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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398244/piezoelectric-actuated-phase-shifter-based-on-external-laser-interferometer-design-control-and-experimental-validation
#1
Peng-Zhi Li, Xiao-Dong Wang, Yong-Xin Sui, De-Fu Zhang, Dong-Fang Wang, Li-Jian Dong, Ming-Yang Ni
To improve the phase-shifting accuracy, this paper presents a novel integrated framework for design, control and experimental validation of the piezoelectric actuated phase shifter with a trade-off between accuracy and cost. The piezoelectric actuators with built-in sensors are adopted to drive the double parallel four-bar linkage flexure hinge-based mechanisms. Three mechanisms form the tripod structure of the assembled phase shifter. Then, a semi-closed loop controller with inner feedback and outer feedforward loops via the external laser interferometer is developed for accurate positioning of the phase shifter...
April 11, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281468/design-and-stable-flight-of-a-21%C3%A2-g-insect-like-tailless-flapping-wing-micro-air-vehicle-with-angular-rates-feedback-control
#2
Hoang Vu Phan, Taesam Kang, Hoon Cheol Park
An insect-like tailless flapping wing micro air vehicle (FW-MAV) without feedback control eventually becomes unstable after takeoff. Flying an insect-like tailless FW-MAV is more challenging than flying a bird-like tailed FW-MAV, due to the difference in control principles. This work introduces the design and controlled flight of an insect-like tailless FW-MAV, named KUBeetle. A combination of four-bar linkage and pulley-string mechanisms was used to develop a lightweight flapping mechanism that could achieve a high flapping amplitude of approximately 190°...
April 4, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269442/development-of-a-finger-like-mechanism-of-end-effector-for-micro-surgery
#3
S M Kim, C M Park, J H Yoo, K Kim
Neurosurgery had been considered nearly impossible due to its technical difficulty and the danger to its special target organ, but with endoscopic methods, many such surgeries can be made safely through the nose. Endoscopic neurosurgery is limited by available instruments, however, and there remain some areas of the human body inaccessible to standard surgical tools. To overcome some of these limitations, in this study we developed a simple mechanism that could form a high curvature in a narrow space. The end product is a finger-like mechanism consisting of five body parts and four joints...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230239/common-evolutionary-trends-underlie-the-four-bar-linkage-systems-of-sunfish-and-mantis-shrimp
#4
Yinan Hu, Nathan Nelson-Maney, Philip S L Anderson
Comparative biomechanics offers an opportunity to explore the evolution of disparate biological systems that share common underlying mechanics. Four-bar linkage modeling has been applied to various biological systems such as fish jaws and crustacean appendages to explore the relationship between biomechanics and evolutionary diversification. Mechanical sensitivity states that the functional output of a mechanical system will show differential sensitivity to changes in specific morphological components. We document similar patterns of mechanical sensitivity in two disparate four-bar systems from different phyla: the opercular four-bar system in centrarchid fishes and the raptorial appendage of stomatopods...
February 23, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227688/development-of-a-finger-like-mechanism-of-end-effector-for-micro-surgery
#5
S M Kim, C M Park, J H Yoo, K Kim, S M Kim, C M Park, J H Yoo, K Kim, J H Yoo, K Kim, C M Park, S M Kim
Neurosurgery had been considered nearly impossible due to its technical difficulty and the danger to its special target organ, but with endoscopic methods, many such surgeries can be made safely through the nose. Endoscopic neurosurgery is limited by available instruments, however, and there remain some areas of the human body inaccessible to standard surgical tools. To overcome some of these limitations, in this study we developed a simple mechanism that could form a high curvature in a narrow space. The end product is a finger-like mechanism consisting of five body parts and four joints...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222201/linkage-and-mapping-of-quantitative-trait-loci-associated-with-angular-leaf-spot-and-powdery-mildew-resistance-in-common-beans
#6
Denis Bassi, Boris Briñez, Juliana Santa Rosa, Paula Rodrigues Oblessuc, Caléo Panhoca de Almeida, Stella Maris Nucci, Larissa Chariel Domingos da Silva, Alisson Fernando Chiorato, Rosana Pereira Vianello, Luis Eduardo Aranha Camargo, Matthew Wohlgemuth Blair, Luciana Lasry Benchimol-Reis
Angular leaf spot (ALS) and powdery mildew (PWM) are two important fungi diseases causing significant yield losses in common beans. In this study, a new genetic linkage map was constructed using single sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in a segregating population derived from the AND 277 x SEA 5 cross, with 105 recombinant inbred lines. Phenotypic evaluations were performed in the greenhouse to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with resistance by means of the composite interval mapping analysis...
