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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743130/sglt-2-inhibition-a-potential-new-treatment-for-diabetic-kidney-disease
#1
Robert D Toto
Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of kidney failure. Treatments with drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system have proven beneficial in slowing kidney disease progression among those with diabetes; their benefit is limited and they do not stop disease progression. Despite multiple clinical trials of various interventions including dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin system over the past 15 years, no new therapies have emerged to slow kidney disease progression in diabetes. SGLT-2 inhibitors are a new class of antiglycemic drugs that have been shown to lower blood glucose by inhibition of the sodium-glucose transporter 2 in the proximal tubule of the kidney...
July 26, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743105/statistical-interactions-from-a-growth-curve-perspective
#2
Sean M Devlin, Jaya M Satagopan
Logistic regression is widely used to evaluate the association between risk factors and a binary outcome. The logistic curve is symmetric around its point of inflection. Alternative families of curves, such as the additive Gompertz or Guerrero-Johnson models, have been proposed in various scenarios due to their asymmetry: disease risk may initially increase rapidly and be followed by a longer period where the rate of growth slowly decreases. When modeling binary outcomes in relation to risk factors, an additive logistic model may not provide a good fit to the data...
July 26, 2017: Human Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743094/a-personalized-medicine-approach-to-the-design-of-dry-powder-inhalers-selecting-the-optimal-amount-of-bypass
#3
Thomas Kopsch, Darragh Murnane, Digby Symons
In dry powder inhalers (DPIs) the patient's inhalation manoeuvre strongly influences the release of drug. Drug release from a DPI may also be influenced by the size of any air bypass incorporated in the device. If the amount of bypass is high less air flows through the entrainment geometry and the release rate is lower. In this study we propose to reduce the intra- and inter-patient variations of drug release by controlling the amount of air bypass in a DPI. A fast computational method is proposed that can predict how much bypass is needed for a specified drug delivery rate for a particular patient...
July 22, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743079/impact-of-lyophilized-lactobacillus-salivarius-dspv-001p-administration-on-growth-performance-microbial-translocation-and-gastrointestinal-microbiota-of-broilers-reared-under-low-ambient-temperature
#4
J E Blajman, C A Olivero, M L Fusari, J A Zimmermann, E Rossler, A P Berisvil, A Romero Scharpen, D M Astesana, L P Soto, M L Signorini, M V Zbrun, L S Frizzo
This study was undertaken with the aim of investigating the effects of dietary supplementation of probiotic strain Lactobacillus salivarius DSPV 001P on growth performance, microbial translocation, and gastrointestinal microbiota of broilers reared under low ambient temperature. Two hundred and forty, one-day-old male Cobb broilers were randomly distributed into two treatment groups, a probiotic group and a control group, with four replicates per treatment and 30 broilers per replicate. The temperature of the broiler house was maintained at 18-22°C during the first three weeks, after which the temperature was at range of 8°C to 12°C...
July 19, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743038/physiological-vascular-and-nanomechanical-assessment-of-hybrid-poplar-leaf-traits-in-micropropagated-plants-and-plants-propagated-from-root-cuttings-a-contribution-to-breeding-programs
#5
Jaroslav Ďurkovič, Hana Husárová, Lucia Javoříková, Ingrid Čaňová, Miriama Šuleková, Monika Kardošová, Ivan Lukáčik, Miroslava Mamoňová, Rastislav Lagaňa
Micropropagated plants experience significant stress from rapid water loss when they are transferred from an in vitro culture to either greenhouse or field conditions. This is caused both by inefficient stomatal control of transpiration and the change to a higher light intensity and lower humidity. Understanding the physiological, vascular and biomechanical processes that allow micropropagated plants to modify their phenotype in response to environmental conditions can help to improve both field performance and plant survival...
July 13, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743026/evaluation-of-the-ivet-%C3%A2-birth-monitoring-system-in-primiparous-dairy-heifers
#6
G Henningsen, H Marien, W Hasseler, M Feldmann, H-A Schoon, M Hoedemaker, K Herzog
The objective was to validate the iVET(®) birth monitoring system and to determine if it reduced fetal death in primiparous dairy heifers over a 1-y interval. There were 359 pregnant heifers enrolled; 167 heifers in the iVET(®) group were monitored electronically and the remaining 192 (controls) were monitored visually for onset of Stage 2 labor, according to routine farm management. In addition, as a reference, all heifers were observed throughout the study by two independent investigators. Calves born dead or that died within 24 h after birth were defined as stillborn...
