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Monika Ferlitsch, Alan Moss, Cesare Hassan, Pradeep Bhandari, Jean-Marc Dumonceau, Gregorios Paspatis, Rodrigo Jover, Cord Langner, Maxime Bronzwaer, Kumanan Nalankilli, Paul Fockens, Rawi Hazzan, Ian M Gralnek, Michael Gschwantler, Elisabeth Waldmann, Philip Jeschek, Daniela Penz, Denis Heresbach, Leon Moons, Arnaud Lemmers, Konstantina Paraskeva, Juergen Pohl, Thierry Ponchon, Jaroslaw Regula, Alessandro Repici, Matthew D Rutter, Nicholas G Burgess, Michael J Bourke
1 ESGE recommends cold snare polypectomy (CSP) as the preferred technique for removal of diminutive polyps (size ≤ 5 mm). This technique has high rates of complete resection, adequate tissue sampling for histology, and low complication rates. (High quality evidence, strong recommendation.) 2 ESGE suggests CSP for sessile polyps 6 - 9 mm in size because of its superior safety profile, although evidence comparing efficacy with hot snare polypectomy (HSP) is lacking. (Moderate quality evidence, weak recommendation...
February 17, 2017: Endoscopy
Christopher D Curran, Li Lu, Yue Jia, Christopher J Kiely, Bryan W Berger, Steven McIntosh
Biomineralization is an intriguing approach to the synthesis of functional inorganic materials for energy applications whereby biological systems are engineered to mineralize inorganic materials and control their structure over multiple length scales under mild reaction conditions. Herein we demonstrate a single enzyme mediated biomineralization route to synthesize crystalline, catalytically active, quantum confined ceria (CeO2-x) and ceria-zirconia (Ce1-yZryO2-x) nanocrystals for application as environmental catalysts...
February 17, 2017: ACS Nano
Michelle W Lee, Ming Han, Guilherme Volpe Bossa, Carly Snell, Ziyuan Song, Haoyu Tang, Lichen Yin, Jianjun Cheng, Sylvio May, Erik Luijten, Gerard C L Wong
At physiological conditions, most proteins or peptides can fold into relatively stable structures that present on their molecular surfaces specific chemical patterns partially smeared out by thermal fluctuations. These nanoscopically defined patterns of charge, hydrogen bonding, and/or hydrophobicity, along with their elasticity and shape stability (folded proteins have Young's moduli of ~1 × 10(8) Pa), largely determine and limit the interactions of these molecules, such as molecular recognition and allosteric regulation...
February 17, 2017: ACS Nano
Stefano Tebi, Mateusz Paszkiewicz, Hazem Aldahhak, Francesco Allegretti, Sabrina Gonglach, Michael Haas, Mario Waser, Peter S Deimel, Pablo Casado Aguilar, Yi-Qi Zhang, Anthoula C Papageorgiou, David Andrew Duncan, Johannes V Barth, Wolf Gero Schmidt, Reinhold Koch, Uwe Gerstmann, Eva Rauls, Florian Klappenberger, Wolfgang Schöfberger, Stefan Müllegger
Radical cyclization is among the most powerful and versatile reactions for constructing mono- and polycyclic systems, but has, to date, remained unexplored in the context of on-surface synthesis. We report the controlled on-surface synthesis of stable corrole radicals on Ag(111) via site-specific dehydrogenation of a pyrrole N H bond in the 5,10,15-tris(pentafluoro-phenyl)-corrole triggered by annealing at 330 K under ultra-high vacuum conditions. We reveal a thermally-induced regioselective cyclization reaction mediated by a radical cascade and resolve the reaction mechanism of the pertaining cyclodefluorination reaction at the single-molecule level...
February 17, 2017: ACS Nano
Markéta Polívková, Tomáš Hubáček, Marek Staszek, Václav Švorčík, Jakub Siegel
Antimicrobial biocompatible polymers form a group of highly desirable materials in medicinal technology that exhibit interesting thermal and mechanical properties, and high chemical resistance. There are numerous types of polymers with antimicrobial activity or antimicrobial properties conferred through their proper modification. In this review, we focus on the second type of polymers, especially those whose antimicrobial activity is conferred by nanotechnology. Nanotechnology processing is a developing area that exploits the antibacterial effects of broad-scale compounds, both organic and inorganic, to form value-added medical devices...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xu Jiang, Keda Wang, Junqing Li, Hui Zhan, Zhenan Song, Guohang Che, Guohui Lyu
This paper aims at solving the problem of explosion proof in measurement of thermal gas flow using electronic sensor by presenting a new type of flow sensor by optical fiber heating. A measuring unit based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) for fluid temperature and a unit for heat dissipation are designed to replace the traditional electronic sensors. The light in C band from the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) light source is split, with one part used to heat the absorbing coating and the other part used in the signal processing unit...
