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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903775/nonclinical-and-clinical-pharmacology-evidence-for-cardiovascular-safety-of-saxagliptin
#1
REVIEW
Pia S Pollack, Kristina D Chadwick, David M Smith, Martin Billger, Boaz Hirshberg, Nayyar Iqbal, David W Boulton
BACKGROUND: In the Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (SAVOR) trial in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) at high risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease, saxagliptin did not increase the risk for major CV adverse events. However, there was an unexpected imbalance in events of hospitalization for heart failure (hHF), one of six components of the secondary CV composite endpoint, with a greater number of events observed with saxagliptin...
September 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903112/savoring-sweet-sugars-in-infant-and-toddler-feeding
#2
Robert D Murray
During the first years of life, the sweetness of sugars has a capacity to hinder or to help in laying a strong nutritional foundation for food preferences that often extend over a lifetime. Aside from supplying 4 g/kcal of energy, sugars are non-nutritive. However, sugars have a powerful attribute, sweetness, which strongly influences human food preference. A child's first relationship with sweet taste begins even before birth and continues to evolve throughout complementary feeding. The sweetness of breastmilk encourages consumption and soothes the neonate...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894748/new-antihyperglycemic-drugs-and-heart-failure-synopsis-of-basic-and-clinical-data
#3
REVIEW
Dirk von Lewinski, Ewald Kolesnik, Markus Wallner, Michael Resl, Harald Sourij
The assessment of the cardiovascular safety profile of any newly developed antihyperglycemic drug is mandatory before registration, as a meta-analysis raised alarm describing a significant increase in myocardial infarction with the thiazolidinedione rosiglitazone. The first results from completed cardiovascular outcome trials are already available: TECOS, SAVOR-TIMI, and EXAMINE investigated dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, ELIXA, LEADER, and SUSTAIN-6 investigated glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, and EMPA-REG OUTCOME and CANVAS investigated sodium-dependent glucose transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871669/facilitated-subcutaneous-immunoglobulin-fscig-in-autoimmune-cytopenias-associated-with-common-variable-immunodeficiency
#4
Veronica Pedini, Isabella Savore, Giovanna Maria Danieli
BACKGROUND: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common symptomatic primary immune deficiency of adulthood. Besides recurrent infections, autoimmune disorders-mainly cytopenias-affect 30% of patients with CVID. OBJECTIVES: To describe the efficacy and safety of facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin (fSCIg), which is a combination of 10% [human] SCIg with recombinant human hyaluronidase for the treatment of CVID-linked cytopenias. METHODS: We describe four women (mean age 54 years) with CVID associated with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) (n=3) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) (n=1)...
July 2017: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859968/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-independent-cardiac-dysfunction-links-saxagliptin-to-heart-failure
#5
Chintan N Koyani, Ewald Kolesnik, Gerald Wölkart, Niroj Shrestha, Susanne Scheruebel, Christopher Trummer, Klaus Zorn-Pauly, Astrid Hammer, Petra Lang, Helga Reicher, Heinrich Maechler, Klaus Groschner, Bernd Mayer, Peter P Rainer, Harald Sourij, Wolfgang Sattler, Ernst Malle, Brigitte Pelzmann, Dirk von Lewinski
Saxagliptin treatment has been associated with increased rate of hospitalization for heart failure in type 2 diabetic patients, though the underlying mechanism(s) remain elusive. To address this, we assessed the effects of saxagliptin on human atrial trabeculae, guinea pig hearts and cardiomyocytes. We found that the primary target of saxagliptin, dipeptidyl peptidase-4, is absent in cardiomyocytes, yet saxagliptin internalized into cardiomyocytes and impaired cardiac contractility via inhibition of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-phospholamban-sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 2a axis and Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger function in Ca(2+) extrusion...
August 30, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804473/confirmatory-factor-analysis-of-the-french-version-of-the-anticipatory-and-consummatory-interpersonal-pleasure-scale
#6
Joséphine Chaix, Philippe Golay, Caroline Fankhauser, Alexandra Nguyen, Diane C Gooding, Jérôme Favrod
The Anticipatory and Consummatory Interpersonal Pleasure Scale (ACIPS), a measure specifically designed to assess hedonic capacity for social and interpersonal pleasure, was used to evaluate the presence of social anhedonia in patients as well as the general population. The first goal of this study was to validate the structure of the French version of the ACIPS. The second objective was to verify whether a one, two or three factor solution is most appropriate for the ACIPS scale. The French version of the ACIPS was tested on 263 French-speaking pre-graduate students or professional volunteers...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766752/unlocking-opportunities-in-food-design-for-infants-children-and-the-elderly-understanding-milestones-in-chewing-and-swallowing-across-the-lifespan-for-new-innovations
#7
REVIEW
Julie A Y Cichero
Intake of a variety of foods increases the likelihood of good general health. From as early as life in utero, humans are exposed to flavor. Further flavor imprinting occurs via breast milk, increasing the likelihood of acceptance of a variety flavors when solids are introduced. While first foods need to be smooth and runny, experience managing soft lumps is required for rudimentary development of chewing skills. Texture experiences are critical to providing building blocks for food acceptance and gradual increase in the range of food textures eaten...
