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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173760/grandparental-immune-priming-in-the-pipefish-syngnathus-typhle
#1
Anne Beemelmanns, Olivia Roth
BACKGROUND: Phenotypic changes in response to environmental influences can persist from one generation into the next. In many systems parental parasite experience influences offspring immune responses, known as transgenerational immune priming (TGIP). TGIP in vertebrates is mainly maternal and short-term, supporting the adaptive immune system of the offspring during its maturation. However, if fathers and offspring have a close physical connection, evolution of additional paternal immune priming can be adaptive...
February 7, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129724/identification-of-traditional-chinese-medicinal-pipefish-and-exclusion-of-common-adulterants-by-multiplex-pcr-based-on-12s-sequences-of-specific-alleles
#2
Linhui Gao, Yan Yin, Jia Li, Yuan Yuan, Chao Jiang, Wei Gao, Xianan Zhang, Luqi Huang
We aimed to establish a rapid and accurate allele-specific diagnostic Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method for medicinal pipefish. To achieve this, pipefish genomic DNA was extracted, sequenced bi-directionally, and the data were analyzed. On this basis, specific identification primers were designed and a facile multiplex PCR system was established and optimized. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the six species of pipefish were strictly clustered in separate single branches. The reaction was optimized for ease of application, to be used in a reaction volume of 20 μL with template DNA amounts in the range of 5-100 ng, and an annealing temperature from 43 to 55 °C...
January 27, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107778/parabolic-variation-in-sexual-selection-intensity-across-the-range-of-a%C3%A2-cold-water-pipefish-implications-for-susceptibility-to-climate-change
#3
Nuno Monteiro, Mário Cunha, Lídia Ferreira, Natividade Vieira, Agostinho Antunes, David Lyons, Adam G Jones
While an understanding of evolutionary processes in shifting environments is vital in the context of rapid ecological change, one of the most potent selective forces, sexual selection, remains curiously unexplored. Variation in sexual selection across a species range, especially across a gradient of temperature regimes, has the potential to provide a window into the possible impacts of climate change on the evolution of mating patterns. Here, we investigated some of the links between temperature and indicators of sexual selection, using a cold-water pipefish as model...
January 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067418/genome-wide-selection-components-analysis-in-a-fish-with-male-pregnancy
#4
Sarah P Flanagan, Adam G Jones
A major goal of evolutionary biology is to identify the genome-level targets of natural and sexual selection. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, whole-genome selection components analysis provides a promising avenue in the search for loci affected by selection in nature. Here, we implement a genome-wide selection components analysis in the sex role reversed Gulf pipefish, Syngnathus scovelli. Our approach involves a double-digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq) technique, applied to adult females, nonpregnant males, pregnant males, and their offspring...
January 9, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993155/the-genome-of-the-gulf-pipefish-enables-understanding-of-evolutionary-innovations
#5
C M Small, S Bassham, J Catchen, A Amores, A M Fuiten, R S Brown, A G Jones, W A Cresko
BACKGROUND: Evolutionary origins of derived morphologies ultimately stem from changes in protein structure, gene regulation, and gene content. A well-assembled, annotated reference genome is a central resource for pursuing these molecular phenomena underlying phenotypic evolution. We explored the genome of the Gulf pipefish (Syngnathus scovelli), which belongs to family Syngnathidae (pipefishes, seahorses, and seadragons). These fishes have dramatically derived bodies and a remarkable novelty among vertebrates, the male brood pouch...
December 20, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989632/molecular-phylogeny-and-patterns-of-diversification-in-syngnathid-fishes
#6
Healy Hamilton, Norah Saarman, Graham Short, Anna B Sellas, Beth Moore, Tinya Hoang, Christopher L Grace, Martin Gomon, Karen Crow, W Brian Simison
The family Syngnathidae is a large and diverse clade of morphologically unique bony fishes, with 57 genera and 300 described species of seahorses, pipefishes, pipehorses, and seadragons. They primarily inhabit shallow coastal waters in temperate and tropical oceans, and are characterized by a fused jaw, male brooding, and extraordinary crypsis. Phylogenetic relationships within the Syngnathidae remain poorly resolved due to lack of generic taxon sampling, few diagnostic morphological characters, and limited molecular data...
October 29, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894827/prehensile-and-non-prehensile-tails-among-syngnathid-fishes-what-s-the-difference
#7
Céline Neutens, Bart de Dobbelaer, Peter Claes, Dominique Adriaens
All syngnathid fishes are characterized by a tail with a vertebral column that is surrounded by dermal Plates - four per vertebra. Seahorses and pipehorses have prehensile tails, a unique characteristic among teleosts that allows them to grasp and hold onto substrates. Pipefishes, in contrast, possess a more rigid tail. Previous research (Neutens et al., 2014) showed a wide range of variation within the skeletal morphology of different members in the syngnathid family. The goal of this study is to explore whether the diversity in the three-dimensional (3D) shape of different tail types reflects grasping performance, and to what degree grasping tails occupy a different and more constrained diversity...
