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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905684/the-effect-of-maternal-and-infant-factors-on-cord-blood-yield
#1
REVIEW
Seyed Hadi Mousavi, Saeid Abroun, Morteza Zarrabi, Mona Ahmadipanah
Umbilical cord blood (CB) can be used as an alternative hematopoietic stem cell source for transplantation in hematological malignancy and blood disorders. The success of transplantation is highly related to the levels of total nucleated cell and CD34(+) cell counts. The evaluation of optimal conditions can decrease the rate of graft rejection due to low cell count and increases the quality of CB units (CBUs) in the blood bank and the success rate of engraftment. To this end, we review the maternal and infant parameters affecting the quality and quantity of CBUs...
December 1, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900974/disseminated-mycobacteria-chelonae-infection-in-a-kidney-pancreas-transplant-recipient-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Shafi Malik, Ananda Ghosh, Shahid Husain
A 40-year-old male with a long-standing history of type 1 diabetes with end-stage renal failure underwent combined kidney-pancreas (KP) transplant from a standard criteria donor. Post-operative course was uncomplicated with good primary function of both transplant grafts. Induction was with thymoglobulin and maintenance immunosuppression was with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. Nine weeks post-transplant, the patient developed dysfunction of both grafts. Panel reactive antibody testing revealed that the patient had developed a de novo donor-specific antibody and considering an antibody-mediated rejection the patient was treated with intravenous pulse methyl prednisone 500 mg ×3 doses, IV immunoglobulin 2 mg/kg in two divided doses, and ATG 7 mg/kg (total dose of 700 mg)...
November 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898465/the-intragraft-microenvironment-as-a-central-determinant-of-chronic-rejection-or-local-immunoregulation-tolerance
#3
Johannes Wedel, Hironao Nakayama, Nora M Kochupurakkal, Josephine Koch, Michael Klagsbrun, Diane R Bielenberg, David M Briscoe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic rejection is associated with persistent mononuclear cell recruitment, endothelial activation and proliferation, local tissue hypoxia and related biology that enhance effector immune responses. In contrast, the tumor microenvironment elicits signals/factors that inhibit effector T cell responses and rather promote immunoregulation locally within the tissue itself. The identification of immunoregulatory check points and/or secreted factors that are deficient within allografts is of great importance in the understanding and prevention of chronic rejection...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898464/donor-derived-exosomes-the-trick-behind-the-semidirect-pathway-of-allorecognition
#4
Adrian E Morelli, William Bracamonte-Baran, William J Burlingham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The passenger leukocyte hypothesis predicts that after transplantation, donor antigen-presenting cells (APCs) from the graft present donor MHC molecules to directly alloreactive T cells in lymphoid organs. However, in certain transplantation models, recent evidence contradicts this long-standing concept. New findings demonstrate that host, instead of donor, APCs play a prominent role in allosensitization against donor MHC molecules via the semidirect pathway. A similar mechanism operates in development of T-cell split tolerance to noninherited maternal antigens...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897967/an-observational-study-of-donor-ex-vivo-lung-perfusion-in-uk-lung-transplantation-develop-uk
#5
Andrew Fisher, Anders Andreasson, Alexandros Chrysos, Joanne Lally, Chrysovalanto Mamasoula, Catherine Exley, Jennifer Wilkinson, Jessica Qian, Gillian Watson, Oli Lewington, Thomas Chadwick, Elaine McColl, Mark Pearce, Kay Mann, Nicola McMeekin, Luke Vale, Steven Tsui, Nizar Yonan, Andre Simon, Nandor Marczin, Jorge Mascaro, John Dark
BACKGROUND: Many patients awaiting lung transplantation die before a donor organ becomes available. Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) allows initially unusable donor lungs to be assessed and reconditioned for clinical use. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the Donor Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion in UK lung transplantation study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of EVLP in increasing UK lung transplant activity. DESIGN: A multicentre, unblinded, non-randomised, non-inferiority observational study to compare transplant outcomes between EVLP-assessed and standard donor lungs...
