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Dilawar Farhan Shams, Alexandre Rubio, Panagiotis Elefsiniotis, Naresh Singhal
Nitrate concentration in the final effluent is a key issue in pre-denitrification biological treatment systems. This study investigated post-denitrification with alginate beads containing immobilized activated sludge microorganisms and organic carbon source. A batch study was first performed to identify suitable carbon sources among acetate, glucose, calcium tartrate, starch and canola oil on the basis of nitrate removal and bead stability. Canola oil and starch beads exhibited significantly higher denitrification rates, greater bead stability and lower nitrite accumulation (6 mg/L and 10 mg/L, respectively)...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Anna P Muir, Flavia L D Nunes, Stanislas F Dubois, Fabrice Pernet
Acclimation and adaptation, which are key to species survival in a changing climate, can be observed in terms of membrane lipid composition. Remodelling membrane lipids, via homeoviscous adaptation (HVA), counteracts membrane dysfunction due to temperature in poikilotherms. In order to assess the potential for acclimation and adaptation in the honeycomb worm, Sabellaria alveolata, a reef-building polychaete that supports high biodiversity, we carried out common-garden experiments using individuals from along its latitudinal range...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Vasileios Ziogas, Georgia Tanou, Maya Belghazi, Grigorios Diamantidis, Athanassios Molassiotis
BABA or GABA induces salinity acclimation during citrus seeds germination via alternation of specific proteins (e.g., citrin). The impact of four elicitors, namely hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), β-amino butyric acid (BABA), γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), in citrus seed germination under salinity (150 mM NaCl) was tested. The germination potential was adversely affected by NaCl-alone treatment. Pretreatment with H2O2 or the NaHS-H2S donor prior to salinity had no significant effect in germination process, however, BABA and GABA substantially improved seed acclimation to salinity, as evidenced by increased germination percentage and radicle length...
October 19, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Azam Moshtaghi, Md Lifat Rahi, Viet Tuan Nguyen, Peter B Mather, David A Hurwood
BACKGROUND: Understanding the genomic basis of osmoregulation (candidate genes and/or molecular mechanisms controlling the phenotype) addresses one of the fundamental questions in evolutionary ecology. Species distributions and adaptive radiations are thought to be controlled by environmental salinity levels, and efficient osmoregulatory (ionic balance) ability is the main mechanism to overcome the problems related to environmental salinity gradients. METHODS: To better understand how osmoregulatory performance in freshwater (FW) crustaceans allow individuals to acclimate and adapt to raised salinity conditions, here we (i), reviewed the literature on genes that have been identified to be associated with osmoregulation in FW crustaceans, and (ii), performed a transcriptomic analysis using cDNA libraries developed from mRNA isolated from three important osmoregulatory tissues (gill, antennal gland, hepatopancreas) and total mRNA from post larvae taken from the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium australiense using Illumina deep sequencing technology...
2016: PeerJ
Jie Wang, Junfeng Wan, Haisong Li, Hongli Li, Christophe Dagot, Yan Wang
The potential of anoxic biological arsenite oxidation with nitrate as the sole electron acceptor was tested by using the acclimatized activated sludge which was chronically exposed under arsenite and nitrate coexisted aquatic environment. The activated sludge cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor was fed with arsenite and nitrate as the main substrates over six months. A series of batch experiments were conducted with acclimated sludge. Results showed that no obvious inhibition was observed in the anoxic arsenite oxidation linked to nitrate and nitrite reduction at the concentration of arsenite up to 35 mg As(III) L(-1)...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Technology
Benjamin Rey, Cyril Dégletagne, Claude Duchamp
In this article, we present differentially expressed gene profiles in the pectoralis muscle of wild juvenile king penguins that were either naturally acclimated to cold marine environment or experimentally immersed in cold water as compared with penguin juveniles that never experienced cold water immersion. Transcriptomic data were obtained by hybridizing penguins total cDNA on Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome arrays and analyzed using maxRS algorithm, "Transcriptome analysis in non-model species: a new method for the analysis of heterologous hybridization on microarrays" (Dégletagne et al...