November 18, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864914/the-lek-mating-system-of-the-worm-pipefish-nerophis-lumbriciformis-a-molecular-maternity-analysis-and-test-of-the-phenotype-linked-fertility-hypothesis
#8
N M Monteiro, D Carneiro, A Antunes, N Queiroz, M N Vieira, A G Jones
The origin and maintenance of mating preferences continues to be an important and controversial topic in sexual selection research. Leks and lek-like mating systems, where individuals gather in particular spots for the sole purpose of mate choice, are particularly puzzling, because the strong directional selection imposed by mate choice should erode genetic variation among competing individuals and negate any benefit for the choosing sex. Here, we take advantage of the lek-like mating system of the worm pipefish (Nerophis lumbriciformis) to test the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis for the maintenance of mating preferences...
November 19, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777744/bacteria-type-specific-biparental-immune-priming-in-the-pipefish-syngnathus-typhle
#9
Anne Beemelmanns, Olivia Roth
The transfer of acquired and specific immunity against previously encountered bacteria from mothers to offspring boosts the immune response of the next generation and supports the development of a successful pathogen defense. While most studies claim that the transfer of immunity is a maternal trait, in the sex-role-reversed pipefish Syngnathus typhle, fathers nurse the embryos over a placenta-like structure, which opens the door for additional paternal immune priming. We examined the potential and persistence of bacteria-type-specific parental immune priming in the pipefish S...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748990/brain-size-evolution-in-pipefishes-and-seahorses-the-role-of-feeding-ecology-life-history-and-sexual-selection
#10
Masahito Tsuboi, Adam Chee Ooi Lim, Boon Leong Ooi, Mei Yee Yip, Ving Ching Chong, Ingrid Ahnesjö, Niclas Kolm
Brain size varies greatly at all taxonomic levels. Feeding ecology, life history and sexual selection have been proposed as key components in generating contemporary diversity in brain size across vertebrates. Analyses of brain size evolution have, however, been limited to lineages where males predominantly compete for mating and females choose mates. Here, we present the first original data set of brain sizes in pipefishes and seahorses (Syngnathidae) a group in which intense female mating competition occurs in many species...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702678/parental-care-improves-immunity-in-the-seahorse-hippocampus-erectus
#11
Tingting Lin, Dong Zhang, Xin Liu, Dongxue Xiao
In the present study, the sexual dimorphism in immune response in the seahorse Hippocampus erectus in which males compete for mates and invest heavily in parental care was assessed. Variability in immunocompetence in virginal seahorses with differing levels of sexual maturity (i.e., immaturity, early maturity and maturity) and with different mating statuses (i.e., virginal, experienced mating failure and experienced mating success) were analyzed by evaluating immune parameters in the plasma. Additionally, ultrastructural characteristics of the inner epithelium of the brood pouch were compared between males that had experienced mating failure and those that had succeeded...
November 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485274/population-genomics-reveals-multiple-drivers-of-population-differentiation-in-a-sex-role-reversed-pipefish
#12
Sarah P Flanagan, Emily Rose, Adam G Jones
A major goal of molecular ecology is to identify the causes of genetic and phenotypic differentiation among populations. Population genomics is suitably poised to tackle these key questions by diagnosing the evolutionary mechanisms driving divergence in nature. Here, we set out to investigate the evolutionary processes underlying population differentiation in the Gulf pipefish, Syngnathus scovelli. We sampled approximately 50 fish from each of 12 populations distributed from the Gulf coast of Texas to the Atlantic coast of Florida and performed restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing to identify SNPs throughout the genome...
October 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477613/biparental-immune-priming-in-the-pipefish-syngnathus-typhle
#13
Anne Beemelmanns, Olivia Roth
The transfer of immunity from parents to offspring (trans-generational immune priming (TGIP)) boosts offspring immune defence and parasite resistance. TGIP is usually a maternal trait. However, if fathers have a physical connection to their offspring, and if offspring are born in the paternal parasitic environment, evolution of paternal TGIP can become adaptive. In Syngnathus typhle, a sex-role reversed pipefish with male pregnancy, both parents invest into offspring immune defence. To connect TGIP with parental investment, we need to know how parents share the task of TGIP, whether TGIP is asymmetrically distributed between the parents, and how the maternal and paternal effects interact in case of biparental TGIP...
August 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27395538/g-j-billberg-s-1833-on-the-ichthyology-and-description-of-some-new-fish-species-of-the-pipefish-genus-syngnathus
#14
Sven O Kullander
Gustaf Johan Billberg's review of ichthyology, published in Swedish in 1833 in the Linnéska samfundets handlingar, mentions 92 fish taxa at genus and species level, 41 of which represent new taxa, unnecessary replacement names, or unjustified emendations. Billberg presents his own classification of fishes, in which five new family names are introduced: Ballistidae, Diodontidae, Ooididae, Chironectidae, and Macrorhyncidae. Diodontidae has priority over Diodontidae Bonaparte, 1835. Macrorhyncidae was published earlier than Gempylidae Gill, 1862, but the latter has priority by prevailing usage...
