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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926940/inflammasome-independent-nlrp3-restriction-of-a-protective-early-neutrophil-response-to-pulmonary-tularemia
#1
Sivakumar Periasamy, Hongnga T Le, Ellen B Duffy, Heather Chin, Jonathan A Harton
Francisella tularensis (Ft) causes a frequently fatal, acute necrotic pneumonia in humans and animals. Following lethal Ft infection in mice, infiltration of the lungs by predominantly immature myeloid cells and subsequent myeloid cell death drive pathogenesis and host mortality. However, following sub-lethal Ft challenge, more mature myeloid cells are elicited and are protective. In addition, inflammasome-dependent IL-1β and IL-18 are important for protection. As Nlrp3 appears dispensable for resistance to infection with Francisella novicida, we considered its role during infection with the virulent Type A strain SchuS4 and the attenuated Type B live vaccine strain LVS...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925791/reemergence-of-lower-airway-microbiota-in-lung-transplant-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#2
Saad A Syed, Fiona J Whelan, Barbara Waddell, Harvey R Rabin, Michael D Parkins, Michael G Surette
RATIONALE: Chronic lung infections are a hallmark of cystic fibrosis; they are responsible for progressive airway destruction and ultimately lead to respiratory death or the requirement for life-saving bilateral lung transplant. Furthermore, recurrent isolation of airway pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the allograft after transplant is associated with adverse outcomes, including bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome and acute infections. Little information exists on the impact of bilateral lung transplant on the lower-airway microbiota...
December 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923979/functional-respiratory-imaging-regional-strain-and-expiratory-time-constants-at-three-levels-of-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-in-an-ex%C3%A2-vivo-pig-model
#3
William R Henderson, Yannick Molgat-Seon, Wim Vos, Rachel Lipson, Francisca Ferreira, Miranda Kirby, Cedric Van Holsbeke, Paolo B Dominelli, Donald E G Griesdale, Mypinder Sekhon, Harvey O Coxson, John Mayo, A William Sheel
Heterogeneity in regional end expiratory lung volume (EELV) may lead to variations in regional strain (ε). High ε levels have been associated with ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI). While both whole lung and regional EELV may be affected by changes in positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), regional variations are not revealed by conventional respiratory system measurements. Differential rates of deflation of adjacent lung units due to regional variation in expiratory time constants (τE) may create localized regions of ε that are significantly greater than implied by whole lung measures...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923956/adaptation-to-potassium-limitation-is-essential-for-acinetobacter-baumannii-pneumonia-pathogenesis
#4
Reham Samir, Salma H Hussein, Noha M Elhosseiny, Marwa S Khattab, Alaa E Shawky, Ahmed S Attia
BACKGROUND:  Acinetobacter baumannii is challenging the healthcare community as the cause of a wide range of untreatable infections. New targets need to be explored for the development of therapeutics. METHODS:  The potassium-dependent protein (Kdp) system was investigated via bioinformatics and genetic tools. An isogenic mutant was constructed in kdpE and complemented in trans Gene expression and the ability to grow under potassium-limited conditions were investigated...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922699/adhesion-and-invasion-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-to-primary-and-secondary-respiratory-epithelial-cells
#5
Sara Novick, Marilous Shagan, Karin Blau, Sarit Lifshitz, Noga Givon-Lavi, Nili Grossman, Lipa Bodner, Ron Dagan, Yaffa Mizrachi Nebenzahl
