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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120082/substantial-differences-in-bias-between-single-digest-and-double-digest-rad-seq-libraries-a-case-study
#1
Sarah P Flanagan, Adam G Jones
The tradeoffs of using single-digest versus double-digest restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) protocols have been widely discussed. However, no direct empirical comparisons of the two methods have been conducted. Here, we sampled a single population of Gulf pipefish (Syngnathus scovelli) and genotyped 444 individuals using RAD-seq. Sixty individuals were subjected to single-digest RAD-seq (sdRAD-seq), and the remaining 384 individuals were genotyped using a double-digest RAD-seq (ddRAD-seq) protocol...
November 9, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958500/using-rna-seq-to-determine-patterns-of-sex-bias-in-gene-expression-in-the-brain-of-the-sex-role-reversed-gulf-pipefish-syngnathus-scovelli
#2
Andria P Beal, F Douglas Martin, Matthew C Hale
Sex-bias in gene expression is a widespread mechanism for controlling the development of phenotypes that differ between males and females. Most studies on sex-bias in gene expression have focused on species that exhibit traditional sex-roles (male-male competition and female parental care). By contrast the Syngnathid fishes (sea horses, pipefish, and sea dragons) are a group of organisms where many species exhibit male brooding and sex-role reversal (female-female competition for mates and paternal parental care), and little is known about how patterns of sex-bias in gene expression vary in species with sex-role reversal...
September 22, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515783/trans-generational-plasticity-in-response-to-immune-challenge-is-constrained-by-heat-stress
#3
Olivia Roth, Susanne H Landis
Trans-generational plasticity (TGP) is the adjustment of phenotypes to changing habitat conditions that persist longer than the individual lifetime. Fitness benefits (adaptive TGP) are expected upon matching parent-offspring environments. In a global change scenario, several performance-related environmental factors are changing simultaneously. This lowers the predictability of offspring environmental conditions, potentially hampering the benefits of TGP. For the first time, we here explore how the combination of an abiotic and a biotic environmental factor in the parental generation plays out as trans-generational effect in the offspring...
June 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450759/sex-in-murky-waters-algal-induced-turbidity-increases-sexual-selection-in-pipefish
#4
Josefin Sundin, Tonje Aronsen, Gunilla Rosenqvist, Anders Berglund
ABSTRACT: Algal-induced turbidity has been shown to alter several important aspects of reproduction and sexual selection. However, while turbidity has been shown to negatively affect reproduction and sexually selected traits in some species, it may instead enhance reproductive success in others, implying that the impact of eutrophication is far more complex than originally believed. In this study, we aimed to provide more insight into these inconsistent findings. We used molecular tools to investigate the impact of algal turbidity on reproductive success and sexual selection on males in controlled laboratory experiments, allowing mate choice, mating competition, and mate encounter rates to affect reproduction...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449243/pathologic-features-of-mycobacteriosis-in-naturally-infected-syngnathidae-and-novel-transcriptome-assembly-in-association-with-disease
#5
S B Fogelson, M D Fast, J Leary, A C Camus
Syngnathidae (seahorses, seadragons and pipefish) suffer significant losses from non-tuberculous mycobacteria. However, they produce markedly different lesions in response to the disease compared to other teleost species, notably infrequent granuloma formation. This study evaluated 270 syngnathid fish, from which 92 were diagnosed with mycobacteriosis by histopathology, culture or both. Microscopic lesions variably consisted of random foci of coagulative necrosis in multiple organs, containing high numbers of free bacteria and large aggregates or sheets of macrophages with cytoplasm laden with acid-fast bacilli...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399796/tripartite-species-interaction-eukaryotic-hosts-suffer-more-from-phage-susceptible-than-from-phage-resistant-bacteria
#6
Carolin C Wendling, Agnes Piecyk, Dominik Refardt, Cynthia Chibani, Robert Hertel, Heiko Liesegang, Boyke Bunk, Jörg Overmann, Olivia Roth
BACKGROUND: Evolutionary shifts in bacterial virulence are often associated with a third biological player, for instance temperate phages, that can act as hyperparasites. By integrating as prophages into the bacterial genome they can contribute accessory genes, which can enhance the fitness of their prokaryotic carrier (lysogenic conversion). Hyperparasitic influence in tripartite biotic interactions has so far been largely neglected in empirical host-parasite studies due to their inherent complexity...
April 11, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385628/application-of-stable-isotope-analysis-for-detecting-filial-cannibalism
#7
Atsushi Sogabe, Hideki Hamaoka, Atsushi Fukuta, Jun-Ya Shibata, Jun Shoji, Koji Omori
A novel type of filial cannibalism has been reported in pipefishes, in which the eggs are absorbed through the male's brood-pouch epithelium. The present study explored the applicability of stable isotope analysis for the detection of paternal brood cannibalism in the seaweed pipefish Syngnathus schlegeli. As expected, the δ(15)N values for liver, which conveys short-term dietary information about the recent reproductive season, were higher in males than in females. In contrast, the δ(15)N values for muscle, which reflects longer-term feeding habits that span both the reproductive and non-reproductive seasons, did not significantly differ between the sexes...