November 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897162/batf3-selectively-determines-acquisition-of-cd8-dendritic-cell-phenotype-and-function
#6
Janin Chandra, Paula T Y Kuo, Anne M Hahn, Gabrielle T Belz, Ian H Frazer
Batf3 is a transcription factor that impacts the development of CD103(+) tissue-resident dendritic cells (DCs). However, whether Batf3 is absolutely required for the development of CD8(+) DCs remains controversial. Id2 is required for CD8(+) DC development. Here we show that bone marrow chimeric mice with a deletion of Id2 in the CD11c compartment lose the ability to reject a skin graft expressing a non-self protein antigen or mount a delayed hypersensitivity response. In contrast, Batf3((-/-)) mice remained competent for skin graft rejection and delayed hypersensitivity, and retained a CD8(+) DC population with markers characteristic of the CD11b(+) DC lineage, including CD11b, CD4 and CD172α, as well as the key regulator transcription factor IRF4, but lacked IRF8 expression...
November 29, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895907/succinct-guide-to-liver-transplantation-for-medical-students
#7
REVIEW
Cheng-Maw Ho, Po-Huang Lee, Wing Tung Cheng, Rey-Heng Hu, Yao-Ming Wu, Ming-Chih Ho
Literature on liver transplantation for use in medical education is limited and as yet unsatisfactory. The aim of this article is to help medical students gain enough insight into the reality of being a liver transplant recipient. This is crucial so in the future they can feel confident in approaching these patients with adequate knowledge and confidence. The knowledge-tree based learning core topics are designed for a 2-h class including indication/contraindication in the real-world setting, model for end stage liver disease scoring and organ allocation policy, liver transplantation for hepatic malignancy, transplantation surgery, immunosuppression strategy in practical consideration, and management of viral hepatitis...
December 2016: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894836/use-of-complement-binding-assays-to-assess-the-efficacy-of-antibody-mediated-rejection-therapy-and-prediction-of-graft-survival-in-kidney-transplantation
#8
Daniel S Ramon, Yihung Huang, Lili Zhao, TrisAnn Rendulic, Jeong M Park, Randall S Sung, Milagros Samaniego
BACKGROUND: The Luminex(®) single antigen bead assay (SAB) is the method of choice for monitoring the treatment for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). A ⩾50% reduction of the dominant donor-specific antibody (IgG-DSA) mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) has been associated with improved kidney allograft survival, and C1q-fixing DSA activity is associated with poor outcomes in patients with AMR. We aimed to investigate if C1q-DSA can be used as a reliable predictor of response to therapy and allograft survival in patients with biopsy-proven AMR...
November 25, 2016: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893617/differential-role-of-b-cells-and-il-17-versus-ifn-%C3%AE-during-early-and-late-rejection-of-pig-islet-xenografts-in-mice
#9
Hee Kap Kang, Shusen Wang, Anil Dangi, Xiaomin Zhang, Amar Singh, Lei Zhang, James M Rosati, Wilma Suarez-Pinzon, Xuelian Deng, Xiaoyan Chen, Edward B Thorp, Bernhard J Hering, Stephen D Miller, Xunrong Luo
BACKGROUND: Xenogeneic islet transplantation is an emerging therapeutic option for diabetic patients. However, immunological tolerance to xenogeneic islets remains a challenge. METHODS: The current study used a pig-to-mouse discordant xenogeneic islet transplant model to examine anti-donor xenogeneic immune responses during early and late rejection, and to determine experimental therapeutic interventions that promote durable pig islet xenograft survival. RESULTS: We found that during early acute rejection of pig islet xenografts, the rejecting hosts exhibited a heavy graft infiltration with B220 B cells and a robust anti-pig antibody production...
November 23, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893612/the-influence-of-timing-and-frequency-of-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapy-on-immunomodulation-outcomes-after-vascularized-composite-allotransplantation
#10
Jan A Plock, Jonas T Schnider, Riccardo Schweizer, Wensheng Zhang, Wakako Tsuji, Matthias Waldner, Mario G Solari, Kacey G Marra, J Peter Rubin, Vijay S Gorantla
BACKGROUND: Cellular therapies for immunomodulation in vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) have gained importance due to their potential minimization of immunosuppression. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) especially have shown encouraging potential. We investigated the influence of timing and frequency of AD-MSC-treatment on immunologic and graft survival as well as graft vasculopathy (GV) outcomes after VCA. METHODS: Lewis (LEW) rats received full-mismatched Brown Norway (BN) rat hindlimb transplants...