February 20, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100817/mechanical-sensitivity-and-the-dynamics-of-evolutionary-rate-shifts-in-biomechanical-systems
#7
Martha M Muñoz, Philip S L Anderson, S N Patek
The influence of biophysical relationships on rates of morphological evolution is a cornerstone of evolutionary theory. Mechanical sensitivity-the correlation strength between mechanical output and the system's underlying morphological components-is thought to impact the evolutionary dynamics of form-function relationships, yet has rarely been examined. Here, we compare the evolutionary rates of the mechanical components of the four-bar linkage system in the raptorial appendage of mantis shrimp (Order Stomatopoda)...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904090/effect-of-bidirectional-loading-on-contact-and-force-characteristics-under-a-newly-developed-masticatory-simulator-with-a-dual-direction-loading-system
#8
Weerachai Singhatanadgit, Puttiporn Junkaew, Pairod Singhatanadgid
Mechanical responses of the test specimen under bidirectional and unidirectional loading were investigated using a newly developed masticatory simulator. The simulator adopted a four-bar linkage mechanism to create both loading patterns. Scratch/occlusal contact characteristics, contact force profiles and the fracture of restored tooth samples were investigated. With bidirectional loading, which imitates the nature of human chewing cycle closer than the unidirectional loading does, the occlusal contact was ovoid in shape whereas a small circular area was observed from the test with unidirectional loading...
2016: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900147/complex-shoulder-girdle-injuries-following-mountain-bike-accidents-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#9
Matthew Alexander Lea, Navnit Makaram, Makaram S Srinivasan
BACKGROUND: Mountain and road bike accidents are particularly common with the increased popularity of the sport. We reviewed the attendances in our emergency department over a 4-year period looking at cycling injuries to detect the level and grade of these injuries and their outcomes. METHOD: Royal Blackburn Hospital caters for a population of 550 000. A search through the Hospital information system revealed 104 patients with fractures following mountain bike injuries...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577864/linkage-mechanisms-in-the-vertebrate-skull-structure-and-function-of-three-dimensional-parallel-transmission-systems
#10
Aaron M Olsen, Mark W Westneat
Many musculoskeletal systems, including the skulls of birds, fishes, and some lizards consist of interconnected chains of mobile skeletal elements, analogous to linkage mechanisms used in engineering. Biomechanical studies have applied linkage models to a diversity of musculoskeletal systems, with previous applications primarily focusing on two-dimensional linkage geometries, bilaterally symmetrical pairs of planar linkages, or single four-bar linkages. Here, we present new, three-dimensional (3D), parallel linkage models of the skulls of birds and fishes and use these models (available as free kinematic simulation software), to investigate structure-function relationships in these systems...
December 2016: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26959027/online-kinematic-and-dynamic-state-estimation-for-constrained-multibody-systems-based-on-imus
#11
José Luis Torres-Moreno, José Luis Blanco-Claraco, Antonio Giménez-Fernández, Emilio Sanjurjo, Miguel Ángel Naya
This article addresses the problems of online estimations of kinematic and dynamic states of a mechanism from a sequence of noisy measurements. In particular, we focus on a planar four-bar linkage equipped with inertial measurement units (IMUs). Firstly, we describe how the position, velocity, and acceleration of all parts of the mechanism can be derived from IMU signals by means of multibody kinematics. Next, we propose the novel idea of integrating the generic multibody dynamic equations into two variants of Kalman filtering, i...
2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26862572/data-for-constructing-insect-genome-content-matrices-for-phylogenetic-analysis-and-functional-annotation
#12
Jeffrey Rosenfeld, Jonathan Foox, Rob DeSalle
Twenty one fully sequenced and well annotated insect genomes were used to construct genome content matrices for phylogenetic analysis and functional annotation of insect genomes. To examine the role of e-value cutoff in ortholog determination we used scaled e-value cutoffs and a single linkage clustering approach.. The present communication includes (1) a list of the genomes used to construct the genome content phylogenetic matrices, (2) a nexus file with the data matrices used in phylogenetic analysis, (3) a nexus file with the Newick trees generated by phylogenetic analysis, (4) an excel file listing the Core (CORE) genes and Unique (UNI) genes found in five insect groups, and (5) a figure showing a plot of consistency index (CI) versus percent of unannotated genes that are apomorphies in the data set for gene losses and gains and bar plots of gains and losses for four consistency index (CI) cutoffs...
March 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26736795/design-and-analysis-of-an-underactuated-anthropomorphic-finger-for-upper-limb-prosthetics
#13
Nurdos Omarkulov, Kuat Telegenov, Maralbek Zeinullin, Ainur Begalinova, Almas Shintemirov
This paper presents the design of a linkage based finger mechanism ensuring extended range of anthropomorphic gripping motions. The finger design is done using a path-point generation method based on geometrical dimensions and motion of a typical index human finger. Following the design description, and its kinematics analysis, the experimental evaluation of the finger gripping performance is presented using the finger 3D printed prototype. The finger underactuation is achieved by utilizing mechanical linkage system, consisting of two crossed four-bar linkage mechanisms...
