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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641319/understanding-scuba-diving-fatalities-carbon-dioxide-concentrations-in-intra-cardiac-gas
#1
Vincent Varlet, Alejandro Dominguez, Marc Augsburger, Maisy Lossois, Coraline Egger, Cristian Palmiere, Raquel Vilarino, Silke Grabherr
INTRODUCTION: Important developments in the diagnosis of scuba diving fatalities have been made thanks to forensic imaging tool improvements. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) permits reliable interpretation of the overall gaseous distribution in the cadaver. However, due to post-mortem delay, the radiological interpretation is often doubtful because the distinction between gas related to the dive and post-mortem decomposition artifactual gases becomes less obvious. METHODS: We present six cases of fatal scuba diving showing gas in the heart and other vasculature...
June 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641278/astragaloside-iv-alleviates-heat-induced-inflammation-by-inhibiting-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-autophagy
#2
Zhiwei Dong, Jian Zhou, Ying Zhang, Yajie Chen, Zichen Yang, Guangtao Huang, Yu Chen, Zhiqiang Yuan, Yizhi Peng, Tongtong Cao
BACKGROUND: Thermal injury is the main cause of pulmonary disease in stroke after burn and can be life threatening. Heat-induced inflammation is an important factor that triggers a series of induces pathological changes. However, this mechanism underlying heat-induced inflammation in thermal inhalation injury remains unclear. Studies have revealed that astragaloside-IV (AS-IV), a natural compound extracted from Astragalus membranaceus, has protective effects in inflammatory diseases. Here, we investigated whether the protective effects of AS-IV occur because of the suppression of heat-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and excessive autophagy Methods: AS-IV was administered to Wistar rats after thermal inhalation injury and 16HBE140-cells were treated with AS-IV...
June 23, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641186/composition-of-dissolved-organic-matter-dom-from-periodically-submerged-soils-in-the-three-gorges-reservoir-areas-as-determined-by-elemental-and-optical-analysis-infrared-spectroscopy-pyrolysis-gc-ms-and-thermally-assisted-hydrolysis-and-methylation
#3
Tao Jiang, Joeri Kaal, Jian Liang, Yaoling Zhang, Shiqiang Wei, Dingyong Wang, Nelson W Green
Soil-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) has a major influence in biogeochemical processes related to contaminant dynamics and greenhouse gas emissions, due to its reactivity and its bridging role between the soil and aquatic systems. Within the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR, China) area, an extensive water-fluctuation zone periodically submerges the surrounding soils. Here we report a characterization study of soil-derived DOM across the TGR areas, using elemental and optical analysis, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), pyrolysis-GC-MS (Py-GC-MS) and thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM-GC-MS)...
June 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641016/from-hydrindane-to-decalin-a-mild-transformation-through-a-dyotropic-ring-expansion
#4
Hugo Santalla, Olalla Nieto Faza, Generosa Gómez, Yagamare Fall, Carlos Silva López
An unexpected ring expansion converting hydrindane cores into decalins has been observed. The process occurs under very mild conditions and with exquisite transfer of chiral information. The ring expansion provides access to decorated decalins with complete stereocontrol. The reaction mechanism is studied in order to gain insight into the underlying causes for the low thermal requirements in this reaction and the nature of the chirality transfer process. Interestingly, both result from an unprecedented dyotropic reaction involving a mesylate group...
June 22, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640992/crystalline-organic-pigment-based-field-effect-transistors
#5
Haichang Zhang, Ruonan Deng, Jing Wang, Xiang Li, Yu-Ming Chen, Kewei Liu, Clinton J Taubert, Stephen Z D Cheng, Yu Zhu
Three conjugated pigment molecules with fused hydrogen bonds, 3,7-diphenylpyrrolo[2,3-f]indole-2,6(1H,5H)-dione (BDP), (E)-6,6'-dibromo-[3,3'-biindolinylidene]-2,2'-dione (IIDG), and 3,6-di(thiophen-2-yl)-2,5-dihydropyrrolo-[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione (TDPP), were studied in this work. The insoluble pigment molecules were functionalized with tert-butoxylcarbonyl (t-Boc) groups to form soluble pigment precursors (BDP-Boc, IIDG-Boc, and TDPP-Boc) with latent hydrogen bonding. The single crystals of soluble pigment precursors were obtained...
