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Feeding Kinematics

W Cyrus Clemo, Kelly M Dorgan
Polychaetes exhibit diverse feeding strategies and diets, with some species possessing hardened teeth or jaws of varying complexity. Species in the order Eunicida have complex, rigid, articulated jaws consisting of multiple pairs of maxillae and a pair of mandibles. While all Eunicida possess this general jaw structure, several characteristics of the jaws vary considerably among families. These differences, described for fossilized and extant species' jaws, have been used to infer evolutionary relationships...
December 2017: Biological Bulletin
Corrine Jacobs, Roi Holzman
Suction feeding is a widespread prey capture strategy among aquatic vertebrates. It is almost omnipresent across fishes, and has repeatedly evolved in other aquatic vertebrates. By rapidly expanding the mouth cavity, suction-feeders generate a fluid flow outside of their mouth, drawing prey inside. Fish and other suction feeding organisms display remarkable trophic diversity, echoed in the diversity of their skull and mouth morphologies. Yet, it is unclear how variable suction flows are across species, and whether variation in suction flows supports trophic diversity...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Huapan Xiao, Zhi Chen, Hairong Wang, Jiuhong Wang, Nan Zhu
Based on micro-indentation mechanics and kinematics of grinding processes, theoretical formulas are deduced to calculate surface roughness (SR) and subsurface damage (SSD) depth. The SRs and SSD depths of a series of fused silica samples, which are prepared under different grinding parameters, are measured. By experimental and theoretical analysis, the relationship between SR and SSD depth is discussed. The effect of grinding parameters on SR and SSD depth is investigated quantitatively. The results show that SR and SSD depth decrease with the increase of wheel speed or the decrease of feed speed as well as cutting depth...
February 19, 2018: Optics Express
Giovanni Costantini, Daniele Casali, Fabio Paolizzo, Marco Alessandrini, Alessandro Micarelli, Andrea Viziano, Giovanni Saggio
Human maintain their body balance by sensorimotor controls mainly based on information gathered from vision, proprioception and vestibular systems. When there is a lack of information, caused by pathologies, diseases or aging, the subject may fall. In this context, we developed a system to augment information gathering, providing the subject with warning audio-feedback signals related to his/her equilibrium. The system comprises an inertial measurement unit (IMU), a data processing unit, a headphone audio device and a software application...
February 10, 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
Jenni M Karl, Jessica R Kuntz, Layne A Lenhart, Ian Q Whishaw
Prehension, the act of reaching to grasp an object, is central to the human experience. We use it to feed ourselves, groom ourselves, and manipulate objects and tools in our environment. Such behaviors are impaired by many sensorimotor disorders, yet our current understanding of their neural control is far from complete. Current technologies for investigating human reach-to-grasp movements often utilize motion tracking systems that can be expensive, require the attachment of markers or sensors to the hands, impede natural movement and sensory feedback, and provide kinematic output that can be difficult to interpret...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Aaron M Olsen, Ariel L Camp, Elizabeth L Brainerd
The planar, one degree of freedom (1-DoF) four-bar linkage is an important model for understanding the function, performance and evolution of numerous biomechanical systems. One such system is the opercular mechanism in fishes, which is thought to function like a four-bar linkage to depress the lower jaw. While anatomical and behavioral observations suggest some form of mechanical coupling, previous attempts to model the opercular mechanism as a planar four-bar have consistently produced poor model fits relative to observed kinematics...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Lori L Timm-Davis, Randall W Davis, Christopher D Marshall