February 15, 2017: Sensors
Ahmed Soltan, Brian McGovern, Emmanuel Drakakis, Mark Neil, Pleun Maaskant, Mahbub Akhter, Jun Su Lee, Patrick Degenaar
Optical neuron stimulation arrays are important for both in-vitro biology and retinal prosthetic biomedical applications. Hence, in this work, we present an 8100 pixel high radiance photonic stimulator. The chip module vertically combines custom made gallium nitride μLEDs with a CMOS application specific integrated circuit. This is designed with active pixels to ensure random access and to allow continuous illumination of all required pixels. The μLEDs have been assembled on the chip using a solder ball flip-chip bonding technique which has allowed for reliable and repeatable manufacture...
February 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Arixin Bo, Jose Alarco, Huaiyong Zhu, Eric R Waclawik, Haifei Zhan, YuanTong Gu
Construction of nano-architectures requires techniques like joint formation and trimming. For ceramic materials, however, it is extremely difficult to form nanojoints by conventional methods like merging. In this work, we demonstrate that ceramic titanate nanowires (NWs) can be joined by spot melting under electron beam (e-beam) irradiation (EBI). The irradiation fuses the contacted spot of titanate NWs yielding an intact nanojoint. Nanojoints with different morphologies can be produced. The joint structures consist of titanium dioxide (TiO2) rutile, anatase and titanate phases in direction away from the e-beam melting spot...
February 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jaakko Henrik Leppäniemi, Kim Eiroma, Himadri Majumdar, Ari Alastalo
The inkjet-printing process of precursor solutions containing In-nitrate dissolved in 2-methoxyethanol is optimized using ethylene glycol as a co-solvent that allows the stabilization of the droplet formation, leading to a robust, repeatable printing process. The inkjet-printed precursor films are then converted to In2O3 semiconductors at flexible-substrate-compatible low-temperatures (150 - 200 °C) using combined far ultraviolet (FUV) exposure at ~160 nm and thermal treatment. The compositional nature of the precursor-to-metal oxide conversion is studied using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy that indicate that amorphous, high density (up to 5...
February 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Dennis Barton, Hong-Ying Gao, Philipp Alexander Held, Armido Studer, Harald Fuchs, Nikos L Doltsinis, Johannes Neugebauer
Possible origins of the formation of organometallic intermediates in on-surface Ullmann couplings have been investigated by surface tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We consider the case of iodobenzenes on the coinage metals Au, Ag and Cu. We found experimental evidence for the formation of surface vacancies and the presence of metal adatoms in these coupling reactions, which are taken as a hint for the reactive extraction of surface atoms by adsorbates. In a second step, we demonstrate by ab initio molecular dynamics calculations for aryl-iodides on copper that metal atoms can be pulled out of the surface to form metalorganic species...
February 17, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Alireza Faghaninia, Guodong Yu, Umut Aydemir, Max Wood, Wei Chen, Gian-Marco Rignanese, G Jeffrey Snyder, Geoffroy Hautier, Anubhav Jain
Bournonite (CuPbSbS3) is an earth-abundant mineral with potential thermoelectric applications. This material has a complex crystal structure (space group Pmn21 #31) and has previously been measured to exhibit a very low thermal conductivity (κ < 1 W m(-1) K(-1) at T ≥ 300 K). In this study, we employ high-throughput density functional theory calculations to investigate how the properties of the bournonite crystal structure change with elemental substitutions. Specifically, we compute the stability and electronic properties of 320 structures generated via substitutions {Na-K-Cu-Ag}{Si-Ge-Sn-Pb}{N-P-As-Sb-Bi}{O-S-Se-Te} in the ABCD3 formula...