June 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640617/5-methylhydantoin-from-isolated-molecules-in-a-low-temperature-argon-matrix-to-solid-state-polymorphs-characterization
#6
Bernardo A Nogueira, Gulce O Ildiz, João Canotilho, M Ermelinda S Eusébio, Marta Sofia C Henriques, José A Paixão, Rui Fausto
The molecular structure, vibrational spectra and photochemistry of 5-methylhydantoin (C4H6N2O2; 5-MH) were studied by matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy and theoretical calculations at the DFT(B3LYP)/6-311++G(d,p) theory level. The Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis approach was used to study in detail the electronic structure of the minimum energy structure of 5-MH, namely the specific characteristics of the σ and π electronic systems of the molecule, and the stabilizing orbital interactions. UV irradiation of 5-MH isolated in argon matrix resulted in its photofragmentation through a single photochemical pathway, yielding isocyanic acid, ethanimine and carbon monoxide, thus following a pattern already observed before for the parent hydantoin and 1-methylhydantoin molecules...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640585/thermally-and-electrically-triggered-triple-shape-memory-behavior-of-poly-vinyl-acetate-poly-lactic-acid-due-to-graphene-induced-phase-separation
#7
Mohammad Sabzi, Masoud Babaahmadi, Mohammadreza Rahnama
This work aimed to develop a facile and broadly applicable method for fabricating a multi-stimuli responsive triple-shape memory polymer (SMP). Hence, herein the SMPs were prepared through the simple physical blending of two commercially available biopolymers, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), in the presence of robust and conductive graphene nanoplatelets. Interestingly, atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations and thermal analyses revealed that the presence of nanofillers led to phase separation and appearance of two well-separated transition temperatures in the blend of these two miscible polymers...
June 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640583/fluffy-and-ordered-graphene-multilayer-films-with-improved-electromagnetic-interference-shielding-over-x-band
#8
Zicheng Wang, Renbo Wei, Xiaobo Liu
Highly ordered nitrogen-doped graphene multilayer films with large interlayer void are successfully fabricated by thermal annealing the compact stacking graphene oxide/copper phthalocyanine (GO/CuPc) multilayer films. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) and electrical conductivity measurements indicate that the breakaway of oxygen functional groups on/in the GO sheets at high temperature and the in-situ pyrolysis of CuPc molecules in the interlayer of graphene sheets synergistically facilitate the restoration of GO in graphitization, the effective nitrogen doping by replacing carbon atoms in graphene frameworks, the retention of layer-by-layer stacking structure of graphene sheets in plane and the formation of interlayer voids, leading to the enhancement in the electrical conductivity (3...
June 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640582/thermoelectric-performance-of-se-cd-co-doped-snte-via-microwave-solvothermal-method
#9
Lijun Wang, Siyi Chang, Shuqi Zheng, Teng Fang, Wenlin Cui, Pengpeng Bai, Luo Yue, Zhigang Chen
Extensive attention has been focused on thermoelectric performance optimization of SnTe because of its potential in waste heat recovery. Here, we fabricate high thermoelectric performance Se/Cd co-doped SnTe octahedral particles by microwave-stimulated solvothermal method. The SnTe-based octahedral particles have the sizes ranging from several micrometers to hundreds of nanometers, forming dense bulks after spark plasma sintering. Combined with the strong point defect scattering by Se and Cd dopants, a low thermal conductivity of 1...
June 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637279/high-dimensional-multivariate-mediation-with-application-to-neuroimaging-data
#10
Oliver Y Chén, Ciprian Crainiceanu, Elizabeth L Ogburn, Brian S Caffo, Tor D Wager, Martin A Lindquist
Mediation analysis is an important tool in the behavioral sciences for investigating the role of intermediate variables that lie in the path between a treatment and an outcome variable. The influence of the intermediate variable on the outcome is often explored using a linear structural equation model (LSEM), with model coefficients interpreted as possible effects. While there has been significant research on the topic, little work has been done when the intermediate variable (mediator) is a high-dimensional vector...