November 23, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893611/absence-of-mir-182-augments-cardiac-allograft-survival
#11
Liang Wei, Vandana Kaul, Xiumei Qu, Xiaoxing Xiong, Audrey H Lau, Naoharu Iwai, Olivia M Martinez, Sheri M Krams
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules that regulate the posttranscriptional expression of target genes and are important regulators in immune responses. Previous studies demonstrated that the miRNA, miR-182 was significantly increased during allograft rejection. Further, the transcription factor Forkhead box (FOX) protein 1, (FOXO1) was shown to be a target of miR-182. The aim of this study is to further examine the role of miR-182 in alloimmune responses. METHODS: Transplantation of BALB/c cardiac allografts was performed in C57BL/6, miR-182, B6...
November 23, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893525/outcomes-of-descemet-membrane-endothelial-keratoplasty-in-patients-with-previous-glaucoma-surgery
#12
Carolina Aravena, Fei Yu, Sophie X Deng
PURPOSE: To evaluate outcomes of Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) in eyes with previous trabeculectomy or a drainage device. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 108 consecutive DMEK performed between October 2013 and December 2015. All eyes were divided into 3 groups: surgical treatment (ST) group, medical treatment (MT) group, and control group. Visual improvement, endothelial cell loss, and postoperative complications, including rejection, graft failure, and intraocular pressure elevation (≥25 mm Hg) were evaluated...
November 23, 2016: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889929/twenty-eight-years-of-intestinal-transplantation-in-paris-experience-of-the-oldest-european-centre
#13
F Lacaille, S Irtan, L Dupic, C Talbotec, F Lesage, V Colomb, N Salvi, F Moulin, F Sauvat, Y Aigrain, Y Revillon, O Goulet, C Chardot
AIM: Our aim is to describe our achievements in pediatric intestinal transplantation (ITx) and define areas for improvement. METHODS: After a period (1987-90) of 9 isolated small bowel transplants (SBTx) where only one patient survived with her graft, 110 ITx were performed on 101 children from 1994 to 2014: 60 SBTx, 45 liver-small bowel, 4 multivisceral (3 with kidneys), 1 modified multivisceral. Indications were short bowel syndrome (36), motility disorders (30), congenital enteropathies (34) and others (1)...
November 27, 2016: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888573/b-cell-activating-factor-baff-a-predictor-of-antibody-mediated-rejection-in-kidney-transplantation-recipients
#14
Wannarat Pongpirul, Wiwat Chancharoenthana, Krit Pongpirul, Asada Leelahavanichakul, Wipawee Kittikowit, Kamonwan Jutivorakool, Bunthoon Nonthasoot, Yingyos Avihingsanon, Somchai Eiam-Ong, Kearkiat Praditpornsilpa, Natavudh Townamchai
BACKGROUND: Donor-specific antibody (DSA) is a widely-used biomarker for antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) but correctly indicates only 30-40% of patients with ABMR. Additional biomarkers of ABMR in kidney transplant recipients are needed. METHODS: All 68 kidney transplanted-recipients enrolled in this study were negative for graft rejection as determined by surveillance-biopsy ELISA at day 7 post-transplantation. Allograft biopsy was then performed at 6 months post-transplantation for subclinical-ABMR detection...
November 26, 2016: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888556/evaluate-quality-of-kidneys-from-dcd-ecd-donors-by-parameters-of-machine-perfusion
#15
Guodong Chen, Chang Wang, Yi Zhao, Longhui Qiu, Xiaopeng Yuan, Jiang Qiu, Changxi Wang, Xiaoshun He, Lizhong Chen
AIM: To investigate whether the parameters of machine perfusion could predict the quality of kidneys from donation after circulatory death(DCD) donors and expanded criteria donors (ECD) . METHODS: 58 kidneys from DCD/ECD donors were harvested in our hospital from July 2011 to August 2014. All kidneys were preserved with machine perfusion(Life Port), and parameters of machine perfusion were collected. All kidneys were biopsied before transplantation. The primary endpoints were delayed graft function(DGF), graft loss and patient death...
