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Andrew J Olsen, Priya Katyal, Jennifer S Haghpanah, Matthew B Kubilius, Ruipeng Li, Nicole L Schnabel, Sean C O'Neill, Yao Wang, Min Dai, Navjot Singh, Raymond S Tu, Jin Kim Montclare
Recombinant methods have been used to engineer artificial protein triblock polymers comprised of two different self-assembling domains (SADs) bearing one elastin (E) flanked by two cartilage oligomeric matrix protein coiled-coil (C) domains to generate CEC. To understand how the two C domains improve small molecule recognition and the mechanical integrity of CEC, we have constructed CL44AECL44A, which bears an impaired CL44A domain that is unstructured as a negative control. The CEC triblock polymer demonstrates increased small molecule binding and ideal elastic behavior for hydrogel formation...
March 15, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Amy Y Carney
Public Health Nurses are the largest group of public health practitioners in both local and state health departments across the United States. Essential for the delivery of health services in the community, Public Health Nurses frequently provide care for underserved and vulnerable populations. Among these populations are the victims of campus sexual assault, a growing problem on college and university campuses. Both nationally and internationally, sexual assault has been described as a public health and human rights concern...
March 15, 2018: Public Health Nursing
Kate H Thomas, Justin T McDaniel, David L Albright, Kari L Fletcher, Harold G Koenig
Suicide rates among military veterans exceed those found in the general population. While the exact reasons for these high rates are unknown, contributing factors may include the military's perceived rejection of patient identities, creating barriers to mental health care within the clinical sector and a mandate for prevention programs. Spiritual fitness has emerged over the last decade as an important concept in human performance optimization and is included among holistic approaches to developing and maintaining mentally fit fighting forces...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
Ann Meier, Benjamin Swartz Hartmann, Ryan Larson
Extracurricular activity participation is linked to positive development, but it is also a setting for inequality. Using a quarter century of data from Monitoring the Future (N = 593,979; 51% female; 65% non-Hispanic white; 13% non-Hispanic black; 12% Hispanic; 4% non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander; 7% other race), this article documents patterns and trends in school-based extracurricular participation by race, social class, gender, and age, and their links to academic and substance use outcomes. Findings reveal differences by race and confirm a division by social class that has worsened over time...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Ripon Sarkar, Aritri Ghosh, Ananya Barui, Pallab Datta
Topical application of honey for tissue regeneration, has recently regained attention in clinical practice with controlled studies affirming its efficacy and indicating its role in regeneration over repair. Parallely, to overcome difficulties of applying raw honey, several product development studies like nanofibrous matrices have been reported. However, one approach concentrated on achieving highest possible honey loading in the nanofiber membranes while other studies have found that only specific honey dilutions result in differential cellular responses on wound healing and re-epithelization...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Fatemeh Zaribaf, Ammar Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Parvane Saneei, Awat Feizi, Hamed Daghaghzadeh, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Peyman Adibi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The associations between empirically derived dietary habits and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have not been investigated. This study aimed to assess the relationship between empirically derived dietary habits and IBS in a large population of Iranian adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, dietary habits of 4763 adults were assessed in three domains, "meal pattern", "eating rate" and "intra-meal fluid intake"...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Tomas Strucko, Katharina Zirngibl, Filipa Pereira, Eleni Kafkia, Elsayed T Mohamed, Mandy Rettel, Frank Stein, Adam M Feist, Paula Jouhten, Kiran Raosaheb Patil, Jochen Forster
Most microbial species, including model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, possess genetic capability to utilize many alternative nutrient sources. Yet, it remains an open question whether these manifest into assimilatory phenotypes. Despite possessing all necessary pathways, S. cerevisiae grows poorly or not at all when glycerol is the sole carbon source. Here we discover, through multiple evolved lineages, genetic determinants underlying glycerol catabolism and the associated fitness trade-offs. Most evolved lineages adapted through mutations in the HOG pathway, but showed hampered osmotolerance...
