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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789571/a-novel-extracellular-vesicle-associated-endodeoxyribonuclease-helps-streptococcus-pneumoniae-evade-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-and-is-required-for-full-virulence
#1
Hina Jhelum, Hema Sori, Devinder Sehgal
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a major bacterial pathogen that causes pneumonia and septicemia in humans. Pneumococci are cleared from the host primarily by antibody dependent opsonophagocytosis by phagocytes like neutrophils. Neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) on contacting pneumococci. NETs immobilize pneumococci and restrict its dissemination in the host. One of the strategies utilized by pneumococci to evade the host immune response involves use of DNase(s) to degrade NETs...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787304/deterioration-of-regional-lung-strain-and-inflammation-during-early-lung-injury
#2
Gabriel C Motta-Ribeiro, Soshi Hashimoto, Tilo Winkler, Rebecca M Baron, Kira Grogg, Luís F S C Paula, Arnoldo Santos, Congli Zeng, Kathryn Hibbert, Robert S Harris, Ednan Bajwa, Marcos F Vidal Melo
RATIONALE: The contribution of aeration heterogeneity to lung injury during early mechanical ventilation of uninjured lungs is unknown. OBJECTIVE: Test the hypotheses that a strategy consistent with clinical practice does not protect from worsening in lung strains during the first 24h of ventilation of initially normal lungs exposed to mild systemic endotoxemia in supine versus prone position, and that local neutrophilic inflammation is associated with local strain and blood volume at global strains below a proposed injurious threshold...
May 22, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784885/-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-regulated-intramembrane-proteolysis-rip-protease-mucp-can-overcome-mutations-in-the-algo-periplasmic-protease-to-restore-alginate-production-in-nonmucoid-revertants
#3
Camila Delgado, Laura Florez, Ivonne Lollett, Christine Lopez, Shiva Kangeyan, Hansi Kumari, Marios Stylianou, Robert J Smiddy, Lisa Schneper, Robert T Sautter, George Szatmari, Kalai Mathee
The progression of cystic fibrosis (CF) from an acute to a chronic disease is often associated with the conversion of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a nonmucoid form to a mucoid form in the lung. This conversion involves the overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate, whose production is under control of the AlgT/U sigma factor. This factor is regulated posttranslationally by an extremely unstable process and has been commonly attributed to mutations in the algT/U gene. By exploiting this unstable phenotype, we isolated 34 spontaneous nonmucoid variants arising from the mucoid strain PDO300, a PAO1 derivative containing the mucA22 allele commonly found in mucoid CF isolates...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783694/adaptive-mutations-in-influenza-a-california-07-2009-enhance-polymerase-activity-and-infectious-virion-production
#4
Patrick D Slaine, Cara MacRae, Mariel Kleer, Emily Lamoureux, Sarah McAlpine, Michelle Warhuus, André M Comeau, Craig McCormick, Todd Hatchette, Denys A Khaperskyy
Mice are not natural hosts for influenza A viruses (IAVs), but they are useful models for studying antiviral immune responses and pathogenesis. Serial passage of IAV in mice invariably causes the emergence of adaptive mutations and increased virulence. Here, we report the adaptation of IAV reference strain A/California/07/2009(H1N1) (also known as CA/07) in outbred Swiss Webster mice. Serial passage led to increased virulence and lung titers, and dissemination of the virus to brains. We adapted a deep-sequencing protocol to identify and enumerate adaptive mutations across all genome segments...
