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Bioprospecting

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538688/in-silico-study-and-bioprospection-of-the-antibacterial-and-antioxidant-effects-of-flavone-and-its-hydroxylated-derivatives
#1
Camila de Albuquerque Montenegro, Gregório Fernandes Gonçalves, Abrahão Alves de Oliveira Filho, Andressa Brito Lira, Thays Thyara Mendes Cassiano, Natanael Teles Ramos de Lima, José Maria Barbosa-Filho, Margareth de Fátima Formiga Melo Diniz, Hilzeth Luna Freire Pessôa
Flavonoid compounds are widely used as natural protective species, which can act as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticoagulant, antihypertensive and antitumor agents. This study set out to investigate the probable pharmacological activities, along with the antibacterial and antioxidant effects, of flavone and its hydroxy derivatives: 3-hydroxyflavone, 5-hydroxyflavone and 6-hydroxyflavone. To do so, we investigated their pharmacological characteristics, using in silico tests that indicate likelihood of activity or inactivity, with the PASS online software, and the antimicrobial potential against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria was also analyzed, including bacteria of clinical importance...
May 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528426/building-a-bio-based-industry-in-the-middle-east-through-harnessing-the-potential-of-the-red-sea-biodiversity
#2
REVIEW
Jens Nielsen, John Archer, Magbubah Essack, Vladimir B Bajic, Takashi Gojobori, Ivan Mijakovic
The incentive for developing microbial cell factories for production of fuels and chemicals comes from the ability of microbes to deliver these valuable compounds at a reduced cost and with a smaller environmental impact compared to the analogous chemical synthesis. Another crucial advantage of microbes is their great biological diversity, which offers a much larger "catalog" of molecules than the one obtainable by chemical synthesis. Adaptation to different environments is one of the important drives behind microbial diversity...
May 20, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525726/characterization-of-an-ionic-liquid-tolerant-%C3%AE-xylosidase-from-a-marine-derived-fungal-endophyte
#3
Anindita Sengupta, Angela Zabala, Si Yu Tan, Arthur Broadstock, T S Suryanarayanan, Venkat Gopalan
Ionic liquids (ILs) are used in lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) pretreatment due to their ability to disrupt the extensive hydrogen-bonding network in cellulose and hemicellulose, and thereby decrease LCB recalcitrance to subsequent enzymatic degradation. However, this approach necessitates development of a cellulases and hemicellulases that can tolerate ~20% (w/v) IL, an amount that either co-precipitates with the sugar polymers after the initial pretreatment or is typically used in single-pot biomass deconstructions...
May 19, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523076/metaproteomics-guided-selection-of-targeted-enzymes-for-bioprospecting-of-mixed-microbial-communities
#4
Jutta Speda, Bengt-Harald Jonsson, Uno Carlsson, Martin Karlsson
BACKGROUND: Hitherto, the main goal of metaproteomic analyses has been to characterize the functional role of particular microorganisms in the microbial ecology of various microbial communities. Recently, it has been suggested that metaproteomics could be used for bioprospecting microbial communities to query for the most active enzymes to improve the selection process of industrially relevant enzymes. In the present study, to reduce the complexity of metaproteomic samples for targeted bioprospecting of novel enzymes, a microbial community capable of producing cellulases was maintained on a chemically defined medium in an enzyme suppressed metabolic steady state...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512279/antimicrobial-potential-of-plant-extracts-and-chemical-fractions-of-sideroxylon-obtusifolium-roem-schult-t-d-penn-on-oral-microorganisms
#5
Thaíse Pd Sampaio, Nathália Ao Cartaxo-Furtado, Ana Cd de Medeiros, Harley S Alves, Pedro L Rosalen, Jozinete V Pereira
AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and chemical fractions of Sideroxylon obtusifolium T.D. Penn on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus parasanguinis, and Candida albicans as well as to identify the chemical classes found in the bioactive extracts possessing better activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Freeze-dried hydroalcoholic extracts of the bark and leaves (LC and LF respectively) and ethanol extracts of bark and leaves (EC and EF respectively) of S...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480140/high-diversity-and-suggested-endemicity-of-culturable-actinobacteria-in-an-extremely-oligotrophic-desert-oasis
#6
Hector Fernando Arocha-Garza, Ricardo Canales-Del Castillo, Luis E Eguiarte, Valeria Souza, Susana De la Torre-Zavala
The phylum Actinobacteria constitutes one of the largest and anciently divergent phyla within the Bacteria domain. Actinobacterial diversity has been thoroughly researched in various environments due to its unique biotechnological potential. Such studies have focused mostly on soil communities, but more recently marine and extreme environments have also been explored, finding rare taxa and demonstrating dispersal limitation and biogeographic patterns for Streptomyces. To test the distribution of Actinobacteria populations on a small scale, we chose the extremely oligotrophic and biodiverse Cuatro Cienegas Basin (CCB), an endangered oasis in the Chihuahuan desert to assess the diversity and uniqueness of Actinobacteria in the Churince System with a culture-dependent approach over a period of three years, using nine selective media...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476677/ethnobotanical-study-of-medicinal-plants-used-by-ribeirinhos-in-the-north-araguaia-microregion-mato-grosso-brazil
#7
Reginaldo Vicente Ribeiro, Isanete Geraldini Costa Bieski, Sikiru Olaitan Balogun, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira Martins
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE: Currently, in many traditional communities, such as the riverine community in the North Araguaia microregion (Mato Grosso, Brazil), plant knowledge and use represent the main, if not the only, therapeutic resource for the maintenance of health and/or treatment of diseases. This study aimed to identify and document species of medicinal plants used by local experts from riverine communities in the North Araguaia microregion in Mato Grosso State, and to further chemical and pharmacological studies on species selected based on searches in the relevant literature...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468277/sampling-terrestrial-environments-for-bacterial-polyketides
#8
REVIEW
Patrick Hill, Graham W Heberlig, Christopher N Boddy
Bacterial polyketides are highly biologically active molecules that are frequently used as drugs, particularly as antibiotics and anticancer agents, thus the discovery of new polyketides is of major interest. Since the 1980s discovery of polyketides has slowed dramatically due in large part to the repeated rediscovery of known compounds. While recent scientific and technical advances have improved our ability to discover new polyketides, one key area has been under addressed, namely the distribution of polyketide-producing bacteria in the environment...
April 29, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420137/modification-of-the-mycotoxin-deoxynivalenol-using-microorganisms-isolated-from-environmental-samples
#9
Nina M Wilson, Nicole McMaster, Dash Gantulga, Cara Soyars, Susan P McCormick, Ken Knott, Ryan S Senger, David G Schmale
The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common contaminant of wheat, barley, and maize. New strategies are needed to reduce or eliminate DON in feed and food products. Microorganisms from plant and soil samples collected in Blacksburg, VA, USA, were screened by incubation in a mineral salt media containing 100 μg/mL DON and analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Two mixed cultures derived from soil samples consistently decreased DON levels in assays using DON as the sole carbon source...