Sea otters represent an interesting model for studies of mammalian feeding evolution. Although they are marine mammals, sea otters returned to the sea relatively recently and feed at the surface. Therefore, they represent a transitional stage of aquatic adaptation. Currently no feeding performance studies of sea otters have been conducted. The main objective of this study was to characterize the feeding kinematic profile in sea otters. It was hypothesized that sea otters would exhibit a terrestrial feeding behavior and that they forcefully crush hard prey at large gapes...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Filiz Bunyak, Naru Shiraishi, Kannappan Palaniappan, Teresa E Lever, Limor Avivi-Arber, Kazutaka Takahashi
Feeding is a highly complex, essential behavior for survival in all species. Characterization of feeding behaviors has implications in basic science and translational medicine. We have been developing methods to study feeding behaviors using high speed videofluoroscopy (XROMM) in rats while self-feeding radiopaque flavored kibble. The rat is a popular model in translational medicine; however, it has not been studied using this methodology. Towards this goal, we surgically implanted radiopaque fiducial markers into the skull, mandible, and tongue of rats to enable motion tracking...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Grant E Haines, S Laurie Sanderson
Ram suspension-feeding fishes swim with an open mouth to force water through the oral cavity and extract prey items that are too small to be pursued individually. Recent research has indicated that, rather than using a dead-end mechanical sieve, American paddlefish ( Polyodon spathula ) employ vortical cross-step filtration. In this filtration mechanism, vortical flow that is generated posterior to the branchial arches organizes crossflow filtration processes into a spatial structure across the gill rakers...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Pedro Gómez-Vilda, Jiri Mekyska, José M Ferrández, Daniel Palacios-Alonso, Andrés Gómez-Rodellar, Victoria Rodellar-Biarge, Zoltan Galaz, Zdenek Smekal, Ilona Eliasova, Milena Kostalova, Irena Rektorova
Aim: The research described is intended to give a description of articulation dynamics as a correlate of the kinematic behavior of the jaw-tongue biomechanical system, encoded as a probability distribution of an absolute joint velocity. This distribution may be used in detecting and grading speech from patients affected by neurodegenerative illnesses, as Parkinson Disease. Hypothesis: The work hypothesis is that the probability density function of the absolute joint velocity includes information on the stability of phonation when applied to sustained vowels, as well as on fluency if applied to connected speech...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Sarah McMenamin, Casey Carter, Wiliam James Cooper
The physical demands for swimming and feeding change dramatically over the course of development for many aquatic animals. Indeed, in teleosts, the transition from larva to adult involves major shifts in both trophic morphology and feeding behavior. A spike in thyroid hormone (TH) coordinates many developmental processes that occur during this adult transition in numerous vertebrate species. Using mutant and transgenic zebrafish, we tested the hypothesis that TH is essential for the transition from larval to adult feeding kinematic profiles...
December 2017: Zebrafish
Charlotte M Stinson, Stephen M Deban
During aquatic feeding salamanders use the hyobranchial apparatus to capture prey. The hyobranchial apparatus depresses the floor of the mouth, effectively expanding the oropharyngeal cavity and generating suction. Within the family Salamandridae, there is a wide range of ecological diversity, with salamanders being terrestrial, semi-aquatic, or aquatic as adults. The purpose of this research was to quantify the diverse morphology and suction feeding performance of aquatically feeding salamandrids. We hypothesized that a more robust hyobranchial apparatus morphology would yield increased aquatic feeding performance...
December 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Myra F Laird
OBJECTIVES: This study tested hypotheses relating intraspecific variation in occlusal morphology and intraspecific variation in jaw movements during feeding. Gape cycle kinematic variation was hypothesized to correlate with gape cycle number within a chewing sequence as well as with food toughness and stiffness. Gape cycle kinematic variation was also hypothesized to correlate with variation in occlusal area, slope, and volume. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Twenty-six adult human subjects chewed four foods with varying material properties while their jaw movements were recorded using three-dimensional coordinates of facial markers captured with a Vicon camera system...
