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Bioprospecting

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458872/diversity-of-cultivable-bacterial-endophytes-in-paullinia-cupana-and-their-potential-for-plant-growth-promotion-and-phytopathogen-control
#1
Rhavena Graziela Liotti, Maria Isabela da Silva Figueiredo, Gilvan Ferreira da Silva, Elisabeth Aparecida Furtado de Mendonça, Marcos Antônio Soares
Endophytic bacteria occupy the same niche of phytopathogens and may produce metabolites that induce the host plant systemic resistance and growth. Host and environmental variables often determine the endophytic community's structure and composition. In this study, we addressed whether the plant genotype, organ, and geographic location influence the structure, composition, and functionality of endophytic bacterial communities in Paullinia cupana. To characterize the communities and identify strains with potential application in agriculture, we analyzed two P...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458865/diversity-and-bioprospecting-of-extremely-halophilic-archaea-isolated-from-algerian-arid-and-semi-arid-wetland-ecosystems-for-halophilic-active-hydrolytic-enzymes
#2
Taha Menasria, Margarita Aguilera, Hacene Hocine, Leyla Benammar, Ammar Ayachi, Abdelkrim Si Bachir, Ahmed Dekak, Mercedes Monteoliva-Sánchez
The diversity of haloarchaea associated with different dry salt lakes in northeastern Algeria was investigated together with their potential of hydrolytic enzyme production. A total of 68 aerobic halophilic archaea were isolated from saline sediments. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the isolates were assigned to seven phylotypes within the class Halobacteria, namely Haloarcula, Halococcus, Haloferax, Halogeometricum, Haloterrigena, Natrialba, and Natrinema. The results showed that Haloferax group was found to be dominant in all samples (30 isolates) (44%) with high diversity, followed by Halococcus spp...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458472/polyphasic-data-support-the-splitting-of-aspergillus-candidus-into-two-species-proposal-of-aspergillus-dobrogensis-sp-nov
#3
Vit Hubka, Alena Nováková, Željko Jurjević, František Sklenář, Jens C Frisvad, Jos Houbraken, Maiken C Arendrup, Karin M Jørgensen, João P Z Siqueira, Josepa Gené, Miroslav Kolařík
Aspergillus candidus is a species frequently isolated from stored grain, food, indoor environments, soil and occasionally also from clinical material. Recent bioprospecting studies highlighted the potential of using A. candidus and its relatives in various industrial sectors as a result of their significant production of enzymes and bioactive compounds. A high genetic variability was observed among A. candidus isolates originating from various European countries and the USA, that were mostly isolated from indoor environments, caves and clinical material...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441125/saccharis-an-automated-pipeline-to-streamline-discovery-of-carbohydrate-active-enzyme-activities-within-polyspecific-families-and-de-novo-sequence-datasets
#4
Darryl R Jones, Dallas Thomas, Nicholas Alger, Ata Ghavidel, G Douglas Inglis, D Wade Abbott
Background: Deposition of new genetic sequences in online databases is expanding at an unprecedented rate. As a result, sequence identification continues to outpace functional characterization of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes). In this paradigm, the discovery of enzymes with novel functions is often hindered by high volumes of uncharacterized sequences particularly when the enzyme sequence belongs to a family that exhibits diverse functional specificities (i.e., polyspecificity)...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424627/bioprospecting-microbes-for-single-cell-oil-production-from-starchy-wastes
#5
Shivani Chaturvedi, Arti Kumari, Lata Nain, Sunil K Khare
Production of lipid from oleaginous yeast using starch as carbon source is not a common practice, therefore the purpose of this investigation was to explore the capability of starch assimilating microbes to produce oil, which was determined in terms of biomass weight, productivity & lipid yield. Saccharomyces pastorianus, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, R. glutinis, and fungal isolate Ganoderma wiiroense were screened for the key parameters. The optimization was also carried out by one factor at a time approach. Considering the specific yield of lipid and cell dry weight yield, R...
