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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819002/feedback-modulation-of-surrounding-pressure-determines-the-onset-of-negative-effort-dependence-in-a-collapsible-tube-bench-model-of-the-pharyngeal-airway
#1
Christopher Lambeth, Benjamin Kolevski, Terence Charles Amis, Kristina Kairaitis
Negative effort dependence (NED), decreased airflow despite increased driving pressure, has been proposed as a specific obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) phenotypic characteristic. We examined conditions under which NED occurs in a collapsible tube, chamber enclosed, pharyngeal airway bench model, focusing on relationships with surrounding pressure levels and longitudinal strain. Using a vacuum source, graded airflows (V ̇, 0-5 L/s) were generated through a thin walled latex tube enclosed within a rigid, cylindrical chamber, sealed with initial chamber pressures (Pci) of 0-5 cmH2O (separate runs), or open to atmosphere...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818565/raw-starch-microparticles-have-immunostimulant-activity-in-mice-vaccinated-with-bcg-and-challenged-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#2
Silvia Moreno-Mendieta, Jorge Barrios-Payán, Dulce Mata-Espinosa, Sergio Sánchez, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, Romina Rodríguez-Sanoja
The main challenge for vaccine development or improvement is the lack of safe adjuvants or immunostimulants that induce protective immune responses and can be used for mucosal immunization, which is a highly desirable strategy for vaccination against infectious diseases acquired by oral or intranasal routes. One promising alternative is the use of biodegradable and biocompatible polymeric microparticles. Recently, we developed an immobilization and delivery system with starch microparticles (SMPs) and a starch-binding domain (SBDtag) suitable for the mucosal administration of antigens and the induction of antigen-specific immune responses...
August 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814525/structure-guided-functional-annotation-of-the-influenza-a-virus-ns1-protein-reveals-dynamic-evolution-of-the-p85%C3%AE-binding-site-during-circulation-in-humans
#3
Antonio M Lopes, Patricia Domingues, Roland Zell, Benjamin G Hale
Rational characterization of virulence and host-adaptive markers in the multifunctional influenza A virus NS1 protein is hindered by a lack of comprehensive knowledge about NS1-host protein-protein interfaces. Here, we surveyed the impact of amino-acid variation in NS1 at its structurally-defined binding site for host p85β, a regulator of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) signaling. Structure-guided alanine-scanning of all viral residues at this interface defined 10 positions contributing to the interaction, with residues 89, 95, 98, 133, 145 and 162 being most important...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813514/the-helicobacter-pylori-type-iv-secretion-system-promotes-il-8-synthesis-in-a-model-of-pediatric-airway-epithelium-via-p38-map-kinase
#4
Myra G Dela Pena-Ponce, Monica T Jimenez, Lori M Hansen, Jay V Solnick, Lisa A Miller
Epidemiologic studies have reported an inverse relationship between childhood Helicobacter pylori infection and development of allergic asthma. Because lung epithelium plays an important role in allergic asthma pathogenesis, we hypothesized that H. pylori may directly influence airway epithelial cell innate immune function, particularly in early childhood. To test our hypothesis, we established an in vitro H. pylori infection model using primary tracheobronchial epithelial cell cultures derived from infant, juvenile and adult rhesus monkeys...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811611/the-antibacterial-and-antifungal-activity-of-six-essential-oils-and-their-cyto-genotoxicity-to-human-hel-12469-cells
#5
Andrea Puškárová, Mária Bučková, Lucia Kraková, Domenico Pangallo, Katarína Kozics
Six essential oils (from oregano, thyme, clove, lavender, clary sage, and arborvitae) exhibited different antibacterial and antifungal properties. Antimicrobial activity was shown against pathogenic (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis) and environmental bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Arthrobacter protophormiae, Pseudomonas fragi) and fungi (Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Cladosporium cladosporoides, Alternaria alternata, and Aspergillus fumigatus)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811215/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-protection-against-h9n2-influenza-virus-challenge-in-mice-by-recombinant-lactobacillus-plantarum-with-surface-displayed-ha2-ltb
#6