December 2016: Data in Brief
Antonio López-Orenes, María C Bueso, Héctor M Conesa, Antonio A Calderón, María A Ferrer
Soil pollution by heavy metals/metalloids (HMMs) is a problem worldwide. To prevent dispersion of contaminated particles by erosion, the maintenance of a vegetative cover is needed. Successful plant establishment in multi-polluted soils can be hampered not only by HMM toxicities, but also by soil nutrient deficiencies and the co-occurrence of abiotic stresses. Some plant species are able to thrive under these multi-stress scenarios often linked to marked fluctuations in environmental factors. This study aimed to investigate the metabolic adjustments involved in Zygophyllum fabago acclimative responses to conditions prevailing in HMM-enriched mine-tailings piles, during Mediterranean spring and summer...
October 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Hassan Mirmonsef, Hanne D Hornum, John Jensen, Martin Holmstrup
Contaminated soil is a problem throughout the industrialized world, and a significant proportion of these sites are polluted with heavy metals such as copper. Ecological risk assessment of contaminated sites requires ecotoxicological studies with spiked soils as well as in-situ ecological observations. Here, we report laboratory and field assessment of copper toxicity for earthworms at a Danish site (Hygum) exclusively contaminated with an increasing gradient in copper from background to highly toxic levels (>1000mgkg(-1) dry soil)...
October 14, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
L Dollet, J Magré, M Joubert, C Le May, A Ayer, L Arnaud, C Pecqueur, V Blouin, B Cariou, X Prieur
Loss-of-function mutations in BSCL2 are responsible for Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy, a rare disorder characterized by near absence of adipose tissue associated with insulin resistance. Seipin-deficient (Bscl2(-/-)) mice display an almost total loss of white adipose tissue (WAT) with residual brown adipose tissue (BAT). Previous cellular studies have shown that seipin deficiency alters white adipocyte differentiation. In this study, we aimed to decipher the consequences of seipin deficiency in BAT...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Claudia A Bustamante, Laura L Monti, Julieta Gabilondo, Federico Scossa, Gabriel Valentini, Claudio O Budde, María V Lara, Alisdair R Fernie, María F Drincovich
Reconfiguration of the metabolome is a key component involved in the acclimation to cold in plants; however, few studies have been devoted to the analysis of the overall metabolite changes after cold storage of fruits prior to consumption. Here, metabolite profiling of six peach varieties with differential susceptibility to develop mealiness, a chilling-injury (CI) symptom, was performed. According to metabolic content at harvest; after cold treatment; and after ripening, either following cold treatment or not; peach fruits clustered in distinct groups, depending on harvest-time, cold treatment, and ripening state...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Agnieszka Ilczuk, Ewelina Jacygrad
Cornus alba L. (white dogwood) is an important ornamental shrub having a wide range of applications such as reforestation programs and soil retention systems. The vegetative propagation of dogwood by cuttings may be slow, difficult, and cultivar dependent; therefore, an improved micropropagation method was developed. Nodal stem segments of C. alba cultivars 'Aurea' and 'Elegantissima' were cultured on media enriched with six different sources of macronutrients. Media were supplemented with either N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) or thidiazuron (TDZ) in combination with 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA)...
2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Plant: Journal of the Tissue Culture Association
Janet C Tait, Evan W Mercer, Lucie Gerber, George N Robertson, William S Marshall
In eurythermic vertebrates, acclimation to the cold may produce changes in physiological control systems. We hypothesize that relatively direct osmosensitive control will operate better than adrenergic receptor mediated control of ion transport in cold vs. warm conditions. Fish were acclimated to full strength seawater (SW) at 21°C and 5°C for four weeks, gill samples and blood were taken and opercular epithelia mounted in Ussing style chambers. Short-circuit current (Isc) at 21°C and 5°C (measured at acclimation temperature), was significantly inhibited by the α2-adrenergic agonist clonidine but the ED50 dose was significantly higher in cold conditions (93...