The interaction between Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) and the mucosal epithelial cells of its host is a prerequisite for pneumococcal disease development, yet the specificity of this interaction between different respiratory cells is not fully understood. In the present study, three areas were examined: i) The capability of the encapsulated S. pneumoniae serotype 3 strain (WU2) to adhere to and invade primary nasal‑derived epithelial cells in comparison to primary oral‑derived epithelial cells, A549 adenocarcinoma cells and BEAS‑2B viral transformed bronchial cells; ii) the capability of the unencapsulated 3...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918777/global-regional-and-national-cancer-incidence-mortality-years-of-life-lost-years-lived-with-disability-and-disability-adjusted-life-years-for-32-cancer-groups-1990-to-2015-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study
#6
Christina Fitzmaurice, Christine Allen, Ryan M Barber, Lars Barregard, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Hermann Brenner, Daniel J Dicker, Odgerel Chimed-Orchir, Rakhi Dandona, Lalit Dandona, Tom Fleming, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Jamie Hancock, Roderick J Hay, Rachel Hunter-Merrill, Chantal Huynh, H Dean Hosgood, Catherine O Johnson, Jost B Jonas, Jagdish Khubchandani, G Anil Kumar, Michael Kutz, Qing Lan, Heidi J Larson, Xiaofeng Liang, Stephen S Lim, Alan D Lopez, Michael F MacIntyre, Laurie Marczak, Neal Marquez, Ali H Mokdad, Christine Pinho, Farshad Pourmalek, Joshua A Salomon, Juan Ramon Sanabria, Logan Sandar, Benn Sartorius, Stephen M Schwartz, Katya A Shackelford, Kenji Shibuya, Jeff Stanaway, Caitlyn Steiner, Jiandong Sun, Ken Takahashi, Stein Emil Vollset, Theo Vos, Joseph A Wagner, Haidong Wang, Ronny Westerman, Hajo Zeeb, Leo Zoeckler, Foad Abd-Allah, Muktar Beshir Ahmed, Samer Alabed, Noore K Alam, Saleh Fahed Aldhahri, Girma Alem, Mulubirhan Assefa Alemayohu, Raghib Ali, Rajaa Al-Raddadi, Azmeraw Amare, Yaw Amoako, Al Artaman, Hamid Asayesh, Niguse Atnafu, Ashish Awasthi, Huda Ba Saleem, Aleksandra Barac, Neeraj Bedi, Isabela Bensenor, Adugnaw Berhane, Eduardo Bernabé, Balem Betsu, Agnes Binagwaho, Dube Boneya, Ismael Campos-Nonato, Carlos Castañeda-Orjuela, Ferrán Catalá-López, Peggy Chiang, Chioma Chibueze, Abdulaal Chitheer, Jee-Young Choi, Benjamin Cowie, Solomon Damtew, José das Neves, Suhojit Dey, Samath Dharmaratne, Preet Dhillon, Eric Ding, Tim Driscoll, Donatus Ekwueme, Aman Yesuf Endries, Maryam Farvid, Farshad Farzadfar, Joao Fernandes, Florian Fischer, Tsegaye Tewelde G/Hiwot, Alemseged Gebru, Sameer Gopalani, Alemayehu Hailu, Masako Horino, Nobuyuki Horita, Abdullatif Husseini, Inge Huybrechts, Manami Inoue, Farhad Islami, Mihajlo Jakovljevic, Spencer James, Mehdi Javanbakht, Sun Ha Jee, Amir Kasaeian, Muktar Sano Kedir, Yousef S Khader, Young-Ho Khang, Daniel Kim, James Leigh, Shai Linn, Raimundas Lunevicius, Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek, Reza Malekzadeh, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Wagner Marcenes, Desalegn Markos, Yohannes A Melaku, Kidanu G Meles, Walter Mendoza, Desalegn Tadese Mengiste, Tuomo J Meretoja, Ted R Miller, Karzan Abdulmuhsin Mohammad, Alireza Mohammadi, Shafiu Mohammed, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Gabriele Nagel, Devina Nand, Quyen Le Nguyen, Sandra Nolte, Felix A Ogbo, Kelechi E Oladimeji, Eyal Oren, Mahesh Pa, Eun-Kee Park, David M Pereira, Dietrich Plass, Mostafa Qorbani, Amir Radfar, Anwar Rafay, Mahfuzar Rahman, Saleem M Rana, Kjetil Søreide, Maheswar Satpathy, Monika Sawhney, Sadaf G Sepanlou, Masood Ali Shaikh, Jun She, Ivy Shiue, Hirbo Roba Shore, Mark G Shrime, Samuel So, Samir Soneji, Vasiliki Stathopoulou, Konstantinos Stroumpoulis, Muawiyyah Babale Sufiyan, Bryan L Sykes, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos, Fentaw Tadese, Bemnet Amare Tedla, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, J S Thakur, Bach Xuan Tran, Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja, Benjamin S Chudi Uzochukwu, Vasiliy Victorovich Vlassov, Elisabete Weiderpass, Mamo Wubshet Terefe, Henock Gebremedhin Yebyo, Hassen Hamid Yimam, Naohiro Yonemoto, Mustafa Z Younis, Chuanhua Yu, Zoubida Zaidi, Maysaa El Sayed Zaki, Zerihun Menlkalew Zenebe, Christopher J L Murray, Mohsen Naghavi
Importance: Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Current estimates on the burden of cancer are needed for cancer control planning. Objective: To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 32 cancers in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015. Evidence Review: Cancer mortality was estimated using vital registration system data, cancer registry incidence data (transformed to mortality estimates using separately estimated mortality to incidence [MI] ratios), and verbal autopsy data...