April 15, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376612/marine-algicolous-endophytic-fungi-a-promising-drug-resource-of-the-era
#10
REVIEW
Manomi Sarasan, Jayesh Puthumana, Neema Job, Jeonghoon Han, Jae-Seong Lee, Rosamma Philip
Endophytic fungi have currently been acknowledged, as the most promising source of bioactive compounds for drug discovery and considerable progress has been made in exploring their diversity, species richness, and bioprospecting. Fungal endophytes from unique environmental settings offer a pool of potentially useful medicinal entities. Due to the constant stresses imposed on macroalgae by marine environment, it is believed that algae and their associated endophytic symbionts represent a good source of structurally diverse bioactive secondary metabolites...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376308/differential-colonization-by-bioprospected-rhizobial-bacteria-associated-to-common-bean-in-different-cropping-systems-i-i
#11
Josiele Polzin de Oliveira-Francesquini, Mariangela Hungria, Daiani Cristina Savi, Chirlei Glienke, Rodrigo Aluizio, Vanessa Kava, Lygia Vitória Galli-Terasawa
In this study, we evaluated the diversity of rhizobia isolated from root nodules on common bean (<i>Phaseolus vulgaris</i>) derived from Andean and Mesoamerican centers and grown under field and greenhouse conditions. Genetic characterization of isolates was performed by sequencing analyses of the 16S rRNA and two housekeeping genes, <i>rec</i>A and <i>gln</i>II, and by the amplification of <i>nif</i>H. Symbiotic efficiency was evaluated by examining nodulation, plant-biomass production and plant-N accumulation...
April 4, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367143/comparative-mrna-expression-profiles-of-riboflavin-biosynthesis-genes-in-lactobacilli-isolated-from-human-feces-and-fermented-bamboo-shoots
#12
Kiran Thakur, Sudhir K Tomar, Zhao-Jun Wei
With the aim to bioprospect potent riboflavin producing lactobacilli, the present study was carried out to evaluate the relative mRNA expression of riboflavin biosynthesis genes namely Rib 1, Rib 2, Rib 3, and Rib 4 from potent riboflavin producers obtained from our previous studies. All the four genes were successfully cloned and sequenced for further analysis by in silico procedures. As studied by non-denaturing Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, no difference in size of all the four genes among those of various lactobacilli was observed...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335513/bioactive-potential-of-marine-macroalgae-from-the-central-red-sea-saudi-arabia-assessed-by-high-throughput-imaging-based-phenotypic-profiling
#13
Stephan Kremb, Constanze Müller, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Christian R Voolstra
Marine algae represent an important source of novel natural products. While their bioactive potential has been studied to some extent, limited information is available on marine algae from the Red Sea. This study aimed at the broad discovery of new bioactivities from a collection of twelve macroalgal species from the Central Red Sea. We used imaging-based High-Content Screening (HCS) with a diverse spectrum of cellular markers for detailed cytological profiling of fractionated algal extracts. The cytological profiles for 3 out of 60 algal fractions clustered closely to reference inhibitors and showed strong inhibitory activities on the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in a single-enzyme biochemical assay, validating the suggested biological target...
March 20, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330085/bioprospecting-and-biotechnological-applications-of-fungal-laccase
#14
REVIEW
Pooja Upadhyay, Rahul Shrivastava, Pavan Kumar Agrawal
Laccase belongs to a small group of enzymes called the blue multicopper oxidases, having the potential ability of oxidation. It belongs to enzymes, which have innate properties of reactive radical production, but its utilization in many fields has been ignored because of its unavailability in the commercial field. There are diverse sources of laccase producing organisms like bacteria, fungi and plants. In fungi, laccase is present in Ascomycetes, Deuteromycetes, Basidiomycetes and is particularly abundant in many white-rot fungi that degrade lignin...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321234/a-review-of-bioinformatics-tools-for-bio-prospecting-from-metagenomic-sequence-data
#15
REVIEW
Despoina D Roumpeka, R John Wallace, Frank Escalettes, Ian Fotheringham, Mick Watson
The microbiome can be defined as the community of microorganisms that live in a particular environment. Metagenomics is the practice of sequencing DNA from the genomes of all organisms present in a particular sample, and has become a common method for the study of microbiome population structure and function. Increasingly, researchers are finding novel genes encoded within metagenomes, many of which may be of interest to the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. However, such "bioprospecting" requires a suite of sophisticated bioinformatics tools to make sense of the data...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314873/exploring-the-bioprospecting-and-biotechnological-potential-of-white-rot-and-anaerobic-neocallimastigomycota-fungi-peptidases-esterases-and-lignocellulolytic-enzymes
#16
REVIEW
Ronivaldo Rodrigues da Silva, Rafael Pedezzi, Tatiane Beltramini Souto
Fungi constitute an invaluable natural resource for scientific research, owing to their diversity; they offer a promising alternative for bioprospecting, thus contributing to biotechnological advances. For a long time, extensive information has been exploited and fungal products have been tested as a source of natural compounds. In this context, enzyme production remains a field of interest, since it offers an efficient alternative to the hazardous processes of chemical transformations. Owing to their vast biodiversity and peculiar biochemical characteristics, two fungal categories, white-rot and anaerobic Neocallimastigomycota, have gathered considerable attention for biotechnological applications...
