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Acclimation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914205/mitochondrial-genotype-and-phenotypic-plasticity-of-gene-expression-in-response-to-cold-acclimation-in-killifish
#1
Timothy M Healy, Heather J Bryant, Patricia M Schulte
Adjustments of aerobic metabolic processes are critical components of organismal responses to environmental change that require tight co-ordination between the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Intraspecific differences in mitochondrial genotype can affect gene transcription in both genomes. Thus, variation in mitochondrial genotype may be associated with differences in the plasticity of gene expression when organisms are faced with changes in environmental conditions. Cold acclimation is known to result in metabolic responses involving increases in mitochondrial amount and capacity, suggesting that low temperatures may pose a particular challenge when co-ordinating the functions of the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes...
December 3, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911923/morphology-and-hydraulic-architecture-of-vitis-vinifera-l-cv-syrah-and-torront%C3%A3-s-riojano-plants-are-unaffected-by-variations-in-red-to-far-red-ratio
#2
Carina Verónica González, María Florencia Jofré, Hernán F Vila, Markus Stoffel, Rubén Bottini, Carla Valeria Giordano
Plants have evolved an array of specific photoreceptors to acclimate to the light environment. By sensing light signals, photoreceptors modulate plant morphology, carbon- and water-physiology, crop yield and quality of harvestable organs, among other responses. Many cultural practices and crop management decisions alter light quantity and quality perceived by plants cultivated in the field. Under full sunlight, phytochromes perceive high red to far red ratios (R:FR; 1.1), whereas overhead or lateral low R:FR (below 1...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908664/preference-for-western-diet-coadapts-in-high-runner-mice-and-affects-voluntary-exercise-and-spontaneous-physical-activity-in-a-genotype-dependent-manner
#3
Wendy Acosta, Thomas H Meek, Heidi Schutz, Elizabeth M Dlugosz, Theodore Garland
Do animals evolve (coadapt) to choose diets that positively affect their performance abilities? We addressed this question from a microevolutionary perspective by examining preference for Western diet (WD: high in fat and sugar, but lower in protein) versus standard rodent chow in adults of both sexes from 4 lines of mice selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel running (High Runner or HR lines) and 4 non-selected control (C) lines. We also assessed whether food preference or substitution affects physical activity (wheel running and/or spontaneous physical activity [SPA] in the attached home cages)...
November 28, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907267/mitogenic-action-of-hypoxia-upon-cutaneous-neuroepithelial-cells-in-developing-zebrafish
#4
Benjamin W Dean, Thalia J Rashid, Michael G Jonz
In zebrafish, cutaneous neuroepithelial cells (NECs) contain serotonin (5-HT) and are believed to initiate physiological and behavioral responses to hypoxia during embryonic and early larval development, when mature gills and O2 chemoreceptors are not yet present. The number of skin NECs rapidly declines as embryos develop into larvae, but acclimation to hypoxia leads to retention of a greater number of these cells. We hypothesized that reduction of the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2 ) in water would stimulate mitosis in cutaneous NECs in zebrafish...
December 1, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905106/effects-of-release-procedures-on-the-primary-stress-response-and-post-release-survival-and-growth-of-hatchery-reared-spotted-seatrout-cynoscion-nebulosus
#5
T W Guest, C F Rakocinski, A N Evans, R B Blaylock
To help explain the apparent poor post-release success of hatchery-reared (HR) spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus, this study examined the effects of handling, transport and release procedures on the stress response of two age classes [48 and 80 day post-hatch (dph)] of HR C. nebulosus, as measured by cortisol concentrations and the post-release survival and growth of 48 and 80 dph HR C. nebulosus. As a proxy for stress, tissue cortisol was measured at various times during the handling, tagging (80 dph), transport, acclimation and release process...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905090/marker-assisted-breeding-of-the-rice-restorer-line-wanhui-6725-for-disease-resistance-submergence-tolerance-and-aromatic-fragrance
#6
Yanchang Luo, Tingchen Ma, Aifang Zhang, Kar Hui Ong, Zefu Li, Jianbo Yang, Zhongchao Yin
BACKGROUND: Rice is a staple food crop in the world. With the increase in world population and economic development, farmers need to produce more rice in limited field. However, the rice production is frequently affected by biotic and abiotic stresses. The use of natural disease resistance and stress tolerance through genetic breeding is the most efficient and economical way to combat or acclimate to these stresses. In addition, rice with aromatic fragrance can significantly increase market value for its good grain quality...