June 15, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637217/experimental-support-that-natural-selection-has-shaped-the-latitudinal-distribution-of-mitochondrial-haplotypes-in-australian-drosophila-melanogaster
#11
M Florencia Camus, Jonci N Wolff, Carla M Sgrò, Damian K Dowling
Cellular metabolism is regulated by enzyme complexes within the mitochondrion, the function of which are sensitive to the prevailing temperature. Such thermal sensitivity, coupled with the observation that population frequencies of mitochondrial haplotypes tend to associate with latitude, altitude or climatic regions across species distributions, led to the hypothesis that thermal selection has played a role in shaping standing variation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence. This hypothesis, however, remains controversial, and requires evidence that the distribution of haplotypes observed in nature corresponds with the capacity of these haplotypes to confer differences in thermal tolerance...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637216/qualitative-analysis-and-detection-of-the-pyrolytic-products-of-jwh-018-and-11-additional-synthetic-cannabinoids-in-the-presence-of-common-herbal-smoking-substrates
#12
Stephen Raso, Suzanne Bell
Synthetic cannabinoids have become a ubiquitous challenge in forensic toxicology and seized drug analysis. Thermal degradation products have yet to be identified and evaluated for toxicity in comparison to parent and metabolic compounds. An investigation into these pyrolytic products, as the major route of ingestion is inhalation, may produce additional insight to understand the toxicity of synthetic cannabinoids. The pyrolysis of JWH-018 and 11 additional synthetic cannabinoids and six herbal plant substrates were conducted using an in-house constructed smoking simulator...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636927/noxious-but-not-innocuous-thermal-stimuli-evoke-perk-expression-in-dorsal-horn-neurons-after-spared-nerve-injury-in-adult-rats
#13
Mohamad S Samour, Sumaiya M Shaikh, David A Mahns, Peter J Shortland
Noxious stimulation of sensory afferents evokes phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase (pERK) expression in spinal cord neurons. This study investigated the expression of pERK in the dorsal horn neurons in response to innocuous and noxious cold stimuli in naïve versus spared nerve injury (SNI) rats. Noxious cold or hot stimuli (0 or 45°C) elicited pERK expression in laminae I-II whereas cooling stimuli from 32°C to 25, 15 or 5°C produced no or little pERK expression in dorsal horn neurons...
June 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636910/prp40-homolog-a-is-a-novel-centrin-target
#14
Adalberto Díaz Casas, Walter J Chazin, Belinda Pastrana-Ríos
Pre-mRNA processing protein 40 (Prp40) is a nuclear protein that has a role in pre-mRNA splicing. Prp40 possesses two leucine-rich nuclear export signals, but little is known about the function of Prp40 in the export process. Another protein that has a role in protein export is centrin, a member of the EF-hand superfamily of Ca(2+)-binding proteins. Prp40 was found to be a centrin target by yeast-two-hybrid screening using both Homo sapiens centrin 2 (Hscen2) and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii centrin (Crcen). We identified a centrin-binding site within H...
June 20, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636908/schiff-base-proton-acceptor-assists-photoisomerization-of-retinal-chromophores-in-bacteriorhodopsin
#15
Chih-Chang Hung, Xiao-Ru Chen, Ying-Kuan Ko, Takayoshi Kobayashi, Chii-Shen Yang, Atsushi Yabushita
In this study, we investigated the ultrafast dynamics of bacteriorhodopsins (BRs) from Haloquadratum walsbyi (HwBR) and Haloarcula marismortui (HmBRI and HmBRII). First, the ultrafast dynamics were studied for three HwBR samples: wild-type, D93N mutation, and D104N mutation. The residues of the D93 and D104 mutants correspond to the control by the Schiff base proton acceptor and donor of the proton translocation subchannels. Measurements indicated that the negative charge from the Schiff base proton acceptor residue D93 interacts with the ultrafast and substantial change of the electrostatic potential associated with chromophore isomerization...