December 3, 2016: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916588/genotoxicity-evaluation-of-hwanglyeonhaedok-tang-an-herbal-formula
#7
Seong Eun Jin, Mee-Young Lee, Chang-Seob Seo, Hyekyung Ha, Ji-Young Kim, Hyeun-Kyoo Shin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hwanglyeonhaedok-tang (Huanglianjiedu-tang, Orengedoku-to), a traditional herbal formula, is used for the treatment of inflammatory, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential of Hwanglyeonhaedok-tang water extract (HLHDT). METHODS: A genotoxicity test was conducted using a bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames test), an in vitro chromosome aberration test using Chinese hamster lung cells, and an in vivo micronucleus test using ICR mouse bone marrow...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915418/in-vivo-cns-infection-model-of-acanthamoeba-genotype-t4-the-early-stages-of-infection-lack-presence-of-host-inflammatory-response-and-are-a-slow-and-contact-dependent-process
#8
Maritza Omaña-Molina, Dolores Hernandez-Martinez, Raquel Sanchez-Rocha, Ulises Cardenas-Lemus, Citlaltepetl Salinas-Lara, Adolfo Rene Mendez-Cruz, Laura Colin-Barenque, Patricia Aley-Medina, Jesus Espinosa-Villanueva, Leticia Moreno-Fierros, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
This study was developed in order to describe the early morphological events observed during the invasion of two pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba (genotype T4); A. castellanii and A. culbertsoni, at the olfactory meatus and cerebral, pulmonary, renal, hepatic and splenic tissues levels, an in vivo invasion study. Histological and immunohistochemical description of the events at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h postintranasal inoculations of BALB/c mice was performed. A. castellanii showed a higher invasion rate than A...
December 3, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913423/bronchodilatory-effect-of-deep-inspiration-in-freshly-isolated-sheep-lungs
#9
William D Wong, Lu Wang, Peter D Paré, Chun Y Seow
Taking a big breath is known to reverse bronchoconstriction induced by bronchochallenge in healthy subjects; this bronchodilatory effect of deep inspiration (DI) is diminished in asthmatics. The mechanism underlying the DI effect is not clear. Observations from experiments using isolated airway smooth muscle (ASM) preparations and airway segments suggest that straining of ASM due to DI could lead to bronchodilation, possibly due to strain-induced reduction in ASM contractility. However, factors external to the lung cannot be excluded as potential causes for the DI effect...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908697/clostridium-difficile-carriage-in-adult-cystic-fibrosis-cf-implications-for-patients-with-cf-and-the-potential-for-transmission-of-nosocomial-infection
#10
D G Burke, M J Harrison, C Fleming, M McCarthy, C Shortt, I Sulaiman, D M Murphy, J A Eustace, F Shanahan, C Hill, C Stanton, M C Rea, R P Ross, B J Plant
Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic Gram-positive, spore-forming, toxin-producing bacillus transmitted among humans through the faecal-oral route. Despite increasing carriage rates and the presence of C. difficile toxin in stool, patients with CF rarely appear to develop typical manifestations of C. difficile infection (CDI). In this study, we examined the carriage, toxin production, ribotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of C. difficile in a cohort of 60 adult patients with CF who were pre-lung transplant...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907005/intraluminal-flagellin-differentially-contributes-to-gut-dysbiosis-and-systemic-inflammation-following-burn-injury
#11
Logan Grimes, Allie Doyle, Aaron L Miller, Richard B Pyles, Gabor Olah, Csaba Szabo, Sarah Hoskins, Tonyia Eaves-Pyles