August 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740321/beliefs-about-savoring-in-older-adulthood-aging-and-perceived-health-affect-temporal-components-of-perceived-savoring-ability
#8
Paul J Geiger, Jennifer N Morey, Suzanne C Segerstrom
The ability to savor positive life events is associated with higher emotional well-being; however, few studies have examined savoring ability in older adults. The present study used a longitudinal design to examine changes in perceived savoring abilities and associations with perceived health in older adulthood. Older adults (N=131) reported on beliefs about savoring and perceived health at baseline and 2½ years later. Perceived anticipation (savoring the future) and reminiscing (savoring the past) abilities declined from baseline to follow-up...
January 15, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739277/selection-and-implementation-of-emotion-regulation-strategies-in-major-depressive-disorder-an-integrative-review
#9
REVIEW
Daphne Y Liu, Renee J Thompson
Emotion regulation (ER), broadly defined, has been implicated in mental health, including major depressive disorder (MDD). We review empirical studies examining selection and implementation of ER strategies in adults with current or past MDD. We focus on eight strategies (rumination, distraction, cognitive reappraisal, suppression, acceptance, savoring, positive rumination, dampening), organizing the review by research design: (1) self-reported habitual use (i.e., trait) of ER strategies, (2) spontaneous use of ER strategies in laboratory settings, (3) experimentally instructed ER strategies, and (4) use of ER strategies in naturalistic settings...
July 13, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708375/enzyme-that-makes-you-cry-crystal-structure-of-lachrymatory-factor-synthase-from-allium-cepa
#10
Josie A Silvaroli, Matthew J Pleshinger, Surajit Banerjee, Philip D Kiser, Marcin Golczak
The biochemical pathway that gives onions their savor is part of the chemical warfare against microbes and animals. This defense mechanism involves formation of a volatile lachrymatory factor (LF) ((Z)-propanethial S-oxide) that causes familiar eye irritation associated with onion chopping. LF is produced in a reaction catalyzed by lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS). The principles by which LFS facilitates conversion of a sulfenic acid substrate into LF have been difficult to experimentally examine owing to the inherent substrate reactivity and lability of LF...
September 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622738/assessment-of-the-risk-of-hospitalization-for-heart-failure-with-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-saxagliptin-alogliptin-and-sitagliptin-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-using-an-alternative-measure-to-the-hazard-ratio
#11
Masayuki Kaneko, Mamoru Narukawa
BACKGROUND: Saxagliptin statistically significantly increased the risk of hospitalization for heart failure compared with placebo in the clinical trial of SAVOR-TIMI 53. Neither the reason why only saxagliptin among several dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors increased the risk, nor the clinical implication of the result has been explained. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of hospitalization for heart failure associated with DPP-4 inhibitors by using an alternative measure to the hazard ratio...
July 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572599/comparisons-of-microvascular-and-macrovascular-changes-in-aldosteronism-related-hypertension-and-essential-hypertension
#12
Monica Varano, Pierluigi Iacono, Massimiliano M Tedeschi, Claudio Letizia, Mario Curione, Claudio Savoriti, Erika Baiocco, Laura Zinnamosca, Cristiano Marinelli, Barbara Boccassini, Mariacristina Parravano
Case-control observational study to evaluate the microvascular and macrovascular changes in patients with hypertension secondary to primary aldosteronism (PA), essential hypertension (EH) and healthy subjects. Measurements of arterial stiffness including augmentation index (AIx) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were assessed using a TensioClinic arteriograph system. Retinal microcirculation was imaged by a Retinal Vessel Analyzer (RVA) and a non-midriatic camera (Topcon-TRC-NV2000). IMEDOS software analyzed the retinal artery diameter (RAD), retinal vein diameters (RVD) and arteriole-to-venule ratio (AVR) of the vessels coming off the optic disc...
June 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554140/health-related-quality-of-life-implications-of-cardiovascular-events-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-subanalysis-from-the-saxagliptin-assessment-of-vascular-outcomes-recorded-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus-savor-timi-53-trial
#13
Andrew H Briggs, Deepak L Bhatt, Benjamin M Scirica, Itamar Raz, Karissa M Johnston, Shelagh M Szabo, Klas Bergenheim, Jayanti Mukherjee, Boaz Hirshberg, Ofri Mosenzon
BACKGROUND: The impact of cardiovascular complications on health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) in type 2 diabetes mellitus has not been clearly established. Using EQ5D utility data from SAVOR-TIMI 53, a large phase IV trial of saxagliptin versus placebo, we quantified the impact of cardiovascular and other major events on HRQoL. METHODS: EQ5D utilities were recorded annually and following myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke. Utilities among patients experiencing major cardiovascular events were analyzed using linear mixed-effects regression, adjusting for baseline characteristics (including EQ5D utility), and compared to those not experiencing major cardiovascular events...
