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Gulf pipefish

Sarah P Flanagan, Adam G Jones
The trade-offs of using single-digest vs. double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) protocols have been widely discussed. However, no direct empirical comparisons of the two methods have been conducted. Here, we sampled a single population of Gulf pipefish (Syngnathus scovelli) and genotyped 444 individuals using RAD-seq. Sixty individuals were subjected to single-digest RAD-seq (sdRAD-seq), and the remaining 384 individuals were genotyped using a double-digest RAD-seq (ddRAD-seq) protocol...
November 9, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
Andria P Beal, F Douglas Martin, Matthew C Hale
Sex-bias in gene expression is a widespread mechanism for controlling the development of phenotypes that differ between males and females. Most studies on sex-bias in gene expression have focused on species that exhibit traditional sex-roles (male-male competition and female parental care). By contrast the Syngnathid fishes (sea horses, pipefish, and sea dragons) are a group of organisms where many species exhibit male brooding and sex-role reversal (female-female competition for mates and paternal parental care), and little is known about how patterns of sex-bias in gene expression vary in species with sex-role reversal...
February 2018: Marine Genomics
Sarah P Flanagan, Adam G Jones
A major goal of evolutionary biology is to identify the genome-level targets of natural and sexual selection. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, whole-genome selection components analysis provides a promising avenue in the search for loci affected by selection in nature. Here, we implement a genome-wide selection components analysis in the sex role reversed Gulf pipefish, Syngnathus scovelli. Our approach involves a double-digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq) technique, applied to adult females, nonpregnant males, pregnant males, and their offspring...
April 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
C M Small, S Bassham, J Catchen, A Amores, A M Fuiten, R S Brown, A G Jones, W A Cresko
BACKGROUND: Evolutionary origins of derived morphologies ultimately stem from changes in protein structure, gene regulation, and gene content. A well-assembled, annotated reference genome is a central resource for pursuing these molecular phenomena underlying phenotypic evolution. We explored the genome of the Gulf pipefish (Syngnathus scovelli), which belongs to family Syngnathidae (pipefishes, seahorses, and seadragons). These fishes have dramatically derived bodies and a remarkable novelty among vertebrates, the male brood pouch...
December 20, 2016: Genome Biology
Sarah P Flanagan, Emily Rose, Adam G Jones
A major goal of molecular ecology is to identify the causes of genetic and phenotypic differentiation among populations. Population genomics is suitably poised to tackle these key questions by diagnosing the evolutionary mechanisms driving divergence in nature. Here, we set out to investigate the evolutionary processes underlying population differentiation in the Gulf pipefish, Syngnathus scovelli. We sampled approximately 50 fish from each of 12 populations distributed from the Gulf coast of Texas to the Atlantic coast of Florida and performed restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing to identify SNPs throughout the genome...
October 2016: Molecular Ecology
Emily Rose, Sarah P Flanagan, Adam G Jones
Species exhibiting sex-role reversal provide an unusual perspective on the evolution of sex roles and sex differences. However, the proximate effects of sex-role reversal are largely unknown. Endocrine disruptors provide an experimental mechanism to address hormonal regulation of sexually dimorphic gene expression in sex-role-reversed taxa. Here, we investigate gene expression patterns in the liver of the sex-role-reversed Gulf pipefish, because the liver is known to be sexually dimorphic and estrogen-regulated in species with conventional sex roles...
2015: PloS One
Kimberly A Paczolt, Adam G Jones
Syngnathid fishes (pipefishes, seahorses and seadragons) are characterized by a unique mode of paternal care in which embryos develop on or in the male's body, often within a structure known as a brood pouch. Evidence suggests that this pouch plays a role in mediating postcopulatory sexual selection and that males have some control over the events occurring within the pouch during the pregnancy. These observations lead to the prediction that males should invest differently in broods depending on the availability of food...
2015: PloS One
S P Flanagan, J B Johnson, E Rose, A G Jones
Understanding how selection acts on traits individually and in combination is an important step in deciphering the mechanisms driving evolutionary change, but for most species, and especially those in which sexual selection acts more strongly on females than on males, we have no estimates of selection coefficients pertaining to the multivariate sexually selected phenotype. Here, we use a laboratory-based mesocosm experiment to quantify pre- and post-mating selection on female secondary sexual traits in the Gulf pipefish (Syngnathus scovelli), a sexually dimorphic, sex-role-reversed species in which ornamented females compete for access to choosy males...
November 2014: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Emily Rose, Kimberly A Paczolt, Adam G Jones
Environmental estrogens have been shown to affect populations of aquatic organisms in devastating ways, including feminization of males, alterations in mating behaviors, and disruption of sexual selection. Studies have shown 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) exposure to induce female-like secondary sexual traits in male Gulf pipefish, changing how females perceive affected males. We aimed to understand the effects of EE2 exposure on the sex-role-reversed mating system and the strength of selection in Gulf pipefish...
December 2013: Evolutionary Applications
Clayton M Small, April D Harlin-Cognato, Adam G Jones
Evolutionary studies have revealed that reproductive proteins in animals and plants often evolve more rapidly than the genome-wide average. The causes of this pattern, which may include relaxed purifying selection, sexual selection, sexual conflict, pathogen resistance, reinforcement, or gene duplication, remain elusive. Investigative expansions to additional taxa and reproductive tissues have the potential to shed new light on this unresolved problem. Here, we embark on such an expansion, in a comparison of the brood-pouch transcriptome between two male-pregnant species of the pipefish genus Syngnathus...