February 9, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413932/hypocholesterolemic-and-bioactive-potential-of-exopolysaccharide-from-a-probiotic-enterococcus-faecium-k1-isolated-from-kalarei
#6
Bilqeesa Bhat, Bijender Kumar Bajaj
Bioprospecting of novel probiotic strains especially from unexplored eco-niches has been a continuous practice. Enterococcus faecium K1, an isolate from indigenously fermented milk product kalarei possesses numerous desirable functional attributes. In current study, E. faecium K1 has been used for EPS production, and it yielded 355 ± 0.019 mg/L EPS. EPS demonstrates remarkable hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, antibiofilm, and emulsification characteristics. EPS is constituted of mannose, glucose and galactose...
January 30, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396619/untapped-bacterial-diversity-and-metabolic-potential-within-unkeshwar-hot-springs-india
#7
Gajanan Mehetre, Manan Shah, Syed G Dastager, Mahesh S Dharne
Hot springs support diverse and interesting groups of microorganisms adapted to extreme conditions and gaining attention in biotechnological applications. However, due to limitations of cultivation methods, a majority of such extremophiles remain uncultivated and unexplored. The advent of multiple cultivation conditions and specialized culture media could possibly aid to access the unexplored microbial portion of hot springs. In the present study, different media and isolation strategies were applied to isolate hitherto unexplored bacterial taxa in the water samples collected from Unkeshwar hot springs, India...
February 2, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390204/insights-in-fungal-bioprospecting-in-mexico
#8
Rachel Mata, Mario Figueroa, Isabel Rivero-Cruz, Martha L Macías-Rubalcava
Fungi have consistently been one of the richest sources of natural products, with unprecedented chemical scaffolds and potent biological activities. During the last 20 years, pharmacognosy researchers in Mexico, in collaboration with mycologists, have discovered many novel bioactive fungi natural products and new fungal species. To date, more than 100 bioactive secondary metabolites from 20 fungi from different ecosystems throughout Mexico have been documented in peer-reviewed literature according to Scopus and SciFinder databases...
February 1, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382578/the-pectinases-from-sphenophorus-levis-potential-for-biotechnological-applications
#9
Olivier Habrylo, Danilo Elton Evangelista, Priscila Vasques Castilho, Jérôme Pelloux, Flávio Henrique-Silva
Pectinases represent about one fifth of the enzyme worldwide market due their wide range of biotechnological applications. Current commercial pectinases are exclusively obtained from microbial sources, but here we report a pectin methylesterase (Sl-PME) and an endo-polygalacturonase (Sl-EPG) bioprospected from the sugarcane weevil, Sphenophorus levis, which revealed good potential for industrial applications. Sl-PME and Sl-EPG were overexpressed in Pichia pastoris, purified and enzymatically characterized. Sl-EPG presents optimal activity at pH 4-5 and 50 °C, showing that it can be used for juice extraction and clarification...
January 27, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368168/biosynthetic-and-antimicrobial-potential-of-actinobacteria-isolated-from-bulrush-rhizospheres-habitat-in-zhalong-wetland-china
#10
Yamei Li, Yumei Li, Qiang Li, Juan Gao, Juanjuan Wang, Yan Luo, Xiangyu Fan, Pengfei Gu
The wetland ecosystem is known to possess unique vegetation and serves multiple functions within the environment. In this study, bacterial bioprospecting of bulrush rhizospheres in the Zhalong Wetland, China, was performed using comprehensive methods, including strain isolation and phylogenetic analysis, PCR detection of biosynthetic gene clusters, assessment of antimicrobial activity, metabolite profiling and genome analysis. A total of 27 actinobacterial strains were isolated, and their biosynthetic gene clusters (NRPS, PKS-I and PKS-II) were investigated; all of the tested strains had at least one of the three aforementioned biosynthetic gene clusters...
January 24, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342924/estrogen-and-thyroid-hormone-receptor-activation-by-medicinal-plants-from-bahia-brazil
#11
Luã Tainã Costa Reis, Magnus Régios Dias da Silva, Silvia Lima Costa, Eudes da Silva Velozo, Ronan Batista, Suzana Telles da Cunha Lima
Background: A number of medicinal plants are traditionally used for metabolic disorders in Bahia state, Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the estrogen receptor (ER) and thyroid receptor (TR) activation of crude extracts prepared from 20 plants. Methods: Species were extracted and assayed for receptor activation through both ER and TR gene-reporter assays, using 17β-estradiol and triiodothyronine (T3), respectively, as the positive controls. Results: Cajanus cajan (Fabaceae), Abarema cochliacarpus (Fabaceae), and Borreria verticillata (Rubiaceae) were able to activate ER as much as the positive control (17β-estradiol)...