October 13, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Ayumi Shiraki, Wakana Azuma, Keiko Kuroda, H Roaki Ishii
Cupressoid (scale-like) leaves are morphologically and functionally intermediate between stems and leaves. While past studies on height acclimation of cupressoid leaves have focused on acclimation to the vertical light gradient, the relationship between morphology and hydraulic function remains unexplored. Here, we compared physiological and morphological characteristics between treetop and lower-crown leaves of 100-year-old Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl. trees (~27 m tall) to investigate whether height-acclimation compensates for hydraulic constraints...
October 15, 2016: Tree Physiology
Pavel Pospíšil, Yasusi Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: Photosystem II proteins of higher plant chloroplasts are prone to oxidative stress, and most prominently the reaction center-binding D1 protein is damaged under light stress and heat stress. The reactive oxygen species produced under these stress conditions have been suggested to be responsible for the protein injury. SCOPE OF REVIEW: Recently, it has been shown that the primary and secondary products of non-enzymatic and enzymatic lipid peroxidation have a capability to modify photosystem II proteins...
October 11, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Nobuhiro Suzuki
As sessile organisms, plants are continuously exposed to various environmental stresses. In contrast to the controlled conditions employed in many researches, more than one or more abiotic and/or biotic stresses simultaneously occur and highly impact growth of plants and crops in the field environments. Therefore, an urgent need to generate crops with enhanced tolerance to stress combinations exists. Researchers, however, focused on the mechanisms underlying acclimation of plants to combined stresses only in recent studies...
October 14, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Jean-Christophe Domec, Duncan D Smith, Kate McCulloh
Here we summarize studies on the effects of elevated [CO2 ] (CO2(e) ) on the structure and function of plant hydraulic architecture, and explore the implications of those changes using a model. Changes in conduit diameter and hydraulic conductance due to CO2(e) vary among species. Ring-porous species tend toward an increase in conduit size and consequently conductivity. The effect in diffuse-porous species is much more limited. In conifers the results are mixed, some species showing minor changes in xylem structure, while other studies found increases in tracheid density and diameter...
October 14, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Donald T Warren, Jennifer M Donelson, Mark I McCormick, Maud C O Ferrari, Philip L Munday
Climate change will affect key ecological processes that structure natural communities, but the outcome of interactions between individuals and species will depend on their thermal plasticity. We tested how short- and long-term exposure to projected future temperatures affects intraspecific and interspecific competitive interactions in two species of coral reef damselfishes. In conspecific contests, juvenile Ambon damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, exhibited no change in aggressive interactions after 4d exposure to higher temperatures...
2016: PloS One
Xin-Yu Liu, Deng-Bao Yang, Yan-Chao Xu, Marianne O L Gronning, Fang Zhang, De-Hua Wang, John R Speakman
Brandt's voles have an annual cycle of body weight and adiposity. These changes can be induced in the laboratory by manipulation of photoperiod. In the present study, male captive bred Brandt's voles aged 35 days were acclimated to a short day (SD) photoperiod (8L:16D) for 70 days. A subgroup of individuals (n=16) were implanted with transmitters to monitor physical activity and body temperature. They were then randomly allocated into long day (LD=16L:8D) (n=19: 8 with transmitters) and SD (n=18: 8 with transmitters) groups for an additional 70 days...
September 30, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Wande Liu, Jianrong Su
Acclimation to changing light conditions plays a crucial role in determining the competitive capability of tree species. There is currently limited information about acclimation to natural light gradient and its effect on shoot structure and biomass in Taxus species. We examined the acclimation of the leaf and shoot axis morphology, structure and biomass allocation of Taxus yunnanensis and T. chinensis var. mairei under three different natural light environments, full daylight, 40-60% full daylight and <10% full daylight...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Tianzheng Yu, Patricia Deuster, Yifan Chen
The regulation of mitochondrial morphology is closely coupled to cell survival during stress. We examined changes in the mitochondrial morphology of mouse C2C12 skeletal muscle cells in response to heat acclimation and heat shock exposure. Acclimated cells showed a greater survival rate during heat shock exposure than non-acclimated cells, and were characterized by long interconnected mitochondria and reduced expression of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) for their mitochondrial fractions. Exposure of C2C12 muscle cells to heat shock led to apoptotic death featuring activation of caspase 3/7, release of cytochrome c and loss of cell membrane integrity...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Physiology
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