March 10, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Gordon Parker, Stacey McCraw, Adam Bayes
OBJECTIVES: To determine if differing developmental factors show specificity to differing manifestations of borderline personality disorder (BPD). METHODS: A clinical sample of 73 females diagnosed with BPD undertook a psychiatrist interview and completed self-report questionnaires, including the semi-structured Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (DIPD-IV) assessing for BPD status. A set of negative and potentially traumatic developmental factors were included in the assessment...
March 1, 2018: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Adekunle Emmanuel Alagbe, John Ayodele Olaniyi, Oladapo Wale Aworanti
Background and Objectives: Inflammatory markers that influence bone pain crisis (BPC) and other complications of sickle cell anaemia (SCA) are numerous and play various roles. This study determined the plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) - α, interleukin - 8 (IL-8), and endothelin - 1 (ET-1) in adult SCA patients during BPC and in steady state. In addition, the plasma levels of these cytokines were correlated with the severity of BPC of the patients. Methods and Materials: Sixty adult SCA patients (30 during BPC and 30 during steady state) and 30 haemoglobin A controls were enrolled for this cross-sectional study...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
Robert H Hopper, Henry Ho, Supatra Sritulanondha, Ann C Williams, Charles A Engh
BACKGROUND: Crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) liners used for primary THA have demonstrated lower wear rates than noncrosslinked, conventional polyethylene (CPE) liners through the first decade of clinical service. However, little high-quality evidence is currently available regarding the second decade performance of these implants and it remains uncertain whether the onset of osteolysis has simply been delayed or if the wear associated with XLPE liners will remain low enough that osteolysis will not occur...
February 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Kellie A Fay, Daniel L Villeneuve, Joe Swintek, Stephen Edwards, Mark Nelms, Brett R Blackwell, Gerald T Ankley
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ToxCast program has screened thousands of chemicals for biological activity, primarily using high-throughput in vitro bioassays. Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) offer a means to link pathway-specific biological activities with potential apical effects relevant to risk assessors. Thus, efforts are underway to develop AOPs relevant to pathway-specific perturbations detected in ToxCast assays. Previous work identified a 'cytotoxic burst' (CTB) phenomenon wherein large numbers of the ToxCast assays begin to respond at or near test chemical concentrations that elicit cytotoxicity, and a statistical approach to defining the bounds of the CTB was developed...
February 24, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Jae A Puckett, Peter Cleary, Kinton Rossman, Michael E Newcomb, Brian Mustanski
Gender-affirming care, including hormone therapy, "top" (e.g., chest reconstruction surgery) and "bottom" (e.g., vaginoplasty, phalloplasty, metoidioplasty, etc.) surgeries, and puberty blockers, is an efficacious treatment of gender dysphoria for transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) individuals. However, many TGNC people encounter significant barriers in accessing gender-affirming care, which we detail via results from on online study. Participants included 256 TGNC individuals (78...
March 2018: Sexuality Research & Social Policy
Mary M Mitchell, Eric D Hansen, Tuo-Yen Tseng, Meng Shen, Cynda Rushton, Tom Smith, Nancy Hutton, Jennifer Wolfe, Lee Bone, Jeanne Keruly, Lawrence Wissow, Amy R Knowlton
CONTEXT & OBJECTIVE: Advance care planning (ACP) rates remain low, especially among people who are HIV positive, disadvantaged, and African American. While ACP can be a sensitive topic for clinicians and patients to discuss, health values clarification can be an important initial step. METHODS: Data were from the first 325 participants in the AFFIRM Care study, which enrolled adults living with HIV/AIDS in Baltimore, MD, who had histories of illicit drug use...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Owen A Hawksworth, Liam G Coulthard, Susanna Mantovani, Trent M Woodruff
From its discovery in the late nineteenth century, as a 'complement' to the cellular immune response, the complement system has been widely affirmed as a powerful controller of innate and adaptive immune responses. In recent decades however, new roles for complement have been discovered, with multiple complement proteins now known to function in a broad array of non-immune systems. This includes during development, where complement exerts control over stem cell populations from fertilization and implantation throughout embryogenesis and beyond post-natal development...