December 2016: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903702/cold-acclimation-improves-chill-tolerance-in-the-migratory-locust-through-preservation-of-ion-balance-and-membrane-potential
#7
Mads Kuhlmann Andersen, Rasmus Folkersen, Heath A MacMillan, Johannes Overgaard
Most insects have the ability to alter their cold tolerance in response to temporal temperature fluctuations, and recent studies have shown that insect cold tolerance is closely tied to the ability to maintain transmembrane ion-gradients that are important for the maintenance of cell membrane potential (Vm). Accordingly, several studies have suggested a link between preservation of Vm and cellular survival after cold stress, but none have measured Vm in this context. We tested this hypothesis by acclimating locusts (Locusta migratoria) to high (31°C) and low temperature (11°C) for four days before exposing them to cold stress (0°C) for up to 48 hours and subsequently measuring ion balance, cell survival, muscle Vm, and whole animal performance...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903515/passive-heat-acclimation-improves-skeletal-muscle-contractility-in-humans
#8
Sebastien Racinais, Mathew G Wilson, Julien D Périard
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated passive heat exposure (i.e. acclimation) on muscle contractility in humans. Fourteen non-heat acclimated males completed two trials including electrically evoked twitches and voluntary contractions in thermoneutral conditions (COOL: 24ºC, 40% RH) and hot ambient conditions in the hyperthermic state (HOT: 44-50ºC, 50% RH) on consecutive days in a counterbalanced order. Rectal temperature was ~36.5ºC in COOL and was maintained at ~39ºC throughout HOT...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903513/the-maximum-heart-rate-in-brown-trout-salmo-trutta-fario-is-not-limited-by-firing-rate-of-pacemaker-cells
#9
Jaakko Haverinen, Denis V Abramochkin, Andre Kamkin, Matti Vornanen
Temperature-induced changes in cardiac output (Q) in fish are largely dependent on thermal modulation of heart rate (fH) and at high temperatures Q collapses due to heat-dependent depression of fH This study tests the hypothesis that firing rate of sinoatrial pacemaker cells sets the upper thermal limit of fH in vivo. To this end temperature-dependence of action potential (AP) frequency of enzymatically isolated pacemaker cells (pacemaker rate, fPM), spontaneous beating rate of isolated sinoatrial preparations (fSA) and in vivo heart rate (fH) of the cold-acclimated (4°C) brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) were compared under acute thermal challenges...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903511/cardiac-remodeling-and-increased-central-venous-pressure-underlie-elevated-stroke-volume-and-cardiac-output-of-seawater-acclimated-rainbow-trout
#10
Jeroen Brijs, Erik Sandblom, Esmée Dekens, Joacim Näslund, Andreas Ekström, Michael Axelsson
Substantial increases in cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV) and gastrointestinal blood flow are essential for euryhaline rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) osmoregulating in seawater. However, the underlying hemodynamic mechanisms responsible for these changes are unknown. By examining a range of circulatory and cardiac morphological variables of seawater- and freshwater-acclimated rainbow trout, the present study revealed a significantly higher central venous pressure (CVP) in seawater-acclimated trout (~0...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903433/cold-acclimation-allows-drosophila-flies-to-maintain-mitochondrial-functioning-under-cold-stress
#11
Hervé Colinet, David Renault, Damien Roussel
Environmental stress generally disturbs cellular homeostasis. Researchers have hypothesized that chilling injury is linked to a shortage of ATP. However, previous studies conducted on insects exposed to nonfreezing low temperatures presented conflicting results. In this study, we investigated the mitochondrial bioenergetics of Drosophila melanogaster flies exposed to chronic cold stress (4 °C). We assessed mitochondrial oxygen consumption while monitoring the rate of ATP synthesis at various times (0, 1, 2, and 3 days) during prolonged cold stress and at two assay temperatures (25 and 4 °C)...
November 26, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900594/early-successional-ectomycorrhizal-fungi-effectively-support-extracellular-enzyme-activities-and-seedling-nitrogen-accumulation-in-mature-forests
#12
Bailey A Nicholson, Melanie D Jones
After stand-replacing disturbance, regenerating conifer seedlings become colonized by different ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) than the locally adapted EMF communities present on seedlings in mature forests. We studied whether EMF species that colonized subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) seedlings in clearcuts differed from those that colonized seedlings in adjacent mature forests with respect to mycorrhizoplane extracellular enzyme activities (EEAs) and N status of the seedlings. We tested two alternate hypotheses: (1) that EEAs would differ between the two EMF communities, with higher activities associated with forest-origin communities, and (2) that acclimation to soil environment was considerable enough that EEAs would be determined primarily by the soil type in which the ectomycorrhizas were growing...
November 29, 2016: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899933/reactive-oxygen-species-function-to-mediate-the-fe-deficiency-response-in-an-fe-efficient-apple-genotype-an-early-response-mechanism-for-enhancing-reactive-oxygen-production
#13
Chaohua Sun, Ting Wu, Longmei Zhai, Duyue Li, Xinzhong Zhang, Xuefeng Xu, Huiqin Ma, Yi Wang, Zhenhai Han
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signaling molecules in plants that contribute to stress acclimation. This study demonstrated that ROS play a critical role in Fe deficiency-induced signaling at an early stage in Malus xiaojinensis. Once ROS production has been initiated, prolonged Fe starvation leads to activation of ROS scavenging mechanisms. Further, we demonstrated that ROS scavengers are involved in maintaining the cellular redox homeostasis during prolonged Fe deficiency treatment. Taken together, our results describe a feedback repression loop for ROS to preserve redox homeostasis and maintain a continuous Fe deficiency response in the Fe-efficient woody plant M...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895654/a-comprehensive-phylogeny-reveals-functional-conservation-of-the-uv-b-photoreceptor-uvr8-from-green-algae-to-higher-plants
#14
María B Fernández, Vanesa Tossi, Lorenzo Lamattina, Raúl Cassia
Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) is present in sunlight (280-315 nm) and has diverse effects on living organisms. Low fluence rate of exposure induces a specific photomorphogenic response regulated by the UV-B response locus 8 (UVR8) receptor. UVR8 was first described in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the absence of stimuli it is located in the cytoplasm as a homodimer. However, upon UV-B irradiation, it switches to a monomer and interacts with the ubiquitin ligase E3 COP1 via the UVR8 β-propeller domain and the VP core. This induces the expression of the transcription factor HY5 leading to changes in the expression of genes associated with UV-B acclimation and stress tolerance...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894884/modulation-of-the-heat-shock-response-is-associated-with-acclimation-to-novel-temperatures-but-not-adaptation-to-climatic-variation-in-the-ants-aphaenogaster-picea-and-a-rudis
#15
Sara Helms Cahan, Andrew D Nguyen, John Stanton-Geddes, Clint A Penick, Yainna Hernáiz-Hernández, Bernice B DeMarco, Nicholas J Gotelli
Ecological diversification into thermally divergent habitats can push species toward their physiological limits, requiring them to accommodate temperature extremes through plastic or evolutionary changes that increase persistence under the local thermal regime. One way to withstand thermal stress is to increase production of heat shock proteins, either by maintaining higher baseline abundance within cells or by increasing the magnitude of induction in response to heat stress. We evaluated whether environmental variation was associated with expression of three heat shock protein genes in two closely-related species of woodland ant, Aphaenogaster picea and A...
November 25, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894882/comparing-biomarker-responses-during-thermal-acclimation-a-lethal-vs-non-lethal-approach-in-a-tropical-reef-clownfish
#16
Carolina Madeira, Diana Madeira, Mário S Diniz, Henrique N Cabral, Catarina Vinagre
Knowledge of thermal stress biology for most tropical fish species in reef ecosystems under climate change is still quite limited. Thus, the objective of this study was to measure the time-course changes of thermal stress biomarkers in the commercially exploited coral reef fish Amphiprion ocellaris, during a laboratory simulated event of increased temperature. Heat shock protein 70kDa (Hsp70) and total ubiquitin (Ub) were determined in the muscle (lethal method) and in the fin (non-lethal alternative method) under two temperature treatments (control - 26°C and elevated temperature - 30°C) throughout one month with weekly samplings...
November 25, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892814/a-new-route-of-bioaugmentation-by-allochthonous-and-autochthonous-through-biofilm-bacteria-for-scod-removal-of-old-leachate
#17
Rashid Alijani Ardeshir, Sara Rastgar, Majid Peyravi, Mohsen Jahanshahi, Ali Shokuhi Rad
Landfill leachate contains environmental pollutants that are generally resistant to biodegradation. In this study, indigenous and exogenous bacteria in leachate were acclimated in both biofilm and suspension forms to increase the removal of SCOD (soluble chemical oxygen demand). The bacteria from the leachate and sewage were acclimated to gradually increasing leachate concentration prepared using a reverse osmosis membrane over 28 days. The SCOD removal was measured aerobically or nominally anaerobically. Biofilms were prepared using different carrier media (glass, rubber, and plastic)...
November 28, 2016: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889180/rapid-restoration-of-methanogenesis-in-an-acidified-uasb-reactor-treating-2-4-6-trichlorophenol-tcp
#18
María Consuelo Díaz-Báez, Juan Daniel Valderrama-Rincon
Anaerobic bioreactors are often used for removal of xenobiotic and highly toxic pollutants from wastewater. Most of the time, the pollutant is so toxic that the stability of the reactor becomes compromised. It is well known that methanogens are one of the most sensitive organisms in the anaerobic consortia and hence the stability of the reactors is highly dependant on methanogenesis. Unfortunately few studies have focused on recovering the methanogenic activity once it has been inhibited by highly toxic pollutants...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883080/construction-of-a-miniaturized-chromatic-acclimation-sensor-from-cyanobacteria-with-reversed-response-to-a-light-signal
#19
Mitsuharu Nakajima, Stefano Ferri, Matthias Rögner, Koji Sode
Cyanobacteria harbor unique photoreceptors, designated as cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs). In this study, we attempted to engineer the chromatic acclimation sensor CcaS, a CBCR derived from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The wild-type CcaS induces gene expression under green light illumination and represses it under red light illumination. We focused on the domain structure of CcaS, which consists of an N-terminal transmembrane helix; a GAF domain, which serves as the sensor domain; a linker region (L1); two PAS domains; a second linker region (L2); and a C-terminal histidine kinase (HK) domain...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882829/the-effects-of-heat-stress-on-a-number-of-hematological-parameters-and-levels-of-thyroid-hormones-in-foundry-workers
#20
Sahar Norloei, Mohammad Javad Jafari, Leila Omidi, Soheila Khodakarim, Davood Bashash, Mohammad Bagher Abdollahi, Mina Jafari
The objective of this research was to determine the effects of heat stress on some hematological parameters and thyroid hormones among foundry workers. This study was performed on 25 heat-acclimated subjects while 10 office workers were selected as the control group. Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) was determined to estimate the heat stress. Blood sampling was conducted before and after the daily work shift. The mean value of the WBGT index was 35 °C. The levels of plasma osmolality (p = 0.04) and white blood cells (p = 0...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
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