hreggvidsson, Antonio Starcevic
The MEGGASENSE platform constructs relational databases of DNA or protein sequences. The default functional analysis uses 14 106 hidden Markov model (HMM) profiles based on sequences in the KEGG database. The Solr search engine allows sophisticated queries and a BLAST search function is also incorporated. These standard capabilities were used to generate the SCATT database from the predicted proteome of Streptomyces cattleya. The implementation of a specialised metagenome database (AMYLOMICS) for bioprospecting of carbohydrate-modifying enzymes is described...
June 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815469/metagenome-analysis-a-powerful-tool-for-enzyme-bioprospecting
#16
Aravind Madhavan, Raveendran Sindhu, Binod Parameswaran, Rajeev K Sukumaran, Ashok Pandey
Microorganisms are found throughout every corner of nature, and vast number of microorganisms is difficult to cultivate by classical microbiological techniques. The advent of metagenomics has revolutionized the field of microbial biotechnology. Metagenomics allow the recovery of genetic material directly from environmental niches without any cultivation techniques. Currently, metagenomic tools are widely employed as powerful tools to isolate and identify enzymes with novel biocatalytic activities from the uncultivable component of microbial communities...
August 16, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800783/bioprospecting-saline-gradient-of-a-wildlife-sanctuary-for-bacterial-diversity-and-antimicrobial-activities
#17
Mara DeLuca, Riley King, Mustafa Morsy
OBJECTIVE: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are becoming a global crisis, causing death of thousands of people and significant economic impact. The discovery of novel antibiotics is crucial to saving lives and reducing healthcare costs. To address the antibiotic-resistant crisis, in collaboration the Small World Initiative, which aims to crowdsource novel antibiotic discovery, this study aimed to identify antimicrobial producing bacteria and bacterial diversity in the soil of the Stimpson Wildlife Sanctuary, an inland area with a soil salt gradient...
August 11, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799253/production-of-bioethanol-in-sugarcane-bagasse-hemicellulosic-hydrolysate-by-scheffersomyces-parashehatae-scheffersomyces-illinoinensis-and-spathaspora-arborariae-isolated-from-brazilian-ecosystems
#18
R M Cadete, M A Melo-Cheab, K J Dussán, R C L B Rodrigues, S S da Silva, F C O Gomes, C A Rosa
AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate new d-xylose-fermenting yeasts from Brazilian ecosystems for the production of second-generation ethanol. METHODS AND RESULTS: d-xylose-fermenting yeasts isolated from rotting wood and wood-boring insects were identified as the species Scheffersomyces parashehatae, Sc. illinoinensis, Spathaspora arborariae, and Wickerhamomyces rabaulensis. Among the yeasts tested, those of Scheffersomyces parashehatae exhibited the highest ethanol production when cultivated on complex medium (Yp/s(et) = 0...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745768/the-sos-chromotest-applied-for-screening-plant-antigenotoxic-agents-against-ultraviolet-radiation
#19
J L Fuentes, A García Forero, N Quintero Ruiz, C A Prada Medina, N Rey Castellanos, D A Franco Niño, D A Contreras García, Y Córdoba Campo, E E Stashenko
In this work, we investigated the usefulness of the SOS Chromotest for screening plant antigenotoxic agents against ultraviolet radiation (UV). Fifty Colombian plant extracts obtained by supercritical fluid (CO2) extraction, twelve plant extract constituents (apigenin, carvacrol, β-caryophyllene, 1,8-cineole, citral, p-cymene, geraniol, naringenin, pinocembrin, quercetin, squalene, and thymol) and five standard antioxidant and/or photoprotective agents (curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate, resveratrol, α-tocopherol, and Trolox®) were evaluated for their genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity against UV using the SOS Chromotest...
September 13, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734738/evaluation-of-the-biotechnological-potential-of-bacterioplankton-from-niter%C3%A3-i-coast-rj
#20
Marcelly Miranda Aybal Jayme, Rebeca Oliveira Castro, Carlos André Mandarino Silva, Mariana Muniz Silva, Flávia Lima do Carmo, Fábio Vieira de Araujo
Production of antibiotics and enzymes by microorganisms is well recognized for its economic benefits. Searching potentially exploitable microorganisms, strains of heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from marine and estuarine waters in Niterói-RJ, Brazil, and tested for the production of enzymes and antimicrobial substances. From the 76 isolated colonies, 09.21% showed antimicrobial potential, 63.16% showed enzymatic activity for at least one of the substrates tested and 91% showed multidrug resistance. Strains that presented the better results were identified by sequencing...
June 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
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