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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453647/photosynthetic-acclimation-to-warming-in-tropical-forest-tree-seedlings
#1
Martijn Slot, Klaus Winter
Tropical forests have a mitigating effect on man-made climate change by acting as a carbon sink. For that effect to continue, tropical trees will have to acclimate to rising temperatures, but it is currently unknown whether they have this capacity. We grew seedlings of three tropical tree species over a range of temperature regimes (TGrowth = 25, 30, 35 °C) and measured the temperature response of photosynthetic CO2 uptake. All species showed signs of acclimation: the temperature-response curves shifted, such that the temperature at which photosynthesis peaked (TOpt) increased with increasing TGrowth...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447179/influence-of-inherent-mechanophenotype-on-competitive-cellular-adherence
#2
Manisha K Shah, Iris H Garcia-Pak, Eric M Darling
Understanding the role of mechanophenotype in competitive adherence of cells to other cells versus underlying substrates can inform such processes as tissue development, cancer progression, and wound healing. This study investigated how mechanophenotype, defined by whole-cell, elastic/viscoelastic properties for the perinuclear region, and cellular assembly are intertwined through the mechanosensing process. Atomic force microscopy was used to characterize the temporal elastic/viscoelastic properties of individual and assembled fibroblasts grown on substrates with elastic moduli above, below, or similar to whole-cell mechanophenotypes measured for three, genetically modified cell lines...
April 26, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445505/dominance-of-an-alien-shrub-rhus-typhina-over-a-native-shrub-vitex-negundo-var-heterophylla-under-variable-water-supply-patterns
#3
Ning Du, Xiangfeng Tan, Qiang Li, Xiao Liu, Wenxin Zhang, Renqing Wang, Jian Liu, Weihua Guo
Temporal heterogeneity of a resource supply can have a profound effect on the interactions between alien and native plant species and their potential invasiveness. Precipitation patterns may be variable and result in a higher heterogeneity of water supply with global climate change. In this study, an alien shrub species, Rhus typhina, introduced to China from North America and a native shrub species, Vitex negundo var. heterophylla, were grown in monoculture and mixed culture under different water supply regimes, with four levels of water supply frequencies but with a constant level of total supplied water...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444357/coordinated-regulations-of-mrna-synthesis-and-decay-during-cold-acclimation-in-arabidopsis-cells
#4
Toshihiro Arae, Shiori Isai, Akira Sakai, Katsuhiko Mineta, Masami Yokota Hirai, Yuya Suzuki, Shigehiko Kanaya, Junji Yamaguchi, Satoshi Naito, Yukako Chiba
Plants possess a cold acclimation system to acquire freezing tolerance through pre-exposure to non-freezing low temperatures. The transcriptional cascade of C-repeat binding factors (CBFs)/dehydration response element-binding factors (DREBs) is considered a major transcriptional regulatory pathway during cold acclimation. However, little is known regarding the functional significance of mRNA stability regulation in the response of gene expression to cold stress. The actual level of individual mRNAs is determined by a balance between mRNA synthesis and degradation...
April 21, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443536/effects-of-nesting-material-on-energy-homeostasis-in-balb-canncrl-c57bl-6ncrl-and-crl-cd1-icr-mice-housed-at-20-%C3%A2-c
#5
Daniel Taylor, Angela Green, Brianna Gaskill
Discrepancies exist between the preferred temperature range for mice (26 to 32 °C) and current recommendations (20 to26 °C), which may alter metabolism and negatively affect studies using mice. Previous research indicates that nesting materialcan alleviate cold stress in mice; therefore, we sought to determine the effects of the amount of nesting material provided(0, 6, or 12 g) on heat energy loss and energy balance in 3 mouse strains housed at currently recommended temperatures duringthe daytime, a period of presumed inactivity...