January 23, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459046/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-and-the-risk-of-heart-failure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Subodh Verma, Ronald M Goldenberg, Deepak L Bhatt, Michael E Farkouh, Adrian Quan, Hwee Teoh, Kim A Connelly, Lawrence A Leiter, Jan O Friedrich
BACKGROUND: Given recent discrepant results from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we examined the totality of RCT evidence assessing the association between dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and heart failure. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched without language restrictions to August 2016 for RCTs comparing DPP-4 inhibitors to placebo or no therapy for a period of 24 weeks or more. We included all heart failure outcomes when listed either as a serious adverse event or adverse event...
January 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432754/intraclass-differences-in-the-risk-of-hospitalisazion-for-heart-failure-among-type-2-diabetic-patients-initiating-a-dipeptydil-peptidase-4-inhibitor-or-a-sulphonylurea-results-from-the-osmed-health-db-registry
#15
Gian Paolo Fadini, Stefania Saragoni, Pierluigi Russo, Luca Degli Esposti, Saula Vigili de Kreutzenberg, Mario Melazzini, Angelo Avogaro
AIMS: Heart failure (HF) is frequent in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and several glucose-lowering medications may increase HF risk. In the SAVOR-TIMI trial, patients on Saxagliptin experienced a 27% higher risk of hospitalisation for HF (HHF). In a retrospective study on 127,555 patients, we showed that DPP-4i therapy was associated with a lower HHF risk than sulphonylurea (SU) therapy. We herein re-analyzed such data to evaluate intraclass differences among DPP-4i and SU. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included T2D patients initiating DPP-4i or SU alone or in combination with metformin...
April 21, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431666/glp-1-receptor-agonists-and-heart-failure-in-diabetes
#16
André J Scheen
The prevalence of heart failure (HF) is increasing in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), and glucose-lowering agents have distinctive effects on the risk of developing HF that requires hospitalization. Such an increased risk has been consistently reported with thiazolidinediones (glitazones) and perhaps also with the dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitor saxagliptin (at least in SAVOR - TIMI 53), whereas a markedly decreased risk was highlighted with the sodium - glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin in EMPA-REG OUTCOME...
April 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417296/dpp4-inhibitors-and-cardiovascular-outcomes-safety-on-heart-failure
#17
REVIEW
Chang Xia, Aditya Goud, Jason D'Souza, CHanukya Dahagam, Xiaoquan Rao, Sanjay Rajagopalan, Jixin Zhong
Diabetes is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, clinical data suggests intensive glycemic control significantly increase rather than decrease cardiovascular mortality, which is largely due to the fact that a majority of oral anti-diabetic drugs have adverse cardiovascular effect. There are several large-scale clinical trials evaluating the cardiovascular safety of DPP4 inhibitors, a novel class of oral anti-diabetic medications, which have been recently completed. They were proven to be safe with regard to cardiovascular outcomes...
May 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414476/a-socio-cultural-instrumental-approach-to-emotion-regulation-culture-and-the-regulation-of-positive-emotions
#18
Xiaoming Ma, Maya Tamir, Yuri Miyamoto
We propose a sociocultural instrumental approach to emotion regulation. According to this approach, cultural differences in the tendency to savor rather than dampen positive emotions should be more pronounced when people are actively pursuing goals (i.e., contexts requiring higher cognitive effort) than when they are not (i.e., contexts requiring lower cognitive efforts), because cultural beliefs about the utility of positive emotions should become most relevant when people are engaging in active goal pursuit...
April 17, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402902/cardiovascular-outcome-studies-with-incretin-based-therapies-comparison-between-dpp-4-inhibitors-and-glp-1-receptor-agonists
#19
REVIEW
André J Scheen
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4is) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) represent two distinct classes of incretin-based therapies used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Non-inferiority versus placebo was shown in large prospective cardiovascular outcome trials in patients with high cardiovascular risk: SAVOR-TIMI 53 (saxagliptin), EXAMINE (alogliptin), and TECOS (sitagliptin); ELIXA (lixisenatide), LEADER (liraglutide) and SUSTAIN 6 (semaglutide). The promises raised by meta-analyses of phase 2-3 trials with DPP-4is were non confirmed as no cardiovascular protection could be evidenced...
May 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380722/effects-of-a-savoring-intervention-on-resilience-and-well-being-of-older-adults
#20
Jennifer L Smith, Agnieszka A Hanni
Savoring is the ability to be mindful of positive experiences and to be aware of and regulate positive feelings about these experiences. Previous research has found that savoring interventions can be effective at improving well-being of younger adults, but findings have not been extended to older populations. This pilot study examined the effects of a 1-week savoring intervention on older adults' psychological resilience and well-being (i.e., depressive symptoms and happiness). Participants, 111 adults ages 60 or over, completed measures of resilience, depressive symptoms, and happiness pre- and postintervention as well as 1 month and 3 months after the intervention...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
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