April 4, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264369/-i-syngnathus-i-i-chihiroe-i-a-new-species-of-pipefish-syngnathidae-from-southern-japan
#8
Mizuki Matsunuma
A new species of pipefish, Syngnathus chihiroe sp. nov., (Syngnathidae), is described on the basis of a single specimen collected off Yakushima Island (East China Sea), southern Japan in a depth of 160-162 m. The new species is readily distinguished from all congeners by the combination of the following characters: dorsal-fin rays 38, pectoral-fin rays 17, trunk rings 18, tail rings 40, subdorsal rings 3.25 + 10.0 = 13.25, head length 8.7 in standard length, snout length 2.3 in head length and snout depth 3...
February 16, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173760/grandparental-immune-priming-in-the-pipefish-syngnathus-typhle
#9
Anne Beemelmanns, Olivia Roth
BACKGROUND: Phenotypic changes in response to environmental influences can persist from one generation into the next. In many systems parental parasite experience influences offspring immune responses, known as transgenerational immune priming (TGIP). TGIP in vertebrates is mainly maternal and short-term, supporting the adaptive immune system of the offspring during its maturation. However, if fathers and offspring have a close physical connection, evolution of additional paternal immune priming can be adaptive...
February 7, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129724/identification-of-traditional-chinese-medicinal-pipefish-and-exclusion-of-common-adulterants-by-multiplex-pcr-based-on-12s-sequences-of-specific-alleles
#10
Linhui Gao, Yan Yin, Jia Li, Yuan Yuan, Chao Jiang, Wei Gao, Xianan Zhang, Luqi Huang
We aimed to establish a rapid and accurate allele-specific diagnostic Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method for medicinal pipefish. To achieve this, pipefish genomic DNA was extracted, sequenced bi-directionally, and the data were analyzed. On this basis, specific identification primers were designed and a facile multiplex PCR system was established and optimized. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the six species of pipefish were strictly clustered in separate single branches. The reaction was optimized for ease of application, to be used in a reaction volume of 20 μL with template DNA amounts in the range of 5-100 ng, and an annealing temperature from 43 to 55 °C...
January 27, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107778/parabolic-variation-in-sexual-selection-intensity-across-the-range-of-a-cold-water-pipefish-implications-for-susceptibility-to-climate-change
#11
Nuno Monteiro, Mário Cunha, Lídia Ferreira, Natividade Vieira, Agostinho Antunes, David Lyons, Adam G Jones
While an understanding of evolutionary processes in shifting environments is vital in the context of rapid ecological change, one of the most potent selective forces, sexual selection, remains curiously unexplored. Variation in sexual selection across a species range, especially across a gradient of temperature regimes, has the potential to provide a window into the possible impacts of climate change on the evolution of mating patterns. Here, we investigated some of the links between temperature and indicators of sexual selection, using a cold-water pipefish as model...
September 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067418/genome-wide-selection-components-analysis-in-a-fish-with-male-pregnancy
#12
Sarah P Flanagan, Adam G Jones
A major goal of evolutionary biology is to identify the genome-level targets of natural and sexual selection. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, whole-genome selection components analysis provides a promising avenue in the search for loci affected by selection in nature. Here, we implement a genome-wide selection components analysis in the sex role reversed Gulf pipefish, Syngnathus scovelli. Our approach involves a double-digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq) technique, applied to adult females, nonpregnant males, pregnant males, and their offspring...
April 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993155/the-genome-of-the-gulf-pipefish-enables-understanding-of-evolutionary-innovations
#13
C M Small, S Bassham, J Catchen, A Amores, A M Fuiten, R S Brown, A G Jones, W A Cresko
BACKGROUND: Evolutionary origins of derived morphologies ultimately stem from changes in protein structure, gene regulation, and gene content. A well-assembled, annotated reference genome is a central resource for pursuing these molecular phenomena underlying phenotypic evolution. We explored the genome of the Gulf pipefish (Syngnathus scovelli), which belongs to family Syngnathidae (pipefishes, seahorses, and seadragons). These fishes have dramatically derived bodies and a remarkable novelty among vertebrates, the male brood pouch...