February 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Sheikh Mahatabuddin, Yuichi Hanada, Yoshiyuki Nishimiya, Ai Miura, Hidemasa Kondo, Peter L Davies, Sakae Tsuda
A supersoluble 40-residue type I antifreeze protein (AFP) was discovered in a righteye flounder, the barfin plaice (bp). Unlike all other AFPs characterized to date, bpAFP transitions from moderately-active to hyperactive with increasing concentration. At sub-mM concentrations, bpAFP bound to pyramidal planes of ice to shape it into a bi-pyramidal hexagonal trapezohedron, similarly to the other moderately-active AFPs. At mM concentrations, bpAFP uniquely underwent further binding to the whole ice crystal surface including the basal planes...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hsien-Yin Liao, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Chun-Ping Huang, Yi-Wen Lin
Pain is associated with several conditions, such as inflammation, that result from altered peripheral nerve properties. Electroacupuncture (EA) is a common Chinese clinical medical technology used for pain management. Using an inflammatory pain mouse model, we investigated the effects of EA on the regulation of neurons, microglia, and related molecules. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injections produced a significant mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia that was reversed by EA or a transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) gene deletion...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Vladimir Zhdankin, Gregory R Werner, Dmitri A Uzdensky, Mitchell C Begelman
We present results from particle-in-cell simulations of driven turbulence in magnetized, collisionless, and relativistic pair plasmas. We find that the fluctuations are consistent with the classical k_{⊥}^{-5/3} magnetic energy spectrum at fluid scales and a steeper k_{⊥}^{-4} spectrum at sub-Larmor scales, where k_{⊥} is the wave vector perpendicular to the mean field. We demonstrate the development of a nonthermal, power-law particle energy distribution f(E)∼E^{-α}, with an index α that decreases with increasing magnetization and increases with an increasing system size (relative to the characteristic Larmor radius)...
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Gentaro Watanabe, B Prasanna Venkatesh, Peter Talkner, Adolfo Del Campo
The performance of quantum heat engines is generally based on the analysis of a single cycle. We challenge this approach by showing that the total work performed by a quantum engine need not be proportional to the number of cycles. Furthermore, optimizing the engine over multiple cycles leads to the identification of scenarios with a quantum enhancement. We demonstrate our findings with a quantum Otto engine based on a two-level system as the working substance that supplies power to an external oscillator.
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Kaili Wen, Aijuan Zhou, Jiaguang Zhang, Zhihong Liu, Guoying Wang, Wenzong Liu, Aijie Wang, Xiuping Yue
Most studies on the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from waste activated sludge (WAS) digestion have focused on operating conditions, pretreatments and characteristic adjustments. Conditioning by extra carbon sources (ECS), normally added in a solid form, has been reported to be an efficient approach. However, this has caused considerable waste of monomeric sugars in the hydrolysate. In this study, the effects of two added forms (pretreated straw (S) and hydrolyzed liquid (L)) of cornstover (CS) on WAS acidification were investigated...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Chao Chen, Wei Wu, William Z Xu, Paul A Charpentier
In order to help reduce the agglomeration of TiO2 nanoparticles in polyurethane coatings while enhancing their photoactivity and mechanical/physical properties, this work examined encapsulating TiO2 nanoparticles in a thin layer of SiO2, prior to their nanocomposite polymerization. By applying a Stöber process, varying thicknesses of SiO2 were successfully coated onto the surface of anatase and rutile TiO2 nanoparticles. The methylene blue results showed that different loadings of SiO2 onto the TiO2 surface significantly influenced their photocatalytic activity...
March 17, 2017: Nanotechnology
Mattia Sist, Karl Frederik Faerch Fischer, Hidetaka Kasai, Bo Brummerstedt Iversen
Anharmonic lattice vibrations govern heat transfer in materials, and anharmonicity is commonly assumed to be dominant at high temperature. The textbook cubic ionic defect-free crystal CsCl is shown to have an unexplained low thermal conductivity at room temperature (ca. 1 W/(m K)), which increases to around 13  W/(m K) at 25 K. Through high-resolution X-ray diffraction it is unexpectedly shown that the Cs atomic displacement parameter becomes anharmonic at 20 K.
February 17, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Benjamin Eberle, Elisabeth Kaifer, Hans-Jörg Himmel
The growing demand for efficient batteries has stimulated the search for redox-active organic compounds with multistage redox behavior, as materials with large charge capacity. Herein we report the synthesis and properties of the first hexakis(guanidino)benzene derivative: a strong neutral organic electron donor with reversible multistage redox behavior and a record low redox potential for donation of four electrons. Detailed structural and spectroscopic characterization of three redox states (0, +2, and +4) reveal its unique electronic features...
February 17, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Jiamei Quan, Takahiro Kondo, Guichang Wang, Junji Nakamura
Energy transfer dynamics of formate (HCOOa ) decomposition on a Cu(110) surface has been studied by measuring the angle-resolved intensity and translational energy distributions of CO2 emitted from the surface in a steady-state reaction of HCOOH and O2 . The angular distribution of CO2 shows a sharp collimation with the direction perpendicular to the surface, as represented by cos(n) θ (n=6). The mean translational energy of CO2 is measured to be as low as 100 meV and is independent of the surface temperature (Ts )...
February 17, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
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