May 18, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782463/gut-microbiota-probiotics-and-sport-from-clinical-evidence-to-agonistic-performance
#5
Marco Pane, Angela Amoruso, Francesca Deidda, Teresa Graziano, Serena Allesina, Luca Mogna
Human beings harbor clusters of bacteria in different parts of the body, such as the surface or the deep layers of the skin, the mouth, the lungs, the intestine, the vagina, and all the surfaces exposed to the outer world. The majority of microbes resides in the gut, have a weighty influence on human physiology and nutrition and are vital for human life. There is growing evidence showing that the gut microbiota plays important roles in the maturation of the immune system and the protection against some infectious agents...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778209/ovine-mannheimia-haemolytica-isolates-from-lungs-with-and-without-pneumonic-lesions-belong-to-similar-genotypes
#6
Andrés García-Alvarez, José Francisco Fernández-Garayzábal, Fernando Chaves, Chris Pinto, Dolores Cid
This study investigated the genetic characteristics of 121 ovine Mannheimia haemolytica isolates from lungs with (n = 75) and without pneumonic lesions (n = 46) using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), virulence-associated gene typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Twelve STs were identified with most isolates (81%) belonged to ST16, ST28 and ST8. Analysis of the M. haemolytica MLST Database indicate a wide distribution of these genotypes in small ruminants, never reported in bovine isolates...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777725/strain-related-differences-in-mouse-lung-gene-expression-over-a-two-year-period-of-inhalation-exposure-to-styrene-relevance-to-human-risk-assessment
#7
Melvin E Andersen, George Cruzan, Michael B Black, Salil N Pendse, Darol E Dodd, James S Bus, Satinder S Sarang, Marcy I Banton, Robbie Waites, Debra B Layko, Patrick D McMullen
Both CD-1 and C57BL/6 wildtype (C57BL/6-WT) mice show equivalent short-term lung toxicity from exposures to styrene, while long-term tumor responses are greater in CD-1 mice. We analyzed lung gene expression from styrene exposures lasting from 1-day to 2-years in male mice from these two strains, including a Cyp2f2(-/-) knockout (C57BL/6-KO) and a Cyp2F1/2A13/2B6 transgenic mouse (C57BL/6-TG). With short term exposures (1-day to 1-week), CD-1 and C57BL/6-WT mice had thousands of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), consistent with changes in pathways for cell proliferation, cellular lipid metabolism, DNA-replication and inflammation...
May 16, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775480/titan-cells-formation-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-is-finely-tuned-by-environmental-conditions-and-modulated-by-positive-and-negative-genetic-regulators
#8
Benjamin Hommel, Liliane Mukaremera, Radames J B Cordero, Carolina Coelho, Christopher A Desjardins, Aude Sturny-Leclère, Guilhem Janbon, John R Perfect, James A Fraser, Arturo Casadevall, Christina A Cuomo, Françoise Dromer, Kirsten Nielsen, Alexandre Alanio
The pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans exhibits morphological changes in cell size during lung infection, producing both typical size 5 to 7 μm cells and large titan cells (> 10 μm and up to 100 μm). We found and optimized in vitro conditions that produce titan cells in order to identify the ancestry of titan cells, the environmental determinants, and the key gene regulators of titan cell formation. Titan cells generated in vitro harbor the main characteristics of titan cells produced in vivo including their large cell size (>10 μm), polyploidy with a single nucleus, large vacuole, dense capsule, and thick cell wall...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773172/seleno-l-methionine-and-l-ascorbic-acid-differentiate-the-biological-activity-of-doxorubicin-and-its-metal-complexes-as-a-new-anticancer-drugs-candidate
#9
Marzena Matejczyk, Grzegorz Świderski, Renata Świsłocka, Stanisław Józef Rosochacki, Włodzimierz Lewandowski
The most important problems of anti-cancer therapy include the toxicity of the drugs applied to healthy cells and the multi-drug cells resistance to chemotherapeutics. One of the most commonly used anticancer drugs is doxorubicin (DOX) used to treat certain leukemias and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, as well as bladder, breast, stomach, lung, ovarian, thyroid, multiple myeloma and other cancers. Preliminary studies showed that metal complex with DOX improve its cytostatic activity with changes in their molecular structure and distribution of electrons, resulting in a substantial change of its biological activity (including antitumor activity)...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772266/pten-pdz-binding-domain-suppresses-mammary-carcinogenesis-in-the-mmtv-pymt-breast-cancer-model
#10
Mingfei Yan, Yubing Wang, Chi Wai Wong, Penelope Mei-Yu Or, Kin Lok Wong, Lisha Li, Alexander M Many, Hong Guan, Ui Soon Khoo, Andrew M Chan
Phosphatase and tension homolog (PTEN) is a potent tumor suppressor that possesses a PDZ-binding domain (PDZ-BD) at the end of its carboxyl terminus, whose functions during tumorigenesis remains unclear. Here, we crossed a mouse strain with germline deletion of PTEN PDZ-BD with MMTV-PyMT breast cancer model, and found that knockout (KO) mice display normal development of mammary glands, but have both increased breast tumorigenicity and lung metastasis. Orthotopic allograft experiments suggest the loss of PTEN PDZ-BD in breast cancer cells rather than in tumor microenvironment plays a prominent role in increasing tumor burden...
May 14, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772263/comparative-analysis-of-microrna-expression-in-dog-lungs-infected-with-the-h3n2-and-h5n1-canine-influenza-viruses
#11
Yun Zheng, Xinliang Fu, Lifang Wang, Wenyan Zhang, Pei Zhou, Xin Zhang, Weijie Zeng, Jidang Chen, Zongxi Cao, Kun Jia, Shoujun Li
MicroRNAs, a class of noncoding RNAs 18 to 23 nucleotides (nt) in length, play critical roles in a wide variety of biological processes. The objective of this study was to examine differences in microRNA expression profiles derived from the lungs of beagle dogs infected with the avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV) or the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus (canine-origin isolation strain). After dogs were infected with H3N2 or H5N1, microRNA expression in the lungs was assessed using a deep-sequencing approach...
May 14, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770135/mucosal-immunity-and-protective-efficacy-of-intranasal-inactivated-influenza-vaccine-is-improved-by-chitosan-nanoparticle-delivery-in-pigs
#12
Santosh Dhakal, Sankar Renu, Shristi Ghimire, Yashavanth Shaan Lakshmanappa, Bradley T Hogshead, Ninoshkaly Feliciano-Ruiz, Fangjia Lu, Harm HogenEsch, Steven Krakowka, Chang Won Lee, Gourapura J Renukaradhya
Annually, swine influenza A virus (SwIAV) causes severe economic loss to swine industry. Currently used inactivated SwIAV vaccines administered by intramuscular injection provide homologous protection, but limited heterologous protection against constantly evolving field viruses, attributable to the induction of inadequate levels of mucosal IgA and cellular immune responses in the respiratory tract. A novel vaccine delivery platform using mucoadhesive chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) administered through intranasal (IN) route has the potential to elicit strong mucosal and systemic immune responses in pigs...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769380/pneumococcal-metabolic-adaptation-and-colonization-are-regulated-by-the-two-component-regulatory-system-08
#13
Alejandro Gómez-Mejia, Gustavo Gámez, Stephanie Hirschmann, Viktor Kluger, Hermann Rath, Sebastian Böhm, Franziska Voss, Niamatullah Kakar, Lothar Petruschka, Uwe Völker, Reinhold Brückner, Ulrike Mäder, Sven Hammerschmidt
Streptococcus pneumoniae two-component regulatory systems (TCS) enable adaptation and ensure its maintenance in host environments. This study deciphers the impact of TCS08 on pneumococcal gene expression and its role in metabolic and pathophysiological processes. Transcriptome analysis and real-time PCR demonstrated a regulatory effect of TCS08 on genes involved mainly in environmental information processing, intermediary metabolism, and colonization by S. pneumoniae D39 and TIGR4. Striking examples are genes for fatty acid biosynthesis, genes of the arginine deiminase system, and the psa operon encoding the manganese ABC transport system...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765372/is-iqg-607-a-potential-metallodrug-or-metallopro-drug-with-a-defined-molecular-target-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#14
REVIEW
Bruno L Abbadi, Valnês da Silva Rodrigues-Junior, Adilio da Silva Dadda, Kenia Pissinate, Anne D Villela, Maria M Campos, Luiz G de França Lopes, Cristiano V Bizarro, Pablo Machado, Eduardo H S Sousa, Luiz A Basso
The emergence of strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to isoniazid (INH) has underscored the need for the development of new anti-tuberculosis agents. INH is activated by the mycobacterial katG -encoded catalase-peroxidase, forming an acylpyridine fragment that is covalently attached to the C4 of NADH. This isonicotinyl-NAD adduct inhibits the activity of 2- trans -enoyl-ACP(CoA) reductase (InhA), which plays a role in mycolic acid biosynthesis. A metal-based INH analog, Na3 [FeII (CN)5 (INH)]·4H2 O, IQG-607, was designed to have an electronic redistribution on INH moiety that would lead to an intramolecular electron transfer to bypass KatG activation...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765367/detection-of-bacteriophage-particles-containing-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-the-sputum-of-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#15
Maryury Brown-Jaque, Lirain Rodriguez Oyarzun, Thais Cornejo-Sánchez, Maria T Martín-Gómez, Silvia Gartner, Javier de Gracia, Sandra Rovira, Antonio Alvarez, Joan Jofre, Juan J González-López, Maite Muniesa
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic disease in which the bacterial colonization of the lung is linked to an excessive inflammatory response that leads to respiratory failure. The microbiology of CF is complex. Staphylococcus aureus is the first bacterium to colonize the lungs in 30% of pediatric CF patients, and 80% of adult patients develop a chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, but other microorganisms can also be found. The use of antibiotics is essential to treat the disease, but antibiotic performance is compromised by resistance mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764936/attachment-of-phosphorylcholine-residues-to-pneumococcal-teichoic-acids-and-modification-of-substitution-patterns-by-the-phosphorylcholine-esterase
#16
Franziska Waldow, Thomas P Kohler, Nathalie Heß, Dominik Schwudke, Sven Hammerschmidt, Nicolas Gisch
The bacterial lung pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae has a unique nutritional requirement for exogenous choline and attaches phosphorylcholine ( P -Cho) residues to the Gal pN Ac moieties of its teichoic acids (TAs) in its cell wall. Two phosphorylcholine transferases, LicD1 and LicD2, mediate the attachment of P -Cho to the O -6 positions of the two Gal pN Ac residues present in each repeating unit of pneumococcal TAs (pnTAs), of which only LicD1 has been determined to be essential. At the molecular level, the specificity of the P -Cho attachment to pnTAs by LicD1 and LicD2 remains still elusive...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762413/follow-the-voxel-a-new-method-for-the-analysis-of-regional-strain-in-lung-injury
#17
Aranya Bagchi, Marcos F Vidal Melo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761668/a-mechanism-based-disease-progression-model-describing-host-pathogen-interactions-during-the-pathogenesis-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-pneumonia
#18
John K Diep, Thomas A Russo, Gauri G Rao
The emergence of highly resistant bacteria is a serious threat to global public health. The host immune response is vital for clearing bacteria from the infected host; however, the current drug development paradigm does not take host-pathogen interactions into consideration. Here, we used a systems-based approach to develop a quantitative, mechanism-based disease progression model to describe bacterial dynamics, host immune response, and lung injury in an immunocompetent rat pneumonia model. Previously, Long-Evans rats were infected with A...
May 15, 2018: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755467/silicosis-and-silica-induced-autoimmunity-in-the-diversity-outbred-mouse
#19
Jessica M Mayeux, Gabriela M Escalante, Joseph M Christy, Rahul D Pawar, Dwight H Kono, Kenneth M Pollard
Epidemiological studies have confidently linked occupational crystalline silica exposure to autoimmunity, but pathogenic mechanisms and role of genetic predisposition remain poorly defined. Although studies of single inbred strains have yielded insights, understanding the relationships between lung pathology, silica-induced autoimmunity, and genetic predisposition will require examination of a broad spectrum of responses and susceptibilities. We defined the characteristics of silicosis and autoimmunity and their relationships using the genetically heterogeneous diversity outbred (DO) mouse population and determined the suitability of this model for investigating silica-induced autoimmunity...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755420/characterization-of-two-novel-bacteriophages-infecting-multidrug-resistant-mdr-acinetobacter-baumannii-and-evaluation-of-their-therapeutic-efficacy-in-vivo
#20
Kyoungeun Cha, Hynu K Oh, Jae Y Jang, Yunyeol Jo, Won K Kim, Geon U Ha, Kwan S Ko, Heejoon Myung
Acinetobacter baumannii is emerging as a challenging nosocomial pathogen due to its rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance. We report characterization of two novel bacteriophages, PBAB08 and PBAB25, infecting clinically isolated, multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. baumannii strains. Both phages belonged to Myoviridae of Caudovirales as their morphology observed under an electron microscope. Their genomes were double stranded linear DNAs of 42,312 base pairs and 40,260 base pairs, respectively. The two phages were distinct from known Acinetobacter phages when whole genome sequences were compared...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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