December 20, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989632/molecular-phylogeny-and-patterns-of-diversification-in-syngnathid-fishes
#14
Healy Hamilton, Norah Saarman, Graham Short, Anna B Sellas, Beth Moore, Tinya Hoang, Christopher L Grace, Martin Gomon, Karen Crow, W Brian Simison
The family Syngnathidae is a large and diverse clade of morphologically unique bony fishes, with 57 genera and 300 described species of seahorses, pipefishes, pipehorses, and seadragons. They primarily inhabit shallow coastal waters in temperate and tropical oceans, and are characterized by a fused jaw, male brooding, and extraordinary crypsis. Phylogenetic relationships within the Syngnathidae remain poorly resolved due to lack of generic taxon sampling, few diagnostic morphological characters, and limited molecular data...
February 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894827/prehensile-and-non-prehensile-tails-among-syngnathid-fishes-what-s-the-difference
#15
Céline Neutens, Bart de Dobbelaer, Peter Claes, Dominique Adriaens
All syngnathid fishes are characterized by a tail with a vertebral column that is surrounded by dermal Plates - four per vertebra. Seahorses and pipehorses have prehensile tails, a unique characteristic among teleosts that allows them to grasp and hold onto substrates. Pipefishes, in contrast, possess a more rigid tail. Previous research (Neutens et al., 2014) showed a wide range of variation within the skeletal morphology of different members in the syngnathid family. The goal of this study is to explore whether the diversity in the three-dimensional (3D) shape of different tail types reflects grasping performance, and to what degree grasping tails occupy a different and more constrained diversity...
February 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864914/the-lek-mating-system-of-the-worm-pipefish-nerophis-lumbriciformis-a-molecular-maternity-analysis-and-test-of-the-phenotype-linked-fertility-hypothesis
#16
N M Monteiro, D Carneiro, A Antunes, N Queiroz, M N Vieira, A G Jones
The origin and maintenance of mating preferences continues to be an important and controversial topic in sexual selection research. Leks and lek-like mating systems, where individuals gather in particular spots for the sole purpose of mate choice, are particularly puzzling, because the strong directional selection imposed by mate choice should erode genetic variation among competing individuals and negate any benefit for the choosing sex. Here, we take advantage of the lek-like mating system of the worm pipefish (Nerophis lumbriciformis) to test the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis for the maintenance of mating preferences...
November 19, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777744/bacteria-type-specific-biparental-immune-priming-in-the-pipefish-syngnathus-typhle
#17
Anne Beemelmanns, Olivia Roth
The transfer of acquired and specific immunity against previously encountered bacteria from mothers to offspring boosts the immune response of the next generation and supports the development of a successful pathogen defense. While most studies claim that the transfer of immunity is a maternal trait, in the sex-role-reversed pipefish Syngnathus typhle, fathers nurse the embryos over a placenta-like structure, which opens the door for additional paternal immune priming. We examined the potential and persistence of bacteria-type-specific parental immune priming in the pipefish S...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748990/brain-size-evolution-in-pipefishes-and-seahorses-the-role-of-feeding-ecology-life-history-and-sexual-selection
#18
Masahito Tsuboi, Adam Chee Ooi Lim, Boon Leong Ooi, Mei Yee Yip, Ving Ching Chong, Ingrid Ahnesjö, Niclas Kolm
Brain size varies greatly at all taxonomic levels. Feeding ecology, life history and sexual selection have been proposed as key components in generating contemporary diversity in brain size across vertebrates. Analyses of brain size evolution have, however, been limited to lineages where males predominantly compete for mating and females choose mates. Here, we present the first original data set of brain sizes in pipefishes and seahorses (Syngnathidae) a group in which intense female mating competition occurs in many species...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702678/parental-care-improves-immunity-in-the-seahorse-hippocampus-erectus
#19
Tingting Lin, Dong Zhang, Xin Liu, Dongxue Xiao
In the present study, the sexual dimorphism in immune response in the seahorse Hippocampus erectus in which males compete for mates and invest heavily in parental care was assessed. Variability in immunocompetence in virginal seahorses with differing levels of sexual maturity (i.e., immaturity, early maturity and maturity) and with different mating statuses (i.e., virginal, experienced mating failure and experienced mating success) were analyzed by evaluating immune parameters in the plasma. Additionally, ultrastructural characteristics of the inner epithelium of the brood pouch were compared between males that had experienced mating failure and those that had succeeded...
November 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485274/population-genomics-reveals-multiple-drivers-of-population-differentiation-in-a-sex-role-reversed-pipefish
#20
Sarah P Flanagan, Emily Rose, Adam G Jones
A major goal of molecular ecology is to identify the causes of genetic and phenotypic differentiation among populations. Population genomics is suitably poised to tackle these key questions by diagnosing the evolutionary mechanisms driving divergence in nature. Here, we set out to investigate the evolutionary processes underlying population differentiation in the Gulf pipefish, Syngnathus scovelli. We sampled approximately 50 fish from each of 12 populations distributed from the Gulf coast of Texas to the Atlantic coast of Florida and performed restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing to identify SNPs throughout the genome...
October 2016: Molecular Ecology
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