Yanlong Jiang, Guilian Yang, Qi Wang, Zhannan Wang, Wentao Yang, Wei Gu, Chunwei Shi, Jianzhong Wang, Haibin Huang, Chunfeng Wang
It has been considered that the Avian influenza virus (AIV) causes severe threats to poultry industry. In this study, we constructed a series of recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) with surface displayed hemagglutinin subunit 2 (HA2) alone or together with heat-labile toxin B subunit (LTB) from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Balb/c mice were used as model to evaluate the protective effects of recombinant L. plantarum strains against H9N2 subtype challenge. The results showed that the presence of LTB significantly increased the percentages of CD3(+)CD4(+)IL-4(+), CD3(+)CD4(+)IFN-γ(+) and CD3(+)CD4(+)IL-17(+) T cells, as well as CD3(+)CD8(+)IFN-γ(+) T cells in spleen and MLNs determined by Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting assay...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811194/immunogenetic-studies-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-an-era-of-pan-genotype-antiviral-therapies-effective-treatment-is-coming
#7
Joel Henrique Ellwanger, Valéria de Lima Kaminski, Jacqueline Maria Valverde-Villegas, Daniel Simon, Vagner Ricardo Lunge, José Artur Bogo Chies
What are the factors that influence human hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, hepatitis status establishment, and disease progression? Firstly, one has to consider the genetic background of the host and HCV genotypes. The immunogenetic host profile will reflect how each infected individual deals with infection. Secondly, there are environmental factors that drive susceptibility or resistance to certain viral strains. These will dictate (I) the susceptibility to infection; (II) whether or not an infected person will promote viral clearance; (III) the immune response and the response profile to therapy; and (IV) whether and how long it would take to the development of HCV-associated diseases, as well as their severity...
August 12, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809501/microencapsulated-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-as-a-hybrid-platform-for-pulmonary-antibiotic-delivery
#8
Diana P Gaspar, Maria Manuela Gaspar, Carla V Eleutério, Ana Grenha, Mateo Blanco, Lídia M D Gonçalves, Pablo Taboada, António J Almeida, Carmen Remuñán-López
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) containing rifabutin (RFB), with pulmonary administration purposes, were developed through a technique that avoids the use of organic solvents or sonication. To facilitate their pulmonary delivery, the RFB-loaded SLN were included in microspheres of appropriate size using suitable excipients (mannitol and trehalose) through a spray-drying technique. Confocal analysis microscopy showed that microspheres are spherical and that SLN are efficiently microencapsulated and homogeneously distributed throughout the microsphere matrices...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808163/a-role-for-fimh-in-extraintestinal-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-invasion-and-translocation-through-the-intestinal-epithelium
#9
Nina M Poole, Sabrina I Green, Anubama Rajan, Luz E Vela, Xi-Lei Zeng, Mary K Estes, Anthony W Maresso
The translocation of bacteria across the intestinal epithelium of immunocompromised patients can lead to bacteremia and life-threatening sepsis. Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), so named because this pathotype infects tissues distal to the intestinal tract, is a frequent cause of such infections, is often multidrug resistant, and chronically colonizes a sizable portion of the healthy population. Although several virulence factors and their roles in pathogenesis are well described for ExPEC that cause urinary tract infections and meningitis, they have not been linked to translocation through intestinal barriers, a fundamentally distant yet important clinical phenomenon...
August 14, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804971/abortion-in-goats-by-caprine-alphaherpesvirus-1-in-spain
#10
J Gonzalez, G Passantino, A Esnal, N Cuesta, J A García Vera, L Mechelli, A Saez, J F García Marín, M Tempesta
An abortion outbreak occurred in a goat herd of Murciano-Granadina breed in Almeria Region in Spain where 80 pregnant females aborted. All bacteriological and parasitological examinations resulted negative, whereas virological investigations and real-time PCR assay showed the presence of Caprine alphaherpesvirus 1 DNA in the pathological specimens from aborted foetuses. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the DNA was highly close related to the Swiss strain E-CH (99.7%) and a little less extent to the Italian BA...
