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Acclimation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106321/conserved-two-component-hik34-rre1-module-directly-activates-heat-stress-inducible-transcription-of-major-chaperone-and-other-genes-in-synechococcus-elongatus-pcc-7942
#1
Ikki Kobayashi, Satoru Watanabe, Yu Kanesaki, Tomohiro Shimada, Hirofumi Yoshikawa, Kan Tanaka
Bacteria and other organisms, including cyanobacteria, employ two-component signal transducing modules comprising histidine kinases and response regulators to acclimate to changing environments. While the number and composition of these modules differ among cyanobacteria, two response regulators that contain DNA binding domains, RpaB and Rre1, are conserved in all sequenced cyanobacterial genomes and are essential for viability. Although RpaB negatively or positively regulates high light and other stress-responsive gene expression, little is known about the function of Rre1...
January 20, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101636/a-slow-opportunist-physiological-and-growth-responses-of-an-obligate-understory-plant-to-patch-cut-harvesting
#2
Jennifer L Chandler
Understory light environments change rapidly following timber harvest, and while many understory species utilize and benefit from the additional light, this response is not ubiquitous in shade-obligate species. I examined the effects of patch cut timber harvest on the physiology and growth of an obligate forest understory species to determine if disturbances via timber harvest are physiological stressors or whether such disturbances provide physiological benefits and growth increases in understory species. Forest canopy structure, along with photosynthesis, respiration, water use efficiency, stomatal conductance, and growth rates of American ginseng were quantified one summer before and two summers after patch cut timber harvest...
January 19, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101268/traditional-versus-online-biology-courses-connecting-course-design-and-student-learning-in-an-online-setting
#3
Rachel Biel, Cynthia J Brame
Online courses are a large and growing part of the undergraduate education landscape, but many biology instructors are skeptical about the effectiveness of online instruction. We reviewed studies comparing the effectiveness of online and face-to-face (F2F) undergraduate biology courses. Five studies compared student performance in multiple course sections at community colleges, while eight were smaller scale and compared student performance in particular biology courses at a variety of types of institutions...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100711/effects-of-structural-complexity-on-within-canopy-light-environments-and-leaf-traits-in-a-northern-mixed-deciduous-forest
#4
Alexander T Fotis, Peter S Curtis
Canopy structure influences forest productivity through its effects on the distribution of radiation and the light-induced changes in leaf physiological traits. Due to the difficulty of accessing and measuring forest canopies, few field-based studies have quantitatively linked these divergent scales of canopy functioning. The objective of our study was to investigate how canopy structure affects light profiles within a forest canopy and whether leaves of mature trees adjust morphologically and biochemically to the light environments characteristic of canopies with different structural complexity...
January 18, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097662/thermal-requirements-for-growth-survival-and-aerobic-performance-of-weatherfish-larvae-misgurnus-fossilis
#5
B Schreiber, J Monka, B Drozd, M Hundt, M Weiss, T Oswald, R Gergs, R Schulz
Thermal requirements of larval weatherfish Misgurnus fossilis were investigated in terms of growth, survival and aerobic performance. Growth and survival of M. fossilis larvae acclimated to five temperatures (11, 15, 19, 23 and 27° C) were measured over 25 days. In the upper temperature treatments (19, 23 and 27° C), survival of larvae was stable throughout the entire rearing period (>75%), whereas 11 and 15° C resulted in severe declines in survival (to <10%). Growth of larvae (expressed as dry mass and total length) was highest at 19 and 23° C, but significantly decreased at 27° C...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095301/imaging-the-photosystem-i-photosystem-ii-chlorophyll-ratio-inside-the-leaf
#6
Emilie Wientjes, John Philippi, Jan Willem Borst, Herbert van Amerongen
Oxygenic photosynthesis is driven by photosystems I (PSI) and II (PSII). In plants the number of chlorophylls of PSI versus PSII is adjusted to the light irradiance spectrum. On a timescale of days, this is regulated at the level of protein concentration. Instead, on a timescale of minutes, it is regulated by the dynamic association of light-harvesting complex II with either PSI or PSII. Thus far very diverse values have been reported for the PSI/PSII chlorophyll ratio, ranging from 0.54 to 1.4. The methods used require the isolation of chloroplasts and are time consuming...
January 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093607/osmopriming-induced-salt-tolerance-during-seed-germination-of-alfalfa-most-likely-mediates-through-h2o2-signaling-and-upregulation-of-heme-oxygenase
#7
Rayhaneh Amooaghaie, Fatemeh Tabatabaie
The present study showed that osmopriming or pretreatment with low H2O2 doses (2 mM) for 6 h alleviated salt-reduced seed germination. The NADPH oxidase activity was the main source, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity might be a secondary source of H2O2 generation during osmopriming or H2O2 pretreatment. Hematin pretreatment similar to osmopriming improved salt-reduced seed germination that was coincident with the enhancement of heme oxygenase (HO) activity. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed that osmopriming or H2O2 pretreatment was able to upregulate heme oxygenase HO-1 transcription, while the application of N,N-dimethyl thiourea (DMTU as trap of endogenous H2O2) and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI as inhibitor of NADPHox) not only blocked the upregulation of HO but also reversed the osmopriming-induced salt attenuation...
