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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791517/costs-of-cold-acclimation-on-survival-and-reproductive-behavior-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
Elizabeth R Everman, Jennifer L Delzeit, F Kate Hunter, Jennifer M Gleason, Theodore J Morgan
Fitness is determined by the ability of an organism to both survive and reproduce; however, the mechanisms that lead to increased survival may not have the same effect on reproductive success. We used nineteen natural Drosophila melanogaster genotypes from the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel to determine if adaptive plasticity following short-term acclimation through rapid cold-hardening (RCH) affects mating behavior and mating success. We confirmed that exposure to the acclimation temperature is beneficial to survival following cold stress; however, we found that this same acclimation temperature exposure led to less efficient male courtship and a significant decrease in the likelihood of mating...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789939/effects-of-heat-stress-in-the-leaf-mitotic-cell-cycle-and-chromosomes-of-four-wine-producing-grapevine-varieties
#2
Ana Carvalho, Fernanda Leal, Manuela Matos, José Lima-Brito
Grapevine varieties respond differentially to heat stress (HS). HS ultimately reduces the photosynthesis and respiratory performance. However, the HS effects in the leaf nuclei and mitotic cells of grapevine are barely known. This work intends to evaluate the HS effects in the leaf mitotic cell cycle and chromosomes of four wine-producing varieties: Touriga Franca (TF), Touriga Nacional (TN), Rabigato, and Viosinho. In vitro plants with 11 months were used in a stepwise acclimation and recovery (SAR) experimental setup comprising different phases: heat acclimation period (3 h-32 °C), extreme HS (1 h-42 °C), and two recovery periods (3 h-32 °C and 24 h-25 °C), and compared to control plants (maintained in vitro at 25 °C)...
May 22, 2018: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789085/acute-exposure-to-low-to-moderate-carbon-dioxide-levels-and-submariner-decision-making
#3
Christopher D Rodeheffