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Yafei Liu, You Zhang, Chuang Li, Yun Bai, Daoming Zhang, Chunyu Xue, Guangqing Liu
Pollutant emissions from incomplete combustion of raw coal in low-efficiency residential heating stoves greatly contribute to winter haze in China. Semi-coke coals and improved heating stoves are expected to lower air pollutant emissions and are vigorously promoted by the Chinese government in many national and local plans. In this study, the thermal performance and air pollutant emissions from semi-coke combustion in improved heating stoves were measured in a pilot rural county and compared to the baseline of burning raw coal to quantify the mitigation potential of air pollutant emissions...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Lixia Guo, Xiaoju Wang, Liheng Feng
A blue emitter, 3,3'-(2,2'-dimethoxy-[1,1'-binaphthalene]-6,6'-diyl)bis(9-benzyl-9H-carbazole), was synthesized by Suzuki coupling reaction. The photophysical properties of the emitter in solution were firstly investigated by UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence emission techniques. The results indicate that the emitter has excellent optical and electron transfer properties. The maximum absorption and emission peaks of the emitter are 302 nm and 406 nm with 67.4% fluorescence quantum yield in chloroform, respectively...
May 10, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Arkadiusz Sołtysiak, Ewelina A Miśta-Jakubowska, Michał Dorosz, Tymoteusz Kosiński, Izabela Fijał-Kirejczyk
Thermal neutron radiography and X-ray radiography are characterised by different penetration depths in various materials, for example in collagen and hydroxyapatite, two major components of bone. Neutron radiography penetrates hydroxyapatite easier than collagen and, conversely, in X-ray radiography attenuation is higher in hydroxyapatite than in collagen. This effect allows estimation of collagen presence in dry bone. In our study we show that differences between the two imaging methods are sufficient to produce significant results when bone areas with higher and lower content of collagen are being compared...
March 30, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Xiaoxiao Zhu, Chunyan Li, Jianfa Li, Bin Xie, Jinhong Lü, Yimin Li
For the purpose of producing carbons with developed mesoporosity, a wood biochar was thermally treated at 600-800 °C in the air/nitrogen atmosphere. The mesopore development was observed when the air flux increased to 50-90 mL/min, and the carbon product having high mesopore surface area (316 m2 /g) and mesopore pore volume (0.284 cm3 /g) was produced at the treatment temperature of 700 °C. The mesopores were developed mainly in the temperature holding stage of thermal treatment, with size mainly ranged from 20 to 60 Å...
May 11, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Jiafeng Ding, Gaoyuan Long, Yang Luo, Runze Sun, Mengxia Chen, Yajun Li, Yanfang Zhou, Xinhua Xu, Weirong Zhao
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), as a group of notorious anthropogenic environmental toxicants, are arguably ubiquitous in nature. In this study, we investigated the photocatalytic reductive dechlorination of 2-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2-CDD) over Pd/g-C3 N4 catalysts under UV-vis irradiation. The g-C3 N4 and a series of Pd/g-C3 N4 catalysts were prepared by thermal polymerization and mechanical mixing-illumination method and characterized by XRD, TEM, BET, SEM and UV-vis DRS analyses. Among all the samples, the Pd/g-C3 N4 (5 wt%) yielded the optimal dechlorination activity with a total 2-CDD conversion of 54% within 4 h, and 76% of those converted 2-CDD were evolved to dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Han Eol Lee, JeHyuk Choi, Seung Hyun Lee, Minju Jeong, Jung Ho Shin, Daniel J Joe, DoHyun Kim, Chang Wan Kim, Jung Hwan Park, Jae Hee Lee, Daesoo Kim, Chan-Soo Shin, Keon Jae Lee
Flexible inorganic-based micro light-emitting diodes (µLEDs) are emerging as a significant technology for flexible displays, which is an important area for bilateral visual communication in the upcoming Internet of Things era. Conventional flexible lateral µLEDs have been investigated by several researchers, but still have significant issues of power consumption, thermal stability, lifetime, and light-extraction efficiency on plastics. Here, high-performance flexible vertical GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are demonstrated by silver nanowire networks and monolithic fabrication...