January 16, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089951/bzr1-positively-regulates-freezing-tolerance-via-cbf-dependent-and-cbf-independent-pathways-in-arabidopsis
#8
Hui Li, Keyi Ye, Yiting Shi, Jinkui Cheng, Xiaoyan Zhang, Shuhua Yang
Cold stress is a major environmental factor that adversely affects plant growth and development. The C-repeat Binding Factor/DRE Binding Factor 1 (CBF/DREB1) transcriptional regulatory cascade has been shown to play important roles in plant response to cold. Here we demonstrate that two key components of BR signaling modulate freezing tolerance of plants. The loss-of-function mutant of the GSK3-like kinases involved in BR signaling, bin2-3 bil1 bil2, showed increased freezing tolerance, whereas overexpression of BIN2 resulted in hypersensitivity to freezing stress under both non-acclimated and acclimated conditions...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089857/na-k-atpase-activity-in-the-anoxic-turtle-trachemys-scripta-brain-at-different-acclimation-temperature
#9
Jonathan A W Stecyk, Anthony P Farrell, Matti Vornanen
Survival of prolonged anoxia requires a balance between cellular ATP demand and anaerobic ATP supply from glycolysis, especially in critical tissues such as the brain. To add insight into the ATP demand of the brain of the anoxia-tolerant red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) during prolonged periods of anoxic submergence, we quantified and compared the number of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase units and their molecular activity in brain tissue from turtles acclimated to either 21°C or 5°C and exposed to either normoxia or anoxia (6h 21°C; 14 d at 5°C)...
January 12, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089856/erythrocyte-heat-shock-protein-responses-to-chronic-in-vivo-and-acute-in-vitro-temperature-challenge-in-diploid-and-triploid-salmonids
#10
Pillai V Saranyan, Neil W Ross, Tillmann J Benfey
This research investigated how ploidy level (diploid versus triploid) affects the heat shock protein (HSP) response in erythrocytes under different thermal stress regimes, both in vivo and in vitro, in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) in order to address the question of why triploids typically have reduced thermal tolerance. A preliminary study confirmed that identical volumes of diploid and triploid erythrocytes (which equates to a smaller number of larger cells for triploids compared to diploids) did not differ in total protein synthesis rates...
January 13, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080218/temperature-dependence-of-multiple-sclerosis-mortality-rates-in-the-united-states
#11
Hongbing Sun
BACKGROUND: It is well known that multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are very sensitive to heat events. However, how MS patients respond to the significant temperature difference between the high- and low-latitude regions is not understood. OBJECTIVE: The goal is to identify the primary factor responsible for the fact that MS mortality rates of the United States is more than three times higher in the northern states than in the southern states. METHODS: Correlation coefficients between the age-adjusted mortality rate of MS as the underlying cause of death and the state average temperature, altitude, latitude, duration of sunshine hours, and solar radiation in the 48 contiguous states were compared...
January 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078676/the-ultrastructural-characterization-of-mitochondria-rich-cells-as-a-response-to-variations-in-salinity-in-two-types-of-teleostean-pseudobranch-milkfish-chanos-chanos-and-mozambique-tilapia-oreochromis-mossambicus
#12
Sheng-Hui Yang, Jeng-Dau Tsai, Chao-Kai Kang, Wen-Kai Yang, Hsiu-Ni Kung, Tsung-Han Lee
The pseudobranchs of two euryhaline teleost species, the milkfish (Chanos chanos) and the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), were studied after acclimization to different salinities using optical and electron microscopy. The milkfish pseudobranch was the lamellae-free type, with separate lamellae along the filaments containing two groups of mitochondria (Mt)-rich cells: chloride cells (CCs) and pseudobranch type cells (PSCs). Conversely, the tilapia pseudobranch was the embedded type, covered with connective tissues and with only one group of Mt-rich PSCs...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078086/unusual-aerobic-performance-at-high-temperatures-in-juvenile-chinook-salmon-oncorhynchus-tshawytscha
#13
Jamilynn B Poletto, Dennis E Cocherell, Sarah E Baird, Trinh X Nguyen, Valentina Cabrera-Stagno, Anthony P Farrell, Nann A Fangue
Understanding how the current warming trends affect fish populations is crucial for effective conservation and management. To help define suitable thermal habitat for juvenile Chinook salmon, the thermal performance of juvenile Chinook salmon acclimated to either 15 or 19°C was tested across a range of environmentally relevant acute temperature changes (from 12 to 26°C). Swim tunnel respirometers were used to measure routine oxygen uptake as a measure of routine metabolic rate (RMR) and oxygen uptake when swimming maximally as a measure of maximal metabolic rate (MMR) at each test temperature...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077391/acclimation-to-hypoxia-increases-carbohydrate-use-during-exercise-in-high-altitude-deer-mice
#14
Daphne S Lau, Alex D Connaty, Sajeni Mahalingam, Nastashya Wall, Zachary A Cheviron, Jay F Storz, Graham R Scott, Grant B McClelland
The low oxygen experienced at high altitude is a significant challenge to effective aerobic locomotion, as it requires sustained tissue oxygen delivery in addition to the appropriate allocation of metabolic substrates. Here we test whether high- and low-altitude deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) have evolved different acclimation responses to hypoxia with respect to muscle metabolism and fuel use during submaximal exercise. Using F1-generation high- and low-altitude deer mice that were born and raised in common conditions, we assessed 1) fuel use during exercise, 2) metabolic enzyme activities, and 3) gene expression for key transporters and enzymes in the gastrocnemius...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077387/focus-on-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-active-desalination-and-low-water-permeability-in-the-esophagus-of-eels-acclimated-to-seawater
#15
Pung-Pung Hwang
This an editorial focus.