Burn injury is associated with a loss of gut barrier function, resulting in systemic dissemination of gut-derived bacteria and their products. The bacterial protein and TLR5 agonist, flagellin, induces non-specific innate immune responses. Because we detected flagellin in the serum of burn patients, we investigated whether gut-derived flagellin was a primary or secondary contributor to intestinal dysfunction and systemic inflammation following burn injury. The apical surface of polarized human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), Caco-2BBe, were exposed to 50 or 500 ng of purified flagellin and 1 x 105 of an intestinal E...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906023/surface-area-dependence-of-gas-particle-interactions-influences-pulmonary-and-neuroinflammatory-outcomes
#12
Christina R Tyler, Katherine E Zychowski, Bethany N Sanchez, Valeria Rivero, Selita Lucas, Guy Herbert, June Liu, Hammad Irshad, Jacob D McDonald, Barry E Bleske, Matthew J Campen
BACKGROUND: Deleterious consequences of exposure to traffic emissions may derive from interactions between carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) and gaseous components in a manner that is dependent on the surface area or complexity of the particles. To determine the validity of this hypothesis, we examined pulmonary and neurological inflammatory outcomes in C57BL/6 and apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) male mice after acute and chronic exposure to vehicle engine-derived particulate matter, generated as ultrafine (UFP) and fine (FP) sizes, with additional exposures using UFP or FP combined with gaseous copollutants derived from fresh gasoline and diesel emissions, labeled as UFP + G and FP + G...
December 1, 2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904808/effect-of-common-and-experimental-anti-tuberculosis-treatments-on-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-growing-as-biofilms
#13
James P Dalton, Benedict Uy, Narisa Phummarin, Brent R Copp, William A Denny, Simon Swift, Siouxsie Wiles
Much is known regarding the antibiotic susceptibility of planktonic cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium responsible for the lung disease tuberculosis (TB). As planktonically-grown M. tuberculosis are unlikely to be entirely representative of the bacterium during infection, we set out to determine how effective a range of anti-mycobacterial treatments were against M. tuberculosis growing as a biofilm, a bacterial phenotype known to be more resistant to antibiotic treatment. Light levels from bioluminescently-labelled M...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902909/marek-s-disease-in-backyard-chickens-a-study-of-pathologic-findings-and-viral-loads-in-tumorous-and-nontumorous-birds
#14
Aslı Mete, Radhika Gharpure, Maurice E Pitesky, Dan Famini, Karen Sverlow, John Dunn
Marek's disease (MD) is a major cause of mortality in backyard chickens. The diagnosis of MD is complex, however, and knowledge of Marek's disease virus (MDV) in spontaneous field cases such as in backyard chickens is largely unknown. In this study, 40 backyard chickens with a presumptive MD diagnosis based on histologic lymphoid infiltrations in peripheral nerves with and without lymphomas were investigated. Twenty-eight of the birds were submitted to the diagnostic laboratory for disease explorations, and 12 chickens were from a flock in which some members demonstrated anisocoria and pupil irregularities compatible with ocular MD...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902784/dynamic-in-vivo-mutations-within-the-ica-operon-during-persistence-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-the-airways-of-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#15
Bianca Schwartbeck, Johannes Birtel, Janina Treffon, Lars Langhanki, Alexander Mellmann, Devika Kale, Janina Kahl, Nina Hirschhausen, Claudia Neumann, Jean C Lee, Friedrich Götz, Holger Rohde, Hanae Henke, Peter Küster, Georg Peters, Barbara C Kahl
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with chronic bacterial airway infections leading to lung insufficiency and decreased life expectancy. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent pathogens isolated from the airways of CF patients. Mucoid colony morphology has been described for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the most common pathogen in CF, but not for S. aureus. From the airways of 8 of 313 CF patients (2.5%) mucoid S. aureus isolates (n = 115) were cultured with a mean persistence of 29 months (range 1 month, 126 months)...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902395/virulence-characteristics-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-clinical-isolates-vary-with-the-expression-levels-of-omps