May 18, 2018: Advanced Materials
Peng Liu, Duanliang Zhou, Chunhai Zhang, Haoming Wei, Xinhe Yang, Yang Wu, Qingwei Li, Changhong Liu, Bingchu Du, Liang Liu, Kaili Jiang, Shoushan Fan
With the super aligned carbon nanotube (SACNT) film, we have fabricated crystalline multiwall CNT (MWCNT) by adopting a high pressure and high temperature processing. The CNTs keep parallel to each other and distributed uniformly. XRD characterization shows peaks at small angle range, which can be assigned to the spacing of MWCNT crystal. The mechanical, electrical and thermal properties are all greatly improved compared with the original CNT film. The field emission properties of crystalline MWCNT are tested and it shows a better surface morphology stability at large emission current...
May 18, 2018: Nanotechnology
M K Kavitha, Tushar Sakorikar, Pramitha V, Manu Jaiswal
Conventional graphene oxide is characterized by low sp<sup>2</sup> content in a sp<sup>3</sup> rich matrix, which is responsible both for electrical insulation and water super-permeation. Upon reduction, electrical conduction is achieved at the expense of water permeation ability. Here, we demonstrate that charge conduction and water permeation can be simultaneously restricted in a functionalized form of graphene oxide. Gravimetric studies reveal that diffusion of water vapour through glassy polymer membranes is arrested by loading hydrophobic form of GO in the polymer matrix, even as such water inhibition cannot be realized by substantially increasing the thickness of the bare polymer...
May 18, 2018: Nanotechnology
Dana L Armstrong, Clifford P Rice, Mark Ramirez, Alba Torrents
The fate of four phthalate plasticizers during wastewater treatment processes at six different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) was investigated. Concentrations of benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), and diisodecyl phthalate (DiDP) were determined prior to either aerobic or anaerobic (conventional and advanced) treatment, after treatment, and in final, dewatered solids. Despite their elevated use worldwide, the fate of DiNP and DiDP during wastewater treatment have not been well characterized...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Hiie Hinrikus, Maie Bachmann, Jaanus Lass
PURPOSE: This topic review aims to explain the mechanism of low-level microwave radiation effect based on published research results. The review presents the analysis of theoretical and experimental results comprising underlying physics and derived biological-physiological consequences supported by experimental data. CONCLUSIONS: The rotation of dipolar molecules causes polarization of dielectric medium and restructuring of hydrogen bonds between these molecules...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Kaiwen Tian, David L Goldsby, Robert W Carpick
Rate and state friction (RSF) laws are widely used empirical relationships that describe macroscale to microscale frictional behavior. They entail a linear combination of the direct effect (the increase of friction with sliding velocity due to the reduced influence of thermal excitations) and the evolution effect (the change in friction with changes in contact "state," such as the real contact area or the degree of interfacial chemical bonds). Recent atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments and simulations found that nanoscale single-asperity amorphous silica-silica contacts exhibit logarithmic aging (increasing friction with time) over several decades of contact time, due to the formation of interfacial chemical bonds...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Masahiro Hotta, Yasusada Nambu, Koji Yamaguchi
We propose a model with multiple qubits that reproduces the thermal properties of four-dimensional Schwarzschild black holes (BHs) by simultaneously taking account of the emission of Hawking particles and the zero-energy soft-hair evaporation at the horizon. The results verify that the entanglement entropy between a qubit and other subsystems, including emitted radiation, is much larger than the BH entropy analogue of the qubit, as opposed to the Page curve prediction. Our result suggests that early Hawking radiation is entangled with soft hair and that late Hawking radiation can be highly entangled with the degrees of freedom of a BH, avoiding the emergence of a firewall at the horizon...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Yuan Huang, Xiao Wang, Xu Zhang, Xianjue Chen, Baowen Li, Bin Wang, Ming Huang, Chongyang Zhu, Xuewei Zhang, Wolfgang S Bacsa, Feng Ding, Rodney S Ruoff
Raman spectra of large graphene bubbles showed size-dependent oscillations in spectral intensity and frequency, which originate from optical standing waves formed in the vicinity of the graphene surface. At a high laser power, local heating can lead to oscillations in the Raman frequency and also create a temperature gradient in the bubble. Based on Raman data, the temperature distribution within the graphene bubble was calculated, and it is shown that the heating effect of the laser is reduced when moving from the center of a bubble to its edge...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Edward F Brown, Andrew Cumming, Farrukh J Fattoyev, C J Horowitz, Dany Page, Sanjay Reddy