June 20, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636822/electrochemical-properties-and-speciation-in-mg-hmds-2-based-electrolytes-for-magnesium-ion-batteries-as-a-function-of-ethereal-solvent-type-and-temperature
#16
Laura C Merrill, Jennifer L Schaefer
Magnesium batteries are a promising alternative to lithium-ion batteries due to the widespread abundance of magnesium and its high specific volumetric energy capacity. Ethereal solvents such as tetrahydrofuran (THF) are commonly used for magnesium-ion electrolytes due the chemical compatibility with magnesium metal, but the volatile nature of THF is a concern for practical application. Herein, we investigate magnesium bis(hexamethyldisilazide) plus aluminum chloride (Mg(HMDS)2-AlCl3) electrolytes in THF, diglyme, and tetraglyme at varying temperature...
June 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636790/controlling-reaction-selectivity-via-surface-termination-of-perovskite-catalysts
#17
Felipe Polo-Garzon, Shi-Ze Yang, Victor Fung, Guo Shiou Foo, Elizabeth Erin Bickel, Matthew F Chisholm, De-En Jiang, Zili Wu
Although perovskites have been widely used in catalysis, tuning their surface terminations to control reaction selectivities has not been well established. In this work, we employ multiple surface sensitive techniques to characterize the surface termination (one aspect of surface reconstruction) of SrTiO3 (STO) after thermal pretreatment (Sr-enrichment) and chemical etching (Ti-enrichment). We show, using the conversion of 2-propanol as a probe reaction, that the surface termination of STO can be controlled to greatly tune catalytic acid/base properties and consequently the reaction selectivities in a wide range, which are inaccessible using single metal oxides, either SrO or TiO2...
June 21, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636681/thermally-induced-conformational-changes-and-protein-protein-interactions-of-bovine-serum-albumin-in-aqueous-solution-under-different-ph-and-ionic-strengths-as-revealed-by-saxs-measurements
#18
Dmitry Molodenskiy, Evgeny Shirshin, Tatiana Tikhonova, Andrey Gruzinov, Georgy Peters, Francesco Spinozzi
Thermal-induced conformational changes and protein-protein interactions of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous solution are assessed by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) at two pH values (7.4 and 9.0) and two ionic strengths (0.1 and 0.5). We demonstrate that Guinier analysis in two ranges of the modulus of the scattering vector allows protein melting and aggregation to be monitored simultaneously, thus providing insights into the mechanism of thermal-induced BSA aggregation. Results of the analysis suggest that at room temperature monomeric and dimeric BSA fractions are present in solution...
June 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636625/comparison-study-of-exhaust-plume-impingement-effects-of-small-mono-and-bipropellant-thrusters-using-parallelized-dsmc-method
#19
Kyun Ho Lee
A space propulsion system is important for the normal mission operations of a spacecraft by adjusting its attitude and maneuver. Generally, a mono- and a bipropellant thruster have been mainly used for low thrust liquid rocket engines. But as the plume gas expelled from these small thrusters diffuses freely in a vacuum space along all directions, unwanted effects due to the plume collision onto the spacecraft surfaces can dramatically cause a deterioration of the function and performance of a spacecraft. Thus, aim of the present study is to investigate and compare the major differences of the plume gas impingement effects quantitatively between the small mono- and bipropellant thrusters using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636356/biomimetic-architectured-graphene-aerogel-with-exceptional-strength-and-resilience
#20
Miao Yang, Nifang Zhao, Ying Cui, Weiwei Gao, Qian Zhao, Chao Gao, Hao Bai, Tao Xie
Materials combining lightweight, robust mechanical performances, and multifunctionality are highly desirable for engineering applications. Graphene aerogels have emerged as attractive candidates. Despite recent progresses, the bottleneck remains how to simultaneously achieve both strength and resilience. While multiscale architecture designs may offer a possible route, the difficulty lies in the lack of design guidelines and how to experimentally achieve the necessary structure control over multiple length scales...
June 21, 2017: ACS Nano
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