October 2013: Ecology and Evolution
Emily Rose, Kimberly A Paczolt, Adam G Jones
Empirical studies of sexual selection often focus on events occurring either before or after mating but rarely both and consequently may fail to discern the relative magnitudes and interactions of premating and postmating episodes of selection. Here, we simultaneously quantify premating and postmating selection in the sex-role-reversed Gulf pipefish by using a microsatellite-based analysis of parentage in experimental populations. Female pipefish exhibited an opportunity for selection (I) of 1.64, which was higher than that of males (0...
September 2013: American Naturalist
Charlyn Partridge, Anne Boettcher, Adam G Jones
The genetic structure of inshore aquatic populations can be influenced by a number of factors, including coastal configurations, flow rates, and local adaptation. Properties such as salinity and temperature can differ significantly along the coasts and into the bays and rivers that contribute to these systems. Within these environments, low migratory euryhaline species provide a unique system to examine how these factors influence population structure, even when these populations are continuously distributed...
November 2012: Journal of Heredity
Omar M Amin, Mehmet C Oğuz, Richard A Heckmann, Yahya Tepe, Yuriy Kvach
Acanthocephaloides irregularis n. sp. (Arhythmacanthidae) is described from four species of marine fishes in the Gulf of Odessa and Sukhyi Lyman, Ukrainan Black Sea waters, making it the tenth species of the genus. The hosts are the combtooth blenny Parablennius zvonimiri (Kolombatovic) (Blenniidae), the mushroom goby Ponticola eurycephalus (Kessler) (Gobiidae), the tubenose goby Proterorhinus marmoratus (Pallas) (Gobiidae) and the black-striped pipefish Syngnathus abaster Risso (Syngnathidae). The new species is most similar to its closest relative, Acanthocephaloides propinquus (Dujardin, 1845), in proboscis shape and armature (12 longitudinal rows of 5 hooks) and the shape of the trunk, reproductive system and lemnisci, but differs in having randomly distributed trunk spines...
October 2011: Systematic Parasitology
Darryl T Gwynne, Kevin A Judge, Clint D Kelly
Sexual differences in the extent and type of parental care lie at the heart of sexual selection theory, and evolution resulting from parental conflict has produced some striking behavioural and morphological adaptations. In a study of male pregnancy in Gulf pipefish, Paczolt and Jones showed that more eggs were transferred to the male's brood pouch and more offspring survived following mating with large females (preferred by males) than with small (less preferred) females. Although the authors conclude that the lower survival of embryos from small females is most consistent with males actively removing resources from these offspring, no data are presented to directly support this hypothesis (ref...
August 26, 2010: Nature
Charlyn Partridge, Anne Boettcher, Adam G Jones
Sexual selection is responsible for the evolution of some of the most elaborate traits occurring in nature, many of which play a vital role in competition over access to mates and individual reproductive fitness. Because expression of these traits is typically regulated by sex-steroids there is a significant potential for their expression to be affected by the presence of certain pollutants, such as endocrine disrupting compounds. Endocrine disruptors have been shown to alter primary sexual traits and impact reproduction, but few studies have investigated how these compounds affect secondary sexual trait expression and how that may, in turn, impact mating dynamics...
November 2010: Hormones and Behavior
Kimberly A Paczolt, Adam G Jones
Male pregnancy in seahorses, pipefishes and sea dragons (family Syngnathidae) represents a striking reproductive adaptation that has shaped the evolution of behaviour and morphology in this group of fishes. In many syngnathid species, males brood their offspring in a specialized pouch, which presumably evolved to facilitate male parental care. However, an unexplored possibility is that brood pouch evolution was partly shaped by parent-offspring or sexual conflict, processes that would result in trade-offs between current and future pregnancies...
March 18, 2010: Nature
Anthony B Wilson
Genetic analyses of realized reproductive success have fundamentally changed our understanding of mating behaviour in natural systems. While behavioural ecologists have long been interested in what factors influence mating behaviour, early studies were limited to direct observations of matings and thus provided an incomplete picture of reproductive activity. Genetic assessments of parentage have revolutionized the study of reproductive behaviour, revealing that many individuals engage in extra-pair copulations (Griffith et al...
April 2009: Molecular Ecology
Kenyon B Mobley, Adam G Jones
Genetic mating systems are expected to vary among and within populations in response to environmental and demographic factors. Despite the fact that mating system variation theoretically can have profound effects on important evolutionary processes such as sexual selection, extensive intraspecific surveys of geographical variation in mating systems are rare. We used microsatellite markers to characterize genetic mating systems of dusky pipefish, Syngnathus floridae, from five populations distributed from the mid-Atlantic Coast to the Western Gulf of Mexico...
April 2009: Molecular Ecology
K B Mobley, A G Jones
Differences among populations in the intensity of sexual selection resulting from distinct genetic mating systems can lead to divergent morphological evolution and speciation. However, little is known about how genetic mating systems vary between populations and what factors may contribute to this variation. In this study, we compare the genetic mating systems of two geographically distinct populations of the dusky pipefish (Syngnathus floridae), a species characterized by polygynandry and male pregnancy, from the Atlantic Coast of Virginia and the Gulf Coast of Florida...
June 2007: Molecular Ecology
Charlyn Partridge, Judith Shardo, Anne Boettcher
Many species of pipefish exhibit a reversal of parental roles, in which females insert eggs into the brood pouch of the male where they are incubated until the end of embryonic development. While the significance of the male brood pouch has been examined for over a century, the role of the pouch is still unclear. One possible function is to aid in osmoregulation by buffering embryos from the external environment. To investigate this role, the euryhaline Gulf pipefish, Syngnathus scovelli, was collected and maintained in either a low salinity or a saltwater environment...
June 2007: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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