#16
Yoshinori Sato, Yuka Unno, Sayoko Kawakami, Tsuneyuki Ubagai, Yasuo Ono
We investigated the expression levels of virulence factors (ompA, omp33-36, and carO) in 5 clinical isolates and in a standard ATCC19606 strain of Acinetobacter baumannii to determine their effect on the virulence characteristics of the isolates. The mRNA levels of ompA in the clinical isolates were higher and similar compared with those in ATCC19606, whereas the mRNA levels of omp33-36 in the clinical isolates were lower and similar compared with those in ATCC19606. The mRNA levels of carO in the clinical isolates were significantly higher than those in ATCC19606...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899975/in-vitro-antitumor-activity-of-latcripin-15-regulator-of-chromosome-condensation-1-domain-protein
#17
Li Tian, Xiaoli Wang, Xingyun Li, Ben Liu, Wei Zhang, Jing Cao, Anhong Ning, Min Huang, Mintao Zhong
Cancer is one of the most significant health problems worldwide and thus the development of novel therapeutic agents with fewer side effects is required. The present study investigated the in vitro anticancer effects of a newly isolated fungal protein. In this study, Latcripin-15 (LP-15) regulator of chromosome condensation 1 (RCC1) domain protein, which is obtained from the Lentinula edodes C91-3 fungal strain, was identified, cloned, expressed, purified and re-folded to assess the in vitro antitumor activity of the protein...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897246/rapid-control-of-pandemic-h1n1-influenza-by-targeting-nkt-cells
#18
Bianca L Artiaga, Guan Yang, Tarun E Hutchinson, Julia C Loeb, Jürgen A Richt, John A Lednicky, Shahram Salek-Ardakani, John P Driver
Swine influenza A viruses (IAV) are a major cause of respiratory disease in pigs and humans. Currently approved anti-influenza therapies directly target the virus, but these approaches are losing effectiveness as new viral strains quickly develop drug resistance. To over come this challenge, there is an urgent need for more effective antiviral drugs. Here we tested the anti-influenza efficacy of the invariant natural killer T (NKT) cell superagonist, α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), which stimulates a wide array of anti-viral immune responses...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897216/characterizations-of-h4-avian-influenza-viruses-isolated-from-ducks-in-live-poultry-markets-and-farm-in-shanghai
#19
Ying Shi, Hongrui Cui, Junheng Wang, Qiuyan Chi, Xuesong Li, Qiaoyang Teng, Hongjun Chen, Jianmei Yang, Qinfang Liu, Zejun Li
H4 avian influenza virus is one of the most prevalent influenza virus subtypes in birds. The evolution and pathogenicity of H4 AIV in domestic birds of China remain largely unclear. In the present study, a total of eight H4 AIV strains isolated in duck farm and live poultry markets (LPM) were characterized. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these strains are divided into two groups in the Eurasian lineage. Eight genes of MH-2/H4N6 isolated from a duck farm were closely related to three H4N6 viruses from LPM, suggesting a potential AIV link between farms and LPMs...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896670/the-activation-of-the-ifn%C3%AE-induction-signaling-pathway-in-porcine-alveolar-macrophages-by-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-is-variable
#20
Christopher C Overend, Junru Cui, Marvin J Grubman, Antonio E Garmendia
BACKGROUND: It has been recognized that the expression of type I interferon (IFNα/β) may be suppressed during infection with porcine reproductive, respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). This causes profound negative effects on both the innate and adaptive immunity of the host resulting in persistence of infection. OBJECTIVE: Test the effects of PRRSV infection of porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), the main target cell, on the expression of interferon beta (IFNβ) and downstream signaling events...
November 28, 2016: Veterinary Research Communications
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