2015: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26506255/effect-of-lower-limb-joint-models-on-subject-specific-musculoskeletal-models-and-simulations-of-daily-motor-activities
#14
Giordano Valente, Lorenzo Pitto, Rita Stagni, Fulvia Taddei
Understanding the validity of using musculoskeletal models is critical, making important to assess how model parameters affect predictions. In particular, assumptions on joint models can affect predictions from simulations of movement, and the identification of image-based joints is unavoidably affected by uncertainty that can decrease the benefits of increasing model complexity. We evaluated the effect of different lower-limb joint models on muscle and joint contact forces during four motor tasks, and assessed the sensitivity to the uncertainties in the identification of anatomical four-bar-linkage joints...
December 16, 2015: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26444810/development-of-the-rgb-leds-color-mixing-mechanism-for-stability-the-color-temperature-at-different-projection-distances
#15
Chih-Ching Hung
In lighting application, the color mixing of the RGB LEDs can provide more color selection in correlated color temperature and color rendering. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose a RGB color mixing mechanism by applying the mechanism design. Three sets of lamp-type RGB LEDs are individually installed on three four-bar linkages. A crank is used to drive three groups of RGB LEDs lamp-type to project lights onto a single plane in order to mix the lights. And, simulations of the illuminance and associated color temperatures are conducted by changing the distance to the projection plane, under the assumption that the stability of the color temperature of the projected light does not change according to the projecting height...
2015: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26429469/a-novel-voice-coil-motor-driven-compliant-micropositioning-stage-based-on-flexure-mechanism
#16
Jiangkun Shang, Yanling Tian, Zheng Li, Fujun Wang, Kunhai Cai
This paper presents a 2-degrees of freedom flexure-based micropositioning stage with a flexible decoupling mechanism. The stage is composed of an upper planar stage and four vertical support links to improve the out-of-plane stiffness. The moving platform is driven by two voice coil motors, and thus it has the capability of large working stroke. The upper stage is connected with the base through six double parallel four-bar linkages mechanisms, which are orthogonally arranged to implement the motion decoupling in the x and y directions...
September 2015: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26230087/in-vivo-measurement-of-mesokinesis-in-gekko-gecko-the-role-of-cranial-kinesis-during-gape-display-feeding-and-biting
#17
Stéphane J Montuelle, Susan H Williams
Cranial kinesis refers to movements of skeletal sub-units relative to one another at mobile sutures within the skull. The presence and functional significance of cranial kinesis has been investigated in various vertebrates, with much of our understanding coming from comparative studies and manipulation of ligamentous specimens. Drawing on these studies, cranial kinesis in lizards has been modeled as a four-bar linkage system involving streptostyly (rotation of the quadrate), hypokinesis (dorsoventral flexion and extension of the palato-maxillary sub-unit), mesokinesis (dorsoventral flexion and extension of the snout at the fronto-parietal suture) and metakinesis (sliding movements between parietal and supraocciptal bones)...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26100865/individual-olfactory-perception-reveals-meaningful-nonolfactory-genetic-information
#18
Lavi Secundo, Kobi Snitz, Kineret Weissler, Liron Pinchover, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Ron Loewenthal, Nancy Agmon-Levin, Idan Frumin, Dana Bar-Zvi, Sagit Shushan, Noam Sobel
Each person expresses a potentially unique subset of ∼ 400 different olfactory receptor subtypes. Given that the receptors we express partially determine the odors we smell, it follows that each person may have a unique nose; to capture this, we devised a sensitive test of olfactory perception we termed the "olfactory fingerprint." Olfactory fingerprints relied on matrices of perceived odorant similarity derived from descriptors applied to the odorants. We initially fingerprinted 89 individuals using 28 odors and 54 descriptors...
July 14, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25972567/reevaluating-musculoskeletal-linkages-in-suction-feeding-fishes-with-x-ray-reconstruction-of-moving-morphology-xromm
#19
Ariel L Camp, Elizabeth L Brainerd
Suction-feeding fishes encompass a vast diversity of morphologies and ecologies, but during feeding they all rely on musculoskeletal linkages and levers to transform the shortening of muscle into 3D expansion of the mouth cavity. To relate the shape of these skeletal elements to their function in expansion of the mouth, four-bar linkage models have been developed and widely used in studies of ecology, evolution, and development. However, we have lacked the ability to test the predictions of these 2D linkage models against the actual 3D motions of fishes' skulls...
July 2015: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25716791/mechanical-sensitivity-reveals-evolutionary-dynamics-of-mechanical-systems
#20
P S L Anderson, S N Patek
A classic question in evolutionary biology is how form-function relationships promote or limit diversification. Mechanical metrics, such as kinematic transmission (KT) in linkage systems, are useful tools for examining the evolution of form and function in a comparative context. The convergence of disparate systems on equivalent metric values (mechanical equivalence) has been highlighted as a source of potential morphological diversity under the assumption that morphology can evolve with minimal impact on function...
April 7, 2015: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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