April 25, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443116/comparative-analysis-of-phosphoproteome-remodeling-after-short-term-water-stress-and-aba-treatments-versus-longer-term-water-stress-acclimation
#6
Govinal B Bhaskara, Thao T Nguyen, Tsu-Hao Yang, Paul E Verslues
Several studies have used short term dehydration, osmotic stress or Abscisic Acid (ABA) treatments to identify the initial protein phosphorylation-dephosphorylation responses to drought and low water potential or ABA treatments. However, longer term drought acclimation leads to altered expression of many kinases and phosphatases suggesting that it may also produce unique changes in phosphoproteome composition. To get a better overview of the state of drought-related phosphoproteomics and investigate this question of short versus longer term phosphoproteome regulation, we compared three Arabidopsis thaliana studies analyzing short term phosphoproteome changes to recent data from our laboratory analyzing phosphoproteome changes after a longer drought acclimation treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443082/inbred-mouse-populations-exhibit-intergenerational-changes-in-intestinal-microbiota-composition-and-function-following-introduction-to-a-facility
#7
Jocelyn M Choo, Paul J Trim, Lex E X Leong, Guy C J Abell, Carly Brune, Nicole Jeffries, Steve Wesselingh, T N Dear, Marten F Snel, Geraint B Rogers
Inbred mice are used to investigate many aspects of human physiology, including susceptibility to disease and response to therapies. Despite increasing evidence that the composition and function of the murine intestinal microbiota can substantially influence a broad range of experimental outcomes, relatively little is known about microbiome dynamics within experimental mouse populations. We investigated changes in the intestinal microbiome between C57BL/6J mice spanning six generations (assessed at generations 1, 2, 3, and 6), following their introduction to a stringently controlled facility...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441053/evaluation-of-oxygen-administration-with-a-high-flow-nasal-cannula-to-clinically-normal-dogs
#8
Jennifer L Daly, Christine L Guenther, Jamie M Haggerty, Iain Keir
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and efficacy of oxygen administration by use of a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in sedated clinically normal dogs. ANIMALS 6 healthy adult dogs undergoing routine dental prophylaxis. PROCEDURES Dogs were sedated with butorphanol tartrate and dexmedetomidine. An esophageal balloon catheter was inserted into the esophagus, a double-pronged nasal cannula was inserted into the nares, and a catheter was inserted into the dorsal pedal artery. Dogs were positioned in right lateral recumbency...
May 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438763/the-performing-animal-causes-and-consequences-of-body-remodelling-and-metabolic-adjustments-in-red-knots-facing-contrasting-thermal-environments
#9
François Vézina, Alexander R Gerson, Christopher G Guglielmo, Theunis Piersma
Using red knots (Calidris canutus) as a model, we determined how changes in mass and metabolic activity of organs relate to temperature-induced variation in metabolic performance. In cold-acclimated birds, we expected large muscles and heart, improved oxidative capacity and lipid transport, and we predicted that this would explain variation in maximal thermogenic capacity (Msum). We also expected larger digestive and excretory organs in these birds and predicted that this would explain variation in basal metabolic rate (BMR)...
April 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437644/substrate-inhibition-and-concentration-control-in-an-uasb-anammox-process
#10
Haiyuan Ma, Qigui Niu, Yanlong Zhang, Shilong He, Yu-You Li
An UASB-Anammox reactor was operated for more than one year to study the process performance variations respond to the nitrogen loading rate (NLR) and substrate concentration. The IC10 (451.1mg/L), IC50 (725.3mg/L) and the prospected threshold of influent total nitrogen (TN) concentration were simulated. A stable TN removal efficiency was obtained when the TN influent was controlled. The disequilibrium distribution of the substrate following the plug flow with the height of the reactor resulted in significant variations in specific Anammox activity from the bottom to the top of the reactor (348→3mgN/gVSS/d)...
April 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437174/more-than-fever-thermoregulatory-responses-to-immunological-stimulation-and-consequences-of-thermoregulatory-strategy-on-innate-immunity-in-gopher-tortoises-gopherus-polyphemus
#11
Jeffrey M Goessling, Craig Guyer, Mary T Mendonça
Organisms possess a range of thermoregulatory strategies that may vary in response to sickness, thereby driving important life-history consequences. Because the immune system is vital to maintaining organism function, understanding the suite of immune responses to infection indicates basic costs and benefits of physiological strategies. Here, we assessed consequences of thermoregulation and seasonality on immune function in both immunologically stimulated and nonstimulated gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus)...
July 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436818/dimensional-analysis-an-alternative-method-for-converting-between-interrelated-units-of-both-timebase-and-sensitivity-in-eeg
#12
Andrew Todd Ham
Neurodiagnostics professionals expected to perform EEG calculations involving timebase and sensitivity may benefit from an additional method in which to solve for the answers. Dimensional analysis (DA) is an efficient, organized method that generates answers in a consolidated context. Its coherent, streamlined mechanism allows for efficient computations involving sets of values with diametric units. One of its key advantages is its ability to emphasize conceptualization, which may be attractive to those with that mathematical personality...
2017: Neurodiagnostic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433751/elevated-chaperone-proteins-are-a-feature-of-winter-freeze-avoidance-by-larvae-of-the-goldenrod-gall-moth-epiblema-scudderiana
#13
Guijun Zhang, Janet M Storey, Kenneth B Storey
Winter survival for many insect species includes a need to maintain metabolic homeostasis and structural/functional integrity of macromolecules not only over a wide range of cold temperatures but also in response to rapid temperature change. Chaperones are well-known to protect/stabilize protein structure with regard to heat stress but less is known about their potential involvement in long-term protection of the proteome at subzero temperatures. The present study assessed the participation of chaperone proteins in the cold hardiness of larvae of the goldenrod gall moth, Epiblema scudderiana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera, Olethreutidae), monitoring changes in nine proteins over the winter months as well as their responses to laboratory cold acclimation or anoxia exposure...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431359/reconstruction-of-microbial-community-structures-as-evidences-for-soil-redox-coupled-reductive-dechlorination-of-pcp-in-a-mangrove-soil
#14
Yan Xu, Yan He, Xianjin Tang, Philip C Brookes, Jianming Xu
The aim was to investigate the influence of pentachlorophenol (PCP) on the soil microbial communities and the coupled mechanism between PCP reductive dechlorination and soil redox under anaerobic condition. Accordingly, a slurry incubation experiment was carried out in which bacterial and archaeal communities were detected by MiSeq amplicon sequencing. The original microbial community balance was gradually disrupted and new microbial structure was reconstructed subsequently through self-regulation and acclimation during PCP transformation, coupling with the changes of soil biogeochemical redox dynamics...