January 14, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27243937/costs-and-benefits-to-pregnant-male-pipefish-caring-for-broods-of-different-sizes
#15
Gry Sagebakken, Ingrid Ahnesjö, Charlotta Kvarnemo
Trade-offs between brood size and offspring size, offspring survival, parental condition or parental survival are classic assumptions in life history biology. A reduction in brood size may lessen these costs of care, but offspring mortality can also result in an energetic gain, if parents are able to utilize the nutrients from the demised young. Males of the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle) care for the offspring by brooding embryos in a brood pouch. Brooding males can absorb nutrients that emanate from embryos, and there is often a reduction in offspring number over the brooding period...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27231531/evolutionary-ecology-of-pipefish-brooding-structures-embryo-survival-and-growth-do-not-improve-with-a-pouch
#16
Ines Braga Goncalves, Ingrid Ahnesjö, Charlotta Kvarnemo
For animals that reproduce in water, many adaptations in life-history traits such as egg size, parental care, and behaviors that relate to embryo oxygenation are still poorly understood. In pipefishes, seahorses and seadragons, males care for the embryos either in some sort of brood pouch, or attached ventrally to the skin on their belly or tail. Typically, egg size is larger in the brood pouch group and it has been suggested that oxygen supplied via the pouch buffers the developing embryos against hypoxia and as such is an adaptation that has facilitated the evolution of larger eggs...
April 24, 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27005315/rapid-growth-and-short-life-spans-characterize-pipefish-populations-in-vulnerable-seagrass-beds
#17
K L Parkinson, D J Booth
The life-history traits of two species of pipefish (Syngnathidae) from seagrass meadows in New South Wales, Australia, were examined to understand whether they enhance resilience to habitat degradation. The spotted pipefish Stigmatopora argus and wide-bodied pipefish Stigmatopora nigra exhibit some of the shortest life spans known for vertebrates (longevity up to 150 days) and rapid maturity (male S. argus 35 days after hatching (DAH) and male S. nigra at 16-19 DAH), key characteristics of opportunistic species...
May 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26987447/an-evolutionary-insight-into-the-hatching-strategies-of-pipefish-and-seahorse-embryos
#18
Mari Kawaguchi, Yuko Nakano, Ryouka Kawahara-Miki, Mayu Inokuchi, Makiko Yorifuji, Ryohei Okubo, Tatsuki Nagasawa, Junya Hiroi, Tomohiro Kono, Toyoji Kaneko
Syngnathiform fishes carry their eggs in a brood structure found in males. The brood structure differs from species to species: seahorses carry eggs within enclosed brood pouch, messmate pipefish carry eggs in the semi-brood pouch, and alligator pipefish carry eggs in the egg compartment on abdomen. These egg protection strategies were established during syngnathiform evolution. In the present study, we compared the hatching mode of protected embryos of three species. Electron microscopic observations revealed that alligator pipefish and messmate pipefish egg envelopes were thicker than those of seahorses, suggesting that the seahorse produces a weaker envelope...
March 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26865955/within-species-support-for-the-expensive-tissue-hypothesis-a-negative-association-between-brain-size-and-visceral-fat-storage-in-females-of-the-pacific-seaweed-pipefish
#19
Masahito Tsuboi, Jun Shoji, Atsushi Sogabe, Ingrid Ahnesjö, Niclas Kolm
The brain is one of the most energetically expensive organs in the vertebrate body. Consequently, the high cost of brain development and maintenance is predicted to constrain adaptive brain size evolution (the expensive tissue hypothesis, ETH). Here, we test the ETH in a teleost fish with predominant female mating competition (reversed sex roles) and male pregnancy, the pacific seaweed pipefish Syngnathus schlegeli. The relative size of the brain and other energetically expensive organs (kidney, liver, heart, gut, visceral fat, and ovary/testis) was compared among three groups: pregnant males, nonpregnant males and egg producing females...
February 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26865072/a-low-rate-of-multiple-maternity-for-pregnant-male-northern-pipefish-syngnathus-fuscus
#20
K A Paczolt, W E Martin, N L Ratterman, A G Jones
Microsatellite parentage analysis was applied to 22 broods of the northern pipefish Syngnathus fuscus for the first time. The majority of males mated singly, 23% of males mated with two females, and no males mated with more than two females. The arrangement of embryos within the brood pouch of multiply mated males reflects a previously undocumented fill pattern where full-sib groups are segregated within the pouch by both right and left sides as well as anterior and posterior ends.
April 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
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