We show that the neutron star in the transient system MXB 1659-29 has a core neutrino luminosity that substantially exceeds that of the modified Urca reactions (i.e., n+n→n+p+e^{-}+ν[over ¯]_{e} and inverse) and is consistent with the direct Urca (n→p+e^{-}+ν[over ¯]_{e} and inverse) reaction occurring in a small fraction of the core. Observations of the thermal relaxation of the neutron star crust following 2.5 yr of accretion allow us to measure the energy deposited into the core during accretion, which is then reradiated as neutrinos, and infer the core temperature...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Hyosub Kim, YeJe Park, Kyungtae Kim, H-S Sim, Jaewook Ahn
Dynamics of large complex systems, such as relaxation towards equilibrium in classical statistical mechanics, often obeys a master equation that captures essential information from the complexities. Here, we find that thermalization of an isolated many-body quantum state can be described by a master equation. We observe sudden quench dynamics of quantum Ising-like models implemented in our quantum simulator, defect-free single-atom tweezers in conjunction with Rydberg-atom interaction. Saturation of their local observables, a thermalization signature, obeys a master equation experimentally constructed by monitoring the occupation probabilities of prequench states and imposing the principle of the detailed balance...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Zheng-Xin Liu, B Normand
Motivated by recent experimental observations in α-RuCl_{3}, we study the K-Γ model on the honeycomb lattice in an external magnetic field. By a slave-particle representation and variational Monte Carlo calculations, we reproduce the phase transition from zigzag magnetic order to a field-induced disordered phase. The nature of this state depends crucially on the field orientation. For particular field directions in the honeycomb plane, we find a gapless Dirac spin liquid, in agreement with recent experiments on α-RuCl_{3}...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Gerald J Wang, Nicolas G Hadjiconstantinou
Molecular diffusion under nanoconfinement can differ significantly from diffusion in bulk fluids. Using molecular-dynamics simulations and molecular-mechanics arguments, we elucidate the effect of layering at the confining boundaries on the self-diffusion of a simple, single-phase, confined fluid. In particular, we show that anomalous diffusion due to layering is controlled by the degree of layering as quantified by the recently proposed Wall number (Wa), which compares the strength of the wall-fluid interaction to the thermal energy...
May 18, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Viktoriia A Saveleva, Li Wang, Detre Teschner, Travis E Jones, Aldo S Gago, K Andreas Friedrich, Spyridon Zafeiratos, Robert Schloegl, Elena R Savinova
Progress in the development of the proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis technology requires decreasing the anode overpotential, where the sluggish multistep oxygen evolution reaction (OER) occurs. This calls for the understanding of the nature of the active OER sites and reaction intermediates, which are still being debated. In this work, we apply synchrotron radiation - based near ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron and absorption spectroscopies under operando conditions in order to unveil the nature of the reaction intermediates and shed light on the OER mechanism on electrocatalysts most widely used in PEM electrolyzers - electrochemical and thermal iridium oxides...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Eric C Abenojar, Sameera Wickramasinghe, Minseon Ju, Sarika Uppaluri, Alison Klika, Jaiben George, Wael Barsoum, Salvatore J Frangiamore, Carlos A Higuera-Rueda, Anna Cristina S Samia
Bacterial biofilms are highly antibiotic resistant microbial cell associations that lead to chronic infections. Unlike free-floating planktonic bacterial cells, the biofilms are encapsulated in a hardly penetrable extracellular polymeric matrix and, thus, demand innovative approaches for treatment. Recent advancements on the development of gel-nanocomposite systems with tailored therapeutic properties provide promising routes to develop novel antimicrobial agents that can be designed to disrupt and completely eradicate preformed biofilms...
May 18, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Canlin Ou, Abhijeet Laxman Sangle, Anuja Datta, Qingshen Jing, Tommaso Busolo, Thomas Chalklen, Vijay Narayan, Sohini Kar-Narayan
Thermoelectric materials, capable of interconverting heat and electricity, are attractive for applications in thermal energy harvesting as a means to power wireless sensors, wearable devices and portable electronics. However, traditional inorganic thermoelectric materials pose significant challenges due to high cost, toxicity, scarcity, as well as brittleness particularly when it comes to applications requiring flexibility. Here, we investigate organic-inorganic nanocomposites that have been developed from bespoke inks which are printed via an aerosol jet printing method onto flexible substrates...
May 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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