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Gabriel Hundeshagen, Paul Wurzer, Abigail A Forbes, Charles D Voigt, Vanessa N Collins, Janos Cambiaso-Daniel, Celeste C Finnerty, David N Herndon, Ludwik K Branski
BACKGROUND: Multiple organ failure (MOF) is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in burned children. While various complications induced by electrical injuries have been described, the incidence and severity of single organ failure (SOF) and MOF associated with this type of injury are unknown. The study was undertaken to compare the incidence and severity of SOF and MOF as well as other complications between electrically and thermally burned children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2001 and 2016, 288 pediatric patients with electrical burns (EB; n = 96) or thermal burns (CTR; n = 192) were analyzed in this study...
May 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Saumya Nigam, Dhirendra Bahadur
In recent years, functional nanomaterials have found an appreciable place in the understanding and treatment of cancer. This work demonstrates the fabrication and characterization of a new class of cationic, biocompatible, peptide dendrimers, which were then used for stabilizing and functionalizing magnetite nanoparticles for combinatorial therapy of cancer. The synthesized peptide dendrimers have an edge over the widely used PAMAM dendrimers due to better biocompatibility and negligible cytotoxicity of their degradation products...
April 13, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Gehad G Mohamed, Maher M Hamed, Nadia G Zaki, Mohamed M Abdou, Marwa El-Badry Mohamed, Abanoub Mosaad Abdallah
A simple, accurate and fast spectrophotometric method for the quantitative determination of melatonin (ML) drug in its pure and pharmaceutical forms was developed based on the formation of its charge transfer complex with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) as an electron acceptor. The different conditions for this method were optimized accurately. The Lambert-Beer's law was found to be valid over the concentration range of 4-100μgmL(-1) ML. The solid form of the CT complex was structurally characterized by means of different spectral methods...
April 4, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Venkata R Sabbasani, Hyunjin Lee, Peipei Xie, Yuanzhi Xia, Daesung Lee
A facile thermal cyclization of ynamide-tethered 1,3,8-triynes to form 3,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-pyrano[3,4-c]pyridine skeleton is described. Although the mechanism of this unusual reaction is yet to be defined the formation of either a strained keteniminium or a biradical intermediate followed a 1,5-hydride or -hydrogen shift is tentatively proposed as the key elementary steps in the reaction sequence. Appropriate electronic activation at the carbon center donating a hydride or hydrogen is crucial for successful cyclization...
April 21, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Zhe Zhao, Shuqiang Li
Evolutionary biology has long been concerned with how changing environments affect and drive the spatiotemporal development of organisms. Coelotine spiders (Agelenidae: Coelotinae) are common species in the temperate and subtropical areas of the Northern Hemisphere. Their long evolutionary history and the extremely imbalanced distribution of species richness suggest that Eurasian environments, especially since the Cenozoic, are the drivers of their diversification. We use phylogenetics, molecular dating, ancestral area reconstructions, diversity, and ecological niche analyses to investigate the spatiotemporal evolution of 286 coelotine species from throughout the region...
April 20, 2017: Systematic Biology
Xueying C Li, Justin C Fay
Gene regulation is a ubiquitous mechanism by which organisms respond to their environment. While organisms are often found to be adapted to the environments they experience, the role of gene regulation in environmental adaptation is not often known. In this study, we examine divergence in cis-regulatory effects between two Saccharomyces species, S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum, that have substantially diverged in their thermal growth profile. We measured allele specific expression (ASE) in the species' hybrid at three temperatures, the highest of which is lethal to S...
April 14, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
Ellen Keenan, Georgina Gethin, Louisa Flynn, David Watterson, Gerard O'Connor
Infrared cameras are becoming increasingly popular in clinical applications as they allow fast, non-contact temperature measurements. As abnormal heat distribution can indicate illness, infrared cameras have been applied in the prediction, diagnosis and monitoring of conditions (Lahiri, Bagavathiappan, Jayakumar, & Philip, 2012). Current practices, however, often overlook the importance of emissivity when taking thermal measurements. The consensus is that human skin has an emissivity of 0.98 (Soerensen et al...
April 21, 2017: Physiological Measurement
Maria Fini, William J Tyler
Ultrasound (US) is widely known for its utility as a biomedical imaging modality. An abundance of evidence has recently accumulated showing that US is also useful for non-invasively modulating brain circuit activity. Through a series of studies discussed in this short review, it has recently become recognized that transcranial focused ultrasound can exert mechanical (non-thermal) bioeffects on neurons and cells to produce focal changes in the activity of brain circuits. In addition to highlighting scientific breakthroughs and observations that have driven the development of the field of ultrasonic neuromodulation, this study also provides a discussion of mechanisms of action underlying the ability of ultrasound to physically stimulate and modulate brain circuit activity...
April 21, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
Torsten Bringmann, Felix Kahlhoefer, Kai Schmidt-Hoberg, Parampreet Walia
Coupling dark matter to light new particles is an attractive way to combine thermal production with strong velocity-dependent self-interactions. Here we point out that in such models the dark matter annihilation rate is generically enhanced by the Sommerfeld effect, and we derive the resulting constraints from the cosmic microwave background and other indirect detection probes. For the frequently studied case of s-wave annihilation, these constraints exclude the entire parameter space where the self-interactions are large enough to address the small-scale problems of structure formation...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Yongbao Sun, Patrick Wen, Yoseob Yoon, Gangqiang Liu, Mark Steger, Loren N Pfeiffer, Ken West, David W Snoke, Keith A Nelson
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.016602.
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Terry Farrelly, Fernando G S L Brandão, Marcus Cramer
Thermal states are the bedrock of statistical physics. Nevertheless, when and how they actually arise in closed quantum systems is not fully understood. We consider this question for systems with local Hamiltonians on finite quantum lattices. In a first step, we show that states with exponentially decaying correlations equilibrate after a quantum quench. Then, we show that the equilibrium state is locally equivalent to a thermal state, provided that the free energy of the equilibrium state is sufficiently small and the thermal state has exponentially decaying correlations...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Haidong Zhang, Hanyu Liu, Kaya Wei, Oleksandr O Kurakevych, Yann Le Godec, Zhenxian Liu, Joshua Martin, Michael Guerrette, George S Nolas, Timothy A Strobel
Large-volume, phase-pure synthesis of BC8 silicon (Ia3[over ¯], cI16) has enabled bulk measurements of optical, electronic, and thermal properties. Unlike previous reports that conclude BC8-Si is semimetallic, we demonstrate that this phase is a direct band gap semiconductor with a very small energy gap and moderate carrier concentration and mobility at room temperature, based on far- and midinfrared optical spectroscopy, temperature-dependent electrical conductivity, Seebeck and heat capacity measurements...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Guillaume Michel, François Pétrélis, Stéphan Fauve
We investigate capillary wave turbulence at scales larger than the forcing one. At such scales, our measurements show that the surface waves dynamics is the one of a thermal equilibrium state in which the effective temperature is related to the injected power. We characterize this evolution with a scaling law and report the statistical properties of the large-scale surface elevation depending on this effective temperature.
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
I Rouse, S Willitsch
An ion in a radio frequency ion trap interacting with a buffer gas of ultracold neutral atoms is a driven dynamical system which has been found to develop a nonthermal energy distribution with a power law tail. The exact analytical form of this distribution is unknown, but has often been represented empirically by q-exponential (Tsallis) functions. Based on the concepts of superstatistics, we introduce a framework for the statistical mechanics of an ion trapped in an rf field subject to collisions with a buffer gas...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
K Sugii, M Shimozawa, D Watanabe, Y Suzuki, M Halim, M Kimata, Y Matsumoto, S Nakatsuji, M Yamashita
A distinct thermal Hall signal is observed in a quantum spin liquid candidate Ba_{3}CuSb_{2}O_{9}. The transverse thermal conductivity shows a power-law temperature dependence below 50 K, where a spin gap opens. We suggest that because of the very low longitudinal thermal conductivity and the thermal Hall signals, a phonon Hall effect is induced by strong phonon scattering of orphan Cu^{2+} spins formed in the random domains of the Cu^{2+}-Sb^{5+} dumbbells in Ba_{3}CuSb_{2}O_{9}.
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
D J Voneshen, H C Walker, K Refson, J P Goff
The suppression of transverse phonons by liquidlike diffusion in superionic conductors has been proposed as a means to dramatically reduce thermal conductivity in thermoelectric materials [H. Lui et al. Nat. Mater. 11, 422 (2012)NMAACR1476-112210.1038/nmat3273]. We have measured the ion transport and lattice dynamics in the original phonon-liquid electron-crystal Cu_{2}Se using neutron spectroscopy. We show that hopping time scales are too slow to significantly affect lattice vibrations and that the transverse phonons persist at all temperatures...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Ezequiel E Ferrero, Laura Foini, Thierry Giamarchi, Alejandro B Kolton, Alberto Rosso
In the presence of impurities, ferromagnetic and ferroelectric domain walls slide only above a finite external field. Close to this depinning threshold, they proceed by large and abrupt jumps called avalanches, while, at much smaller fields, these interfaces creep by thermal activation. In this Letter, we develop a novel numerical technique that captures the ultraslow creep regime over huge time scales. We point out the existence of activated events that involve collective reorganizations similar to avalanches, but, at variance with them, display correlated spatiotemporal patterns that resemble the complex sequence of aftershocks observed after a large earthquake...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Leonardo Banchi, Joaquín Fernández-Rossier, Cyrus F Hirjibehedin, Sougato Bose
The development of communication channels at the ultimate size limit of atomic scale physical dimensions will make the use of quantum entities an imperative. In this regime, quantum fluctuations naturally become prominent and are generally considered to be detrimental. Here, we show that for spin-based information processing, these fluctuations can be uniquely exploited to gate the flow of classical binary information across a magnetic chain in thermal equilibrium. Moreover, this information flow can be controlled with a modest external magnetic field that drives the system through different many-body quantum phases in which the orientation of the final spin does or does not reflect the orientation of the initial input...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Haizhen Jiang, Yunrong Chen, Bo Chen, Hui Xu, Wen Wan, Hongmei Deng, Kesen Ma, Shaoxiong Wu, Jian Hao
An efficient method for the synthesis of the thermally stable and pharmaceutically important gem-difluoromethylene azo compounds is developed. This protocol achieved gem-difluoromethylenation of the nitrogen center of arenediazonium salts through in situ generated benzo-1,3-diazolic difluoromethylene radical addition to arenediazonium salts under mild Ag-initiated conditions.
April 21, 2017: Organic Letters
Benjamin Schammé, Xavier Monnier, Nicolas Couvrat, Laurent Delbreilh, Valérie Dupray, Eric Dargent, Gérard Coquerel
In this article, we study the physicochemical transformations of crystalline Quinidine upon high-energy milling. The investigations have been achieved by classical, high performance and fast scanning calorimetry combined with broadband dielectric spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. As evolution of crystalline Quinidine with time of milling revealed a prominent sub-Tg cold-crystallization phenomenon, independent and complementary analytical techniques were implemented. Fast scanning calorimetry was performed for the first time on a milled pharmaceutical compound to postpone the crystallization event to higher temperatures...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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