April 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428847/lichen-acclimation-to-changing-environments-photobiont-switching-vs-climate-specific-uniqueness-in-psora-decipiens
#15
Laura Williams, Claudia Colesie, Anna Ullmann, Martin Westberg, Mats Wedin, Burkhard Büdel
Unraveling the complex relationship between lichen fungal and algal partners has been crucial in understanding lichen dispersal capacity, evolutionary processes, and responses in the face of environmental change. However, lichen symbiosis remains enigmatic, including the ability of a single fungal partner to associate with various algal partners. Psora decipiens is a characteristic lichen of biological soil crusts (BSCs), across semi-arid, temperate, and alpine biomes, which are particularly susceptible to habitat loss and climate change...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426746/low-levels-of-cd-induce-persisting-epigenetic-modifications-and-acclimation-mechanisms-in-the-earthworm-lumbricus-terrestris
#16
Maja Šrut, Victoria Drechsel, Martina Höckner
Toxic effects of cadmium (Cd), a common soil pollutant, are still not very well understood, particularly in regard to its epigenetic impact. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess DNA methylation changes and their persistence in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris upon chronic low dose Cd exposure using methylation sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). Moreover, the biomarker response and fitness of the earthworms, as well as the expression of detoxification-related genes (metallothionein (MT) and phytochelatin synthase (PCS)) was evaluated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424950/estimated-work-ability-in-warm-outdoor-environments-depends-on-the-chosen-heat-stress-assessment-metric
#17
Peter Bröde, Dusan Fiala, Bruno Lemke, Tord Kjellstrom
With a view to occupational effects of climate change, we performed a simulation study on the influence of different heat stress assessment metrics on estimated workability (WA) of labour in warm outdoor environments. Whole-day shifts with varying workloads were simulated using as input meteorological records for the hottest month from four cities with prevailing hot (Dallas, New Delhi) or warm-humid conditions (Managua, Osaka), respectively. In addition, we considered the effects of adaptive strategies like shielding against solar radiation and different work-rest schedules assuming an acclimated person wearing light work clothes (0...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423029/evaluating-dispersal-potential-of-an-invasive-fish-by-the-use-of-aerobic-scope-and-osmoregulation-capacity
#18
Jane W Behrens, Mikael van Deurs, Emil A F Christensen
Non-indigenous species (NIS) can impact marine biodiversity and ecosystem structure and function. Once introduced into a new region, secondary dispersal is limited by the physiology of the organism in relation to the ambient environment and by complex interactions between a suite of ecological factors such as presence of predators, competitors, and parasites. Early prediction of dispersal potential and future 'area of impact' is challenging, but also a great asset in taking appropriate management actions. Aerobic scope (AS) in fish has been linked to various fitness-related parameters, and may be valuable in determining dispersal potential of aquatic invasive species in novel environments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421137/the-effect-of-temperature-on-development-and-behaviour-of-relict-leopard-frog-tadpoles
#19
Jeffrey A Goldstein, Karin von Seckendorr Hoff, Stanley D Hillyard
Relict leopard frog (Rana [Lithobates] onca) tadpoles were obtained shortly after hatching at Gosner stage 25 and raised in aquaria maintained at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. Development was arrested in the 15°C group, and survivorship declined to 64% after 191 days. However, 80% of the surviving larvae remained alive after the temperature was increased to 25°C. Of these, 96% reached metamorphosis. Survivorship of the 20, 25 and 30°C acclimation groups was 82, 94 and 66%, respectively, whereas none survived at 35°C...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419956/towards-improved-behavioural-testing-in-aquatic-toxicology-acclimation-and-observation-times-are-important-factors-when-designing-behavioural-tests-with-fish
#20
Steven D Melvin, Marie A Petit, Marion C Duvignacq, John P Sumpter
The quality and reproducibility of science has recently come under scrutiny, with criticisms spanning disciplines. In aquatic toxicology, behavioural tests are currently an area of controversy since inconsistent findings have been highlighted and attributed to poor quality science. The problem likely relates to limitations to our understanding of basic behavioural patterns, which can influence our ability to design statistically robust experiments yielding ecologically relevant data. The present study takes a first step towards understanding baseline behaviours in fish, including how basic choices in experimental design might influence behavioural outcomes and interpretations in aquatic toxicology...
April 14, 2017: Chemosphere
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