April 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279126/further-insight-into-the-bioactivity-of-the-freshwater-sponge-ochridaspongia-rotunda
#17
Aleksandra Talevska, Boris Pejin, Tanja Beric, Slavisa Stankovic
CONTEXT: Bioprospection has become a dynamic scientific field that explores novel possibilities for the implementation of natural products in medicine and pharmacy. Compared to marine species from all kingdoms, freshwater species have been highly neglected. OBJECTIVE: This work focuses on the screening of acetylcholinesterase inhibitory (AChE) and mutagenic activities of the acetone extract (obtained by maceration) of the freshwater sponge Ochridaspongia rotunda Arndt (Malawispongiidae) in vitro...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278662/antimicrobial-activity-of-saponins-produced-by-two-novel-endophytic-fungi-from-panax-notoginseng
#18
Zhaoxia Jin, Lin Gao, Lin Zhang, Tianyi Liu, Fang Yu, Zongshen Zhang, Qiong Guo, Biying Wang
Endophytes in plants may be co-producer of the bioactive compounds of their hosts. We conducted a study to bioprospect for saponin-producing endophytic fungi from Panax notoginseng and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of saponins. Two novel fungal endophytes, Fusarium sp. PN8 and Aspergillus sp. PN17, were isolated from traditional Chinese medicinal herb P. notoginseng. After eight days of fermentation, the total saponins produced in the culture broth of PN8 and PN17 were 1.061 and 0.583 mg mL(-1), respectively...
February 16, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273638/antimalarial-activity-and-safety-assessment-of-flueggea-virosa-leaves-and-its-major-constituent-with-special-emphasis-on-their-mode-of-action
#19
Shiv Vardan Singh, Ashan Manhas, Yogesh Kumar, Sonali Mishra, Karuna Shanker, Feroz Khan, Kumkum Srivastava, Anirban Pal
A clinical emergency stands due to the appearance of drug resistant Plasmodium strains necessitate novel and effective antimalarial chemotypes, where plants seem as the prime option, especially after the discovery of quinine and artemisinin. The present study was aimed towards bioprospecting leaves of Flueggea virosa for its antimalarial efficacy and active principles. Crude hydro-ethanolic extract along with solvent derived fractions were tested in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum CQ sensitive (3D7) and resistant (K1) strains, where all the fractions exhibited potential activity (IC50 values <10μg/mL) against both the strains...
May 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272809/bioprospection-of-cold-adapted-yeasts-with-biotechnological-potential-from-antarctica
#20
María Martha Martorell, Lucas Adolfo Mauro Ruberto, Pablo Marcelo Fernández, Lucía Inés Castellanos de Figueroa, Walter Patricio Mac Cormack
The aim of this study was to investigate the ability to produce extracellular hydrolytic enzymes at low temperature of yeasts isolated from 25 de Mayo island, Antarctica, and to identify those exhibiting one or more of the evaluated enzymatic activities. A total of 105 yeast isolates were obtained from different samples and 66 were identified. They belonged to 12 basidiomycetous and four ascomycetous genera. Most of the isolates were ascribed to the genera Cryptococcus, Mrakia, Cystobasidium, Rhodotorula, Gueomyces, Phenoliferia, Leucosporidium, and Pichia...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
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