January 15, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336243/identification-of-in-vitro-red-fluorescent-protein-with-antipathogenic-activity-from-the-midgut-of-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori-l
#12
Manjunatha Ks Gowda, Anitha Peter, Mahantesha Bn Naika, P Niranjana, P Shamprasad
Biotic stress affects all organisms, including the silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) which also has a plethora of defense mechanisms against the infecting pathogens. The midgut plays an important role as a natural barrier and source of innate immunity. The present investigation was thus undertaken to identify an antiviral red fluorescent protein formed in the midgut of the silkworm Bombyx mori L. The digestive juice from fifth instar Kolar Gold silkworm larvae was collected and subjected to 40 % ammonium sulfate precipitation and purified by gel filtration chromatography (GFC)...
January 15, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332141/cultivable-fungi-present-in-antarctic-soils-taxonomy-phylogeny-diversity-and-bioprospecting-of-antiparasitic-and-herbicidal-metabolites
#13
Eldon C Q Gomes, Valéria M Godinho, Débora A S Silva, Maria T R de Paula, Gislaine A Vitoreli, Carlos L Zani, Tânia M A Alves, Policarpo A S Junior, Silvane M F Murta, Emerson C Barbosa, Jaquelline G Oliveira, Fabio S Oliveira, Camila R Carvalho, Mariana C Ferreira, Carlos A Rosa, Luiz H Rosa
Molecular biology techniques were used to identify 218 fungi from soil samples collected from four islands of Antarctica. These consisted of 22 taxa of 15 different genera belonging to the Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Mortierella, Antarctomyces, Pseudogymnoascus, and Penicillium were the most frequently isolated genera and Penicillium tardochrysogenum, Penicillium verrucosus, Goffeauzyma gilvescens, and Mortierella sp. 2 the most abundant taxa. All fungal isolates were cultivated using solid-state fermentation to obtain their crude extracts...
January 13, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299623/bioprospection-of-culturable-endophytic-fungi-associated-with-the-ornamental-plant-pachystachys-lutea
#14
Amanda da Silva Ribeiro, Julio Cesar Polonio, Alessandra Tenório Costa, Caroline Menicoze Dos Santos, Sandro Augusto Rhoden, João Lúcio Azevedo, João Alencar Pamphile
Endophytes are fungi and bacteria that inhabit plant tissues without causing disease. Endophytes have characteristics that are important for the health of the plant and have been isolated from several plants of economic and medicinal interest but rarely from ornamental plants. The current study isolates and identifies endophytic fungi from the leaves of Pachystachys lutea and evaluates the antagonistic activity of these endophytes as well as cellulase production by the endophytes. Fungi were isolated by fragmentation from surface-disinfected leaves and were identified by the sequencing of the ITS gene and the genes coding for EF 1-α and β-tubulin followed by multilocus sequence analysis...
January 3, 2018: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240926/exocet-exonuclease-in-vitro-assembly-combined-with-recet-recombination-for-highly-efficient-direct-dna-cloning-from-complex-genomes
#15
Hailong Wang, Zhen Li, Ruonan Jia, Jia Yin, Aiying Li, Liqiu Xia, Yulong Yin, Rolf Müller, Jun Fu, A Francis Stewart, Youming Zhang
The exponentially increasing volumes of DNA sequence data highlight the need for new DNA cloning methods to explore the new information. Here, we describe 'ExoCET' (Exonuclease Combined with RecET recombination) to directly clone any chosen region from bacterial and mammalian genomes with nucleotide precision into operational plasmids. ExoCET combines in vitro exonuclease and annealing with the remarkable capacity of full length RecET homologous recombination (HR) to retrieve specified regions from genomic DNA preparations...
December 12, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228814/cold-adapted-enzymes-produced-by-fungi-from-terrestrial-and-marine-antarctic-environments
#16
Alysson Wagner Fernandes Duarte, Juliana Aparecida Dos Santos, Marina Vitti Vianna, Juliana Maíra Freitas Vieira, Vitor Hugo Mallagutti, Fabio José Inforsato, Lia Costa Pinto Wentzel, Luciana Daniela Lario, Andre Rodrigues, Fernando Carlos Pagnocca, Adalberto Pessoa Junior, Lara Durães Sette
Antarctica is the coldest, windiest, and driest continent on Earth. In this sense, microorganisms that inhabit Antarctica environments have to be adapted to harsh conditions. Fungal strains affiliated with Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla have been recovered from terrestrial and marine Antarctic samples. They have been used for the bioprospecting of molecules, such as enzymes. Many reports have shown that these microorganisms produce cold-adapted enzymes at low or mild temperatures, including hydrolases (e...