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074485/light-temperature-and-tocopherol-status-influence-foliar-vascular-anatomy-and-leaf-function-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#16
Jared J Stewart, Stephanie K Polutchko, William W Adams, Christopher M Cohu, Coleman A Wenzl, Barbara Demmig-Adams
This study addressed whether the winter annual Arabidopsis thaliana can adjust foliar phloem and xylem anatomy both differentially and in parallel. In plants acclimated to hot versus cool temperature, foliar minor vein xylem-to-phloem ratio was greater, whereas xylem and phloem responded concomitantly to growth light intensity. Across all growth conditions, xylem anatomy correlated with transpiration rate, while phloem anatomy correlated with photosynthetic capacity for two plant lines (wildtype Col-0 and tocopherol-deficient vte1 mutant) irrespective of tocopherol status...
January 11, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073506/changes-in-morphological-plasticity-of-ulva-prolifera-under-different-environmental-conditions-a-laboratory-experiment
#17
Guang Gao, Zhihai Zhong, Xianghong Zhou, Juntian Xu
The large-scale green tides, consisting mainly of Ulva prolifera, have invaded the coastal zones of western Yellow Sea each year since 2008, resulting in tremendous impacts on the local environment and economy. A large number of studies have been conducted to investigate the physiological traits of U. prolifera to explain its dominance in the green tides. However, little has been reported regarding the response of U. prolifera to changing environmental factors via morphological variation. In our experiments, we found remarkable morphological acclimation of U...
November 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069780/a-chlorophyll-fluorescence-based-method-for-the-integrated-characterization-of-the-photophysiological-response-to-light-stress
#18
João Serôdio, William Schmidt, Silja Frankenbach
This work introduces a new experimental method for the comprehensive description of the physiological responses to light of photosynthetic organisms. It allows the integration in a single experiment of the main established manipulative chlorophyll fluorescence-based protocols. It enables the integrated characterization of the photophysiology of samples regarding photoacclimation state (generating non-sequential light-response curves of effective PSII quantum yield, electron transport rate or non-photochemical quenching), photoprotection capacity (running light stress-recovery experiments, quantifying non-photochemical quenching components) and the operation of photoinactivation and photorepair processes (measuring rate constants of photoinactivation and repair for different light levels and the relative quantum yield of photoinactivation)...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069302/biodegradation-of-the-veterinary-antibiotics-enrofloxacin-and-ceftiofur-and-associated-microbial-community-dynamics
#19
Diogo A M Alexandrino, Ana P Mucha, C Marisa R Almeida, Wei Gao, Zhongjun Jia, Maria F Carvalho
Fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins are two classes of veterinary antibiotics arising as pollutants of emerging concern. In this work, the microbial degradation of two representative antibiotics of both these classes, enrofloxacin (ENR) and ceftiofur (CEF), is reported. Biodegradation of the target antibiotics was investigated by supplementing the culture medium with ENR and CEF, individually and in mixture. Microbial inocula were obtained from rhizosphere sediments of plants derived from experimental constructed wetlands designed for the treatment of livestock wastewaters contaminated with trace amounts of these antibiotics...
January 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065926/image-based-3d-canopy-reconstruction-to-determine-potential-productivity-in-complex-multi-species-crop-systems
#20
Alexandra J Burgess, Renata Retkute, Michael P Pound, Sean Mayes, Erik H Murchie
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Intercropping systems contain two or more species simultaneously in close proximity. Due to contrasting features of the component crops, quantification of the light environment and photosynthetic productivity is extremely difficult. However it is an essential component of productivity. Here, a low-tech but high-resolution method is presented that can be applied to single- and multi-species cropping systems to facilitate characterization of the light environment. Different row layouts of an intercrop consisting of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and proso millet (Panicum miliaceum) have been used as an example and the new opportunities presented by this approach have been analysed...
January 8, 2017: Annals of Botany
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