November 26, 2016: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888534/early-steroid-withdrawal-results-in-improved-patient-and-graft-survival-and-lower-risk-of-post-transplant-cardiovascular-risk-profiles-a-single-center-10-year-experience
#16
Reynold Lopez-Soler, Ryan Chan, Jessica Martinolich, Lisa Park, Ashar Ata, Nikolaos Chandolias, David Conti
Long term use of steroids results in predictable secondary effects that can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. In this study, we present 10 years' worth of data of early steroid withdrawal (ESW) immunosuppression consisting of Mycophenolate, Sirolimus, and Tacrolimus. From 2003 to 2013, 563 kidney transplant recipients were weaned off steroids prior to discharge. We compared outcomes with that of our 65 historical controls maintained on steroids. We analyzed graft and patient survival and determined the incidence of steroid-related comorbidities such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and weight gain...
November 26, 2016: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888331/the-origin-of-dcs-and-capacity-for-immunologic-tolerance-in-central-and-peripheral-tissues
#17
REVIEW
K Sanjana P Devi, Niroshana Anandasabapathy
Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized immune sentinels that play key role in maintaining immune homeostasis by efficiently regulating the delicate balance between protective immunity and tolerance to self. Although DCs respond to maturation signals present in the surrounding milieu, multiple layers of suppression also co-exist that reduce the infringement of tolerance against self-antigens. These tolerance inducing properties of DCs are governed by their origin and a range of other factors including distribution, cytokines, growth factors, and transcriptional programing, that collectively impart suppressive functions to these cells...
November 25, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888093/randomized-trial-of-ratg-daclizumab-vs-ratg-alemtuzumab-as-dual-induction-therapy-in-renal-transplantation-results-at-8-years-of-follow-up
#18
Gaetano Ciancio, Jeffrey J Gaynor, Giselle Guerra, Junichiro Sageshima, David Roth, Linda Chen, Warren Kupin, Adela Mattiazzi, Lissett Tueros, Sandra Flores, Lois Hanson, Phillip Ruiz, Rodrigo Vianna, George W Burke
Our goal in using dual induction therapy is to bring the kidney transplant recipient closer (through more effectively timed lymphodepletion) to an optimally immunosuppressed state. Here, we report long-term results of a prospective randomized trial comparing (Group I,N=100) rATG/Dac (3 rATG, 2 Dac doses) vs. (Group II,N=100) rATG/Alemtuzumab(C1H) (1 dose each), using reduced tacrolimus dosing, EC-MPS, and early corticosteroid withdrawal. Lower EC-MPS dosing was targeted in Group II to avoid severe leukopenia...
November 22, 2016: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887864/optimization-of-cgmp-purification-and-expansion-of-umbilical-cord-blood-derived-t-regulatory-cells-in-support-of-first-in-human-clinical-trials
#19
David H McKenna, Darin Sumstad, Diane M Kadidlo, Bjorn Batdorf, Colin J Lord, Sarah C Merkel, Christine M Koellner, Julie M Curtsinger, Carl H June, James L Riley, Bruce L Levine, Jeffrey S Miller, Claudio G Brunstein, John E Wagner, Bruce R Blazar, Keli L Hippen
BACKGROUND AIMS: Thymic-derived regulatory T cells (tTreg) are critical regulators of the immune system. Adoptive tTreg transfer is a curative therapy for murine models of autoimmunity, graft rejection, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We previously completed a "first-in-human" clinical trial using in vitro expanded umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived tTreg to prevent GVHD in patients undergoing UCB hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). tTreg were safe and demonstrated clinical efficacy, but low yield prevented further dose escalation...
November 22, 2016: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887740/outcomes-of-renal-transplantation-in-patients-with-bipolar-affective-disorder-and-schizophrenia-a-national-retrospective-cohort-study
#20
Mary I Butler, Deirdre McCartan, Anne Cooney, Patrick O Kelly, Izhar Ahmed, Dilly Little, Siobhan MacHale, Peter Conlon
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) have in the past been excluded from organ transplantation programs based on their psychiatric illness. However, there is little data on the outcomes of renal transplantation in these patients and little evidence to support such exclusion. METHODS: We reviewed the database of the Irish National Renal Transplant Programme and identified all patients with a history of BPAD or schizophrenia who had received a transplant over a 28-year period...
September 20, 2016: Psychosomatics
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