July 10, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743024/a-method-to-evaluate-the-quality-of-clinical-gene-panel-sequencing-data-for-single-nucleotide-variant-detection
#7
Chung Lee, Joon S Bae, Gyu H Ryu, Nayoung K D Kim, Donghyun Park, Jongsuk Chung, Sungkyu Kyung, Je-Gun Joung, Hyun-Tae Shin, Seung-Ho Shin, Younglan Kim, Byung S Kim, Hojun Lee, Kyoung-Mee Kim, Jung-Sun Kim, Woong-Yang Park, Dae-Soon Son
Customized gene-panel tests, based on next-generation sequencing, have demonstrated their usefulness in a plethora of clinical settings. As with other clinical diagnostic techniques, gene-panel sequencing for clinical purposes requires precise quality control (QC) measures to ensure its reliability. Only detected variants are currently recorded in clinical reports; however, identifying whether a nondetected variant is a true or false negative is regarded essential in a clinical setting and, thus, a comprehensive QC measure is in demand...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742993/performance-and-return-to-sport-after-achilles-tendon-repair-in-national-football-league-players
#8
Robert A Jack, Kyle R Sochacki, Stephanie S Gardner, Patrick C McCulloch, David M Lintner, Pedro E Cosculluela, Kevin E Varner, Joshua D Harris
BACKGROUND: Achilles tendon injuries are common in sports, including football. The purpose of this study was to determine (1) return-to-sport rate in National Football League (NFL) players following Achilles tendon repair, (2) postoperative career length and games per season, (3) pre- and postoperative performance, and (4) postoperative performance compared with control players matched by position, age, years of experience, and performance. METHODS: Publicly available records were used to identify NFL players who underwent Achilles tendon repair and matched controls were identified...
July 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742990/employment-status-gender-and-health-in-spanish-women
#9
Sara Esteban Gonzalo, Marta Aparicio, Laura Estaban-Gonzalo
The present study analyzed relationships between employment status, gender role conformity and health among adult Spanish women from a biopsychosocial approach. We first examined the potential relationship between employment status and conformity to feminine norms, second, the relationship between employment status and general and psychological health, and finally, the relationship between conformity to feminine norms and general and psychological health. Unemployed women (n = 103), employed women (n = 144) and full-time homemakers (n = 100) aged 18-70 years completed a survey, including measures of psychological health (GHQ-12), general health (self-rated health) and conformity to feminine norms (CFNI)...
July 25, 2017: Women & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742933/gene-expression-is-more-strongly-influenced-by-age-than-caste-in-the-ant-lasius-niger
#10
Eric R Lucas, Jonathan Romiguier, Laurent Keller
Phenotypic plasticity, where a single genome can give rise to different phenotypes, underlies many remarkable features of the natural world and occurs in a wide range of organisms. Understanding the transcriptional differences that underlie plastic phenotypes remains a major unsolved problem in biology. In many ants, females can develop into either queens or workers, two phenotypes with different morphology, behaviour and longevity. In comparison to workers, queens are larger, more fecund and longer-lived. Here, we study gene expression differences between queens and workers in the ant Lasius niger...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742913/the-effect-of-nursing-quality-improvement-and-mobile-health-interventions-on-infant-sleep-practices-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#11
Rachel Y Moon, Fern R Hauck, Eve R Colson, Ann L Kellams, Nicole L Geller, Timothy Heeren, Stephen M Kerr, Emily E Drake, Kawai Tanabe, Mary McClain, Michael J Corwin
Importance: Inadequate adherence to recommendations known to reduce the risk of sudden unexpected infant death has contributed to a slowing in the decline of these deaths. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of 2 interventions separately and combined to promote infant safe sleep practices compared with control interventions. Design, Setting, and Participants: Four-group cluster randomized clinical trial of mothers of healthy term newborns who were recruited between March 2015 and May 2016 at 16 US hospitals with more than 100 births annually...
July 25, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742859/whole-blood-microrna-expression-may-not-be-useful-for-screening-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#12
Santosh K Patnaik, Eric D Kannisto, Reema Mallick, Anil Vachani, Sai Yendamuri
At least seven studies have suggested that microRNA levels in whole blood can be diagnostic for lung cancer. We conducted a large bi-institutional study to validate this. Qiagen® PAXgene™ Blood miRNA System was used to collect blood and extract RNA from it for 85 pathologic stage I-IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases and 76 clinically-relevant controls who had a benign pulmonary mass, or a high risk of developing lung cancer because of a history of cigarette smoking or age >60 years. Cases and controls were similar for age, gender, race, and blood hemoglobin and leukocyte but not platelet levels (0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742849/joint-action-aesthetics
#13
Staci Vicary, Matthias Sperling, Jorina von Zimmermann, Daniel C Richardson, Guido Orgs
Synchronized movement is a ubiquitous feature of dance and music performance. Much research into the evolutionary origins of these cultural practices has focused on why humans perform rather than watch or listen to dance and music. In this study, we show that movement synchrony among a group of performers predicts the aesthetic appreciation of live dance performances. We developed a choreography that continuously manipulated group synchronization using a defined movement vocabulary based on arm swinging, walking and running...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742797/a-comparison-of-selective-aortic-arch-perfusion-and-resuscitative-endovascular-balloon-occlusion-of-the-aorta-for-the-management-of-hemorrhage-induced-traumatic-cardiac-arrest-a-translational-model-in-large-swine
#14
Ed B G Barnard, James E Manning, Jason E Smith, Jason M Rall, Jennifer M Cox, James D Ross
BACKGROUND: Survival rates remain low after hemorrhage-induced traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA). Noncompressible torso hemorrhage (NCTH) is a major cause of potentially survivable trauma death. Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) at the thoracic aorta (Zone 1) can limit subdiaphragmatic blood loss and allow for IV fluid resuscitation when intrinsic cardiac activity is still present. Selective Aortic Arch Perfusion (SAAP) combines thoracic aortic balloon hemorrhage control with intra-aortic oxygenated perfusion to achieve return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) when cardiac arrest has occurred...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742736/comparative-analysis-of-perioperative-outcomes-using-nationally-derived-hospital-discharge-data-relative-to-a-prospective-multicenter-surgical-database-of-adult-spinal-deformity-surgery
#15
Gregory W Poorman, Peter G Passias, Aaron J Buckland, Cyrus M Jalai, Michael Kelly, Daniel M Sciubba, Brian J Neuman, D Kojo Hamilton, Amit Jain, Bassel Diebo, Virginie Lafage, Shay Bess, Eric O Klineberg
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of three prospectively collected databases. OBJECTIVE: To compare perioperative outcomes in Adult Spinal Deformity (ASD) surgeries in a surgeon-run (SR-ASD) and two national databases: the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) and the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Much has been learned on the treatment of ASD in the last decade with prospective multicenter collaborative research focusing on this specific condition...