March 7, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
Nolan Kline, Cheryl Vamos, Erika Thompson, Frank Catalanotto, John Petrila, Rita Debate, Stacey Griner, Coralia Vázquez-Otero, Laura Merrell, Ellen Daley
The rise in HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer incidence necessitates novel prevention efforts including multiple provider types. Although dental providers screen for HPV-related oropharyngeal cancers, little is known about their needs to advance "primordial prevention," or interventions at the earliest possible stage, to prevent HPV-related cancers. This study assessed dentists and dental hygienists' perceived roles and needs regarding HPV-related primordial prevention. We conducted a mixed-method study with data from focus groups with dentists (n=33) and dental hygienists (n=48) and surveys from both provider types (n=203) among providers from a diverse set of practice settings and geographic communities...
March 7, 2018: Papillomavirus Research
Tugce Senturk Parreidt, Markus Schmid, Kajetan Müller
Edible coating based on sodium alginate solution was applied to fresh-cut cantaloupe melon by dipping and vacuum impregnation coating methods. One aim of this work is to produce more technical information concerning these conventional and novel coating processes. For this purpose, the effect of various coating parameters (dipping time, draining time, time length of the vacuum period, vacuum pressure, atmospheric restoration time) with several levels on physical quality parameters (percentage of weight gain, color, and texture) of noncoated and coated samples were determined in order to define adequate coating process parameters to achieve a successful coating application...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Wadie D Mahauad-Fernandez, Chioma M Okeoma
Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2) also known as Tetherin has been implicated in the growth and progression of many cancers. BST-2 employs its pro-tumor effects through the formation of BST-2:BST-2 dimers which ultimately promotes cell to cell and cell to matrix adhesion, cell motility, survival, and growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a novel BST-2-based peptide-B49 on adhesion and growth of breast cancer cells. Homotypic/heterotypic adhesion, three-dimensional spheroid formation, and anchorage-independent growth were used to assess the effect of B49 on cell adhesion and growth...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nicholas Dusek, Austin J Hewitt, Kaycie N Schmidt, Peter W Bergholz
E. coli are deposited into soil with feces and exhibit subsequent population decline with concomitant environmental selection. Environmentally persistent strains exhibit longer survival times during this selection process and some strains have adapted to soil and sediments. A georeferenced collection of E. coli isolates was developed comprising 3,329 isolates from 1,428 soil samples that were collected from a landscape spanning the transition from the grasslands to the eastern deciduous forest biomes. The isolate collection and sample database were analyzed together to discover how land cover, site characteristics and soil chemistry influence the prevalence of cultivable E...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Shailja Kumar, Virendra Kumar Meena, Puja Panwar Hazari, Surinder Kumar Sharma, Rakesh Kumar Sharma
We report here, reverse micelle mediated synthesis of multifunctional dextran (dex) coated Gd2 O3 nanoparticles (NPs) carrying rose bengal (RB) dye for magnetic resonance and optical imaging. The diameter of these RB attached dex coated Gd2 O3 NPs (Gd-dex-RB NPs) was found to be ~17 nm as measured by TEM. NMR line broadening effect on the surrounding water protons affirmed the paramagnetic nature of these NPs. Optical properties of Gd-dex-RB NPs were validated by UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. Time dependent release profile of RB from NPs at two different pH of 7...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
S Vasanthavel, K Meenakshi, V Nivedha, A M Ballamurugan, S Kannan
The present investigation explores the influence of yttrium (Y3+ ) inclusions in ZrO2 -SiO2 binary system (YSZ) on its structural and mechanical features. The powders were synthesized through sol-gel technique and an exclusive characterization were undertaken to investigate the structural and mechanical features influenced by Y3+ additions. Characterization techniques affirmed the crucial role of Y3+ on the resultant structural and thermal stability of the YZS system. Instrumented indentation inferred the enhanced mechanical properties demonstrated by YZS system in comparison with pure ZrO2 -SiO2 binary system (ZS)...
March 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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