August 13, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804548/overexpression-of-pten-suppresses-non-small-cell-lung-carcinoma-metastasis-through-inhibition-of-integrin-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-6-signaling
#11
Yan Xia Yu, Yi Wang, Hong Liu
Studies have demonstrated that the abnormal expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is associated with multiple malignancies, but its functional role in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) metastasis remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the role of PTEN in regulating proliferation, migration, and invasion of NSCLC cells by establishing NSCLC cell strains with constitutively silenced or elevated PTEN expression. We demonstrated that ectopic expression of PTEN inhibits migration and invasion of NSCLC cells in vitro through wound healing and Transwell invasion assays...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803536/bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-1b-fetal-infection-with-extensive-hemorrhage
#12
Robert W Fulton, Anthony W Confer, Nicholas J Sorensen, Julia F Ridpath, Lurinda J Burge
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1b was isolated from tissues of a term bovine fetus with petechial hemorrhages noted throughout the body and placenta at autopsy. Fresh lung, kidney, thymus, and liver tissues were examined by direct fluorescent antibody testing and were positive for BVDV antigen and negative for bovine herpesvirus 1 antigen. An organ pool of fresh tissues was positive for noncytopathic (NCP) BVDV-1 by virus isolation. BVDV-1b was identified by sequencing of the 5'-UTR region of the genome...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802411/the-minipig-as-an-animal-model-to-study-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-and-natural-transmission
#13
Laylaa Ramos, Andres Obregon-Henao, Marcela Henao-Tamayo, Richard Bowen, Joan K Lunney, Mercedes Gonzalez-Juarrero
In endemic countries more than 20% of tuberculosis (TB) cases are in infants and children. Current animal models study TB during adulthood but animal models for infant TB are scarce. Here we propose that minipigs can be used as an animal model to study adult, adolescent and infant TB including natural transmission. In these studies, two-month old minipigs (representing infant age in humans) and six-month old minipigs (representing adolescence in humans) were infected via the aerosol route with hyper-virulent clinical strain W-Beijing Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) HN878 and were monitored for 11 or 36 weeks post-challenge, respectively...
September 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800439/a-simplified-parametrised-model-for-lung-microstructures-capable-of-mimicking-realistic-geometrical-and-mechanical-properties
#14
Christian J Roth, Lena Yoshihara, Wolfgang A Wall
The respiratory zone of mammalian lungs contains several millions of so-called alveoli. The geometrical and mechanical properties of this microstructure are crucial for respiration and influence the macroscopic behaviour of the entire organ in health and disease. Hence, if computational models are sought to gain more insight into lung behaviour, predict lung states in certain scenarios or suggest better treatment options in early stages of respiratory dysfunction, an adequate representation of this microstructure is essential...
August 1, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798254/oxygen-dependent-changes-in-lung-development-do-not-affect-epithelial-infection-with-influenza-a-virus
#15
William Domm, Min Yee, Ravi S Misra, Robert Gelein, Aitor Nogales, Luis Martinez Sobrido, Michael A O'Reilly
Infants born prematurely often require supplemental oxygen that contributes to aberrant lung development and increased pulmonary morbidity following a respiratory viral infection. We have been using a mouse model to understand how early-life hyperoxia affects the adult lung response to influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Prior studies showed how neonatal hyperoxia (100% oxygen) increased sensitivity of adult mice to infection with influenza A virus (IAV (A/Hong Kong/X31) H3N2) as defined by persistent inflammation, pulmonary fibrosis, and mortality...