August 1, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742723/supraglottic-atomization-of-surfactant-in-spontaneously-breathing-lambs-receiving-continuous-positive-airway-pressure
#16
Ilaria Milesi, David G Tingay, Anna Lavizzari, Federico Bianco, Emanuela Zannin, Paolo Tagliabue, Fabio Mosca, Maria Luisa Ventura, Anushi Rajapaksa, Elizabeth J Perkins, Don Black, Marco Di Castri, Magdy Sourial, Gerhard Pohlmann, Raffaele L Dellaca'
OBJECTIVES: To determine the short-term tolerance, efficacy, and lung deposition of supraglottic atomized surfactant in spontaneously breathing lambs receiving continuous positive airway pressure. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized animal study. SETTING: Animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Twenty-two preterm lambs on continuous positive airway pressure (132 ± 1 d gestational age). INTERVENTIONS: Animals receiving continuous positive airway pressure via binasal prongs at 8 cm H2O were randomized to receive atomized surfactant at approximately 60-minute of life (atom; n = 15) or not (control; n = 7)...
July 22, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742692/oncologic-outcome-and-morbidity-in-the-elderly-rectal-cancer-patients-after-preoperative-chemoradiotherapy-and-total-mesorectal-excision-a-multi-institutional-and-case-matched-control-study
#17
Soo-Y Sung, Hong S Jang, Sung H Kim, Jae U Jeong, Songmi Jeong, Jin H Song, Mi J Chung, Hyeon M Cho, Hyung J Kim, Jun-Gi Kim, In K Lee, Jong H Lee
OBJECTIVE: To determine the toxicity and oncologic outcome of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by curative total mesorectal excision (TME) in the elderly (≥70 yrs) and younger (<70 yrs) rectal cancer patients. BACKGROUND: Sufficient data for elderly rectal cancer patients who received definitive trimodality have not been accumulated yet. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 1232 rectal cancer patients who received neoadjuvant CRT and TME were enrolled in this study...
July 24, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742684/endovascular-repair-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-in-patients-physically-ineligible-for-open-repair-very-long-term-follow-up-in-the-evar-2-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Michael J Sweeting, Rajesh Patel, Janet T Powell, Roger M Greenhalgh
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare long-term total and aneurysm-related mortality in physically frail patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) randomized to either early endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) or no-intervention. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: EVAR-2 remains the sole randomized trial to identify whether EVAR reduces mortality in patients physically ineligible for open repair. METHODS: Between September 1999 and August 2004, 404 patients from 33 centers in the United Kingdom aged ≥60 years with AAA >5...
July 24, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742644/update-on-sglt2-inhibitors-new-data-released-at-the-american-diabetes-association
#19
Sara Lee
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are one of the newer classes of antiglycemic agents approved for the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Due to their unique mechanism of action, SGLT2 inhibitors have shown to be beneficial beyond glucose control. The improvement in cardiovascular (CV) outcomes was first observed in the landmark EMPA-REG OUTCOMES study. Following these results, numerous CV outcome trials were designed to identify whether the beneficial CV and renal effects observed with empagliflozin are unique or a drug class effect...
September 2017: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742635/long-exercise-test-in-the-interattack-period-of-periodic-paralysis-a-useful-and-sensitive-diagnostic-tool
#20
Jiaoting Jin, Fangfang Hu, Min Li, Suhang Shang, Xing Qin, Hongmei Cao, Jingxia Dang
PURPOSE: The reference values of long exercise test are inconsistent in previous studies. Our research aims to determine the reference values and improve diagnostic efficiency of long exercise test in periodic paralysis. METHODS: In this study, 100 healthy controls, 35 non-periodic paralysis patients, and 47 patients with periodic paralysis were recruited. The procedures of long exercise test were conducted following McMannis(1986) method. RESULTS: The decrease rate in compound muscle action potential amplitudes was correlated with gender, and it was not influenced by age, height, weight, and exercise...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
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