December 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209209/nonribosomal-peptides-from-marine-microbes-and-their-antimicrobial-and-anticancer-potential
#17
REVIEW
Shivankar Agrawal, Debabrata Acharya, Alok Adholeya, Colin J Barrow, Sunil K Deshmukh
Marine environments are largely unexplored and can be a source of new molecules for the treatment of many diseases such as malaria, cancer, tuberculosis, HIV etc. The Marine environment is one of the untapped bioresource of getting pharmacologically active nonribosomal peptides (NRPs). Bioprospecting of marine microbes have achieved many remarkable milestones in pharmaceutics. Till date, more than 50% of drugs which are in clinical use belong to the nonribosomal peptide or mixed polyketide-nonribosomal peptide families of natural products isolated from marine bacteria, cyanobacteria and fungi...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182315/determinants-and-prediction-of-esterase-substrate-promiscuity-patterns
#18
Monica Martínez-Martínez, Cristina Coscolín, Gerard Santiago, Jennifer Chow, Peter J Stogios, Rafael Bargiela, Christoph Gertler, José Navarro-Fernández, Alexander Bollinger, Stephan Thies, Celia Méndez-García, Ana Popovic, Greg Brown, Tatyana N Chernikova, Antonio García-Moyano, Gro Ek Bjergah, Pablo Pérez-García, Tran Hai, Mercedes V Del Pozo, Runar Stokke, Ida H Steen, Hong Cui, Xiaohui Xu, Boguslaw P Nocek, María Alcaide, Marco Distaso, Victoria Mesa, Ana I Pelaez, Jesús Sánchez, Patrick C F Buchholz, Juergen Pleiss, Antonio Fernández-Guerra, Frank O Glöckner, Olga V Golyshina, Michail M Yakimov, Alexei Savchenko, Karl-Erich Jaeger, Alexander F Yakunin, Wolfgang R Streit, Peter N Golyshin, Victor Guallar, Manuel Ferrer
Esterases receive special attention because their wide distribution in biological systems and environments and their importance for physiology and chemical synthesis. The prediction of esterases substrate promiscuity level from sequence data and the molecular reasons why certain such enzymes are more promiscuous than others, remain to be elucidated. This limits the surveillance of the sequence space for esterases potentially leading to new versatile biocatalysts and new insights into their role in cellular function...
November 28, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181803/functional-characterization-of-probiotic-potential-of-novel-pigmented-bacterial-strains-for-aquaculture-applications
#19
Sekar Jinendiran, Seenivasan Boopathi, Natesan Sivakumar, Gopal Selvakumar
The bioprospecting proficient of novel pigmented probiotic strains with respect to aquaculture industry was unexplored hitherto. In this study, we investigated the probiotic potential of novel pigmented bacterial strains isolated from the indigenous soil sediments in their vicinal habitats, which were screened for their antimicrobial activity against aquatic pathogens using agar well diffusion assay. The strains namely Exiguobacterium acetylicum (S01), Aeromonas veronii (V03), and Chryseobacterium joostei (V04) were phenotypically identified and confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis...
November 27, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157056/the-intron-landscape-of-the-mtdna-cytb-gene-among-the-ascomycota-introns-and-intron-encoded-open-reading-frames
#20
Tuhin K Guha, Alvan Wai, Sahra-Taylor Mullineux, Georg Hausner
Fungal mitochondrial genes are frequently noted for the presence of introns. These introns are self-splicing and can be assigned to either group I or II introns and they can encode open reading frames (ORFs). This study examines the introns present within the cytochrome b (cytb) gene of ascomycetes fungi. Cytochrome b gene sequences were sampled from GenBank and supplemented with our own data for species of Leptographium and Ophiostoma. Group I introns were encountered most frequently, many encoding either LAGLIDADG or GIY-YIG homing endonucleases (HEs)...
November 20, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
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