November 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Jason B Ramsay, Cheryl D Wilga
Suction feeding in teleost fish is a power dependant behavior, requiring rapid and forceful expansion of the orobranchial cavity by the hypobranchial and trunk muscles. To increase power production for expansion, many species employ in-series tendons and catch mechanisms to store and release elastic strain energy. Suction feeding sharks such as Chiloscyllium plagiosum lack large in-series tendons on the hypobranchials, yet two of the hypobranchials, the coracohyoideus and coracoarcualis (CH, CA; hyoid depressors), are arranged in-series, and run deep and parallel to a third muscle, the coracomandibularis (CM, jaw depressor)...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Ann N Allen, Jeremy A Goldbogen, Ari S Friedlaender, John Calambokidis
The introduction of animal-borne, multisensor tags has opened up many opportunities for ecological research, making previously inaccessible species and behaviors observable. The advancement of tag technology and the increasingly widespread use of bio-logging tags are leading to large volumes of sometimes extremely detailed data. With the increasing quantity and duration of tag deployments, a set of tools needs to be developed to aid in facilitating and standardizing the analysis of movement sensor data. Here, we developed an observation-based decision tree method to detect feeding events in data from multisensor movement tags attached to fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus)...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Ariel L Camp, Bradley Scott, Elizabeth L Brainerd, Cheryl D Wilga
Positioned at the intersection of the head, body and forelimb, the pectoral girdle has the potential to function in both feeding and locomotor behaviours-although the latter has been studied far more. In ray-finned fishes, the pectoral girdle attaches directly to the skull and is retracted during suction feeding, enabling the ventral body muscles to power rapid mouth expansion. However, in sharks, the pectoral girdle is displaced caudally and entirely separate from the skull (as in tetrapods), raising the question of whether it is mobile during suction feeding and contributing to suction expansion...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
T R Dial, L P Hernandez, E L Brainerd
Large size of individual offspring is routinely selected for in highly competitive environments, such as in low-predation populations of the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Large guppy offspring outcompete their smaller conspecifics, but the functional mechanisms underlying this advantage are unknown. We measured jaw kinematics during benthic feeding and cranial musculoskeletal morphologies in neonates and juveniles from five populations of Trinidadian guppy and found that both kinematics and morphologies vary substantially with neonatal size...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
David G Matthews, R Craig Albertson
The relationship between morphology and performance is complex, but important for understanding the adaptive nature of morphological variation. Recent studies have sought to better understand this system by illuminating the interconnectedness of different functional systems; however, the role of genetics is often overlooked. In this study, we attempt to gain insights into this relationship by examining the effect of genotypic variation at putative craniofacial loci on the relationship between morphology and feeding performance in cichlids...
August 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Yuki Nakamura, Jose Iriarte-Diaz, Fritzie Arce-McShane, Courtney P Orsbon, Kevin A Brown, McKenna Eastment, Limor Avivi-Arber, Barry J Sessle, Makoto Inoue, Nicholas G Hatsopoulos, Callum F Ross, Kazutaka Takahashi
Studies of mechanisms of feeding behavior are important in a society where aging- and disease-related feeding disorders are increasingly prevalent. It is important to evaluate the clinical relevance of animal models of the disease and the control. Our present study quantifies macaque hyolingual and jaw kinematics around swallowing cycles to determine the extent to which macaque swallowing resembles that of humans. One female and one male adult Macaca mulatta were trained to feed in a primate chair. Videofluoroscopy was used to record kinematics in a sagittal view during natural feeding on solid food, and the kinematics of the hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage, mandibular jaw, and anterior-, middle-, and posterior-tongue...
May 20, 2017: Dysphagia
Vikram B Baliga, Ze'ev J Bernstein, Shivani Sundaram, Rita S Mehta
Cleaning, a dietary strategy in which ectoparasites or mucous are removed and consumed off other taxa, is performed facultatively or obligately in a variety of species. We explored whether species in the Labridae (wrasses, parrotfishes) of varying ecological specialization employ similar mechanisms of prey capture. In investigating feeding on attached prey among juveniles of 19 species of wrasses, we found that patterns of biting in wrasses are influenced by the interaction between the maxilla and a feature of the premaxilla which we term the maxillary crest...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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