August 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798178/draft-genome-sequence-of-mycobacterium-avium-11
#16
Michelle Yee, David Klinzing, Jun-Rong Wei, Martin Gengenbacher, Eric J Rubin, Jung-Yien Chien, Po-Ren Hsueh, Thomas Dick
Mycobacterium avium accounts for most lung disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The lack of effective chemotherapy calls for the discovery of new drugs. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of M. avium 11, a clinical isolate used as a screening strain for NTM-focused drug discovery.
August 10, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797655/n-glycan-profiles-in-h9n-2-avian-influenza-viruses-from-chicken-eggs-and-human-embryonic-lung-fibroblast-cells
#17
Wentian Chen, Yaogang Zhong, Rui Su, Huicai Qi, Weina Deng, Yu Sun, Tianran Ma, Xilong Wang, Hanjie Yu, Xiurong Wang, Zheng Li
N-glycosylation can affect the host specificity, virulence and infectivity of influenza A viruses (IAVs). In this study, the distribution and evolution of N-glycosylation sites in the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of H9N2 virus were explored using phylogenetic analysis. Then, one strain of the H9N2 subtypes was proliferated in the embryonated chicken eggs (ECE) and human embryonic lung fibroblast cells (MRC-5) system. The proliferated viral N-glycan profiles were analyzed by a glycomic method that combined the lectin microarray and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796413/complex-genetic-control-of-lung-tumorigenesis-in-resistant-mice-strains
#18
Alice Dassano, Giulia Pintarelli, Chiara E Cotroneo, Angela Pettinicchio, Elena Forcati, Loris De Cecco, Andrea Borrego, Francesca Colombo, Tommaso A Dragani, Giacomo Manenti
The SM/J mouse strain is resistant to chemically induced lung tumorigenesis despite having a haplotype, in the pulmonary adenoma susceptibility locus (Pas1) locus, that confers tumor susceptibility in other strains. To clarify this inconsistent genotype-phenotype correlation, we crossed SM/J mice with another resistant strain and did genome-wide linkage analysis in the (C57BL/6J x SM/J)F2 progeny exposed to urethane to induce lung tumors. Overall, >80% of F2 mice of both sexes developed from 1 to 20 lung tumors...
August 10, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793908/transcriptomic-analysis-comparing-mouse-strains-with-extreme-total-lung-capacities-identifies-novel-candidate-genes-for-pulmonary-function
#19
Leema George, Ankita Mitra, Tania A Thimraj, Martin Irmler, Sangeetha Vishweswaraiah, Lars Lunding, Dorothea Hühn, Alicia Madurga, Johannes Beckers, Heinz Fehrenbach, Swapna Upadhyay, Holger Schulz, George D Leikauf, Koustav Ganguly
BACKGROUND: Failure to attain peak lung function by early adulthood is a risk factor for chronic lung diseases. Previously, we reported that C3H/HeJ mice have about twice total lung capacity (TLC) compared to JF1/MsJ mice. We identified seven lung function quantitative trait loci (QTL: Lfnq1-Lfnq7) in backcross/intercross mice derived from these inbred strains. We further demonstrated, superoxide dismutase 3, extracellular (Sod3), Kit oncogene (Kit) and secreted phosphoprotein 1 (Spp1) located on these Lfnqs as lung function determinants...
August 9, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789940/a-quantitative-framework-to-group-nanoscale-and-microscale-particles-by-hazard-potency-to-derive-occupational-exposure-limits-proof-of-concept-evaluation
#20
Nathan M Drew, Eileen D Kuempel, Ying Pei, Feng Yang
The large and rapidly growing number of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) presents a challenge to assessing the potential occupational health risks. An initial database of 25 rodent studies including 1929 animals across various experimental designs and material types was constructed to identify materials that are similar with respect to their potency in eliciting neutrophilic pulmonary inflammation, a response relevant to workers. Doses were normalized across rodent species, strain, and sex as the estimated deposited particle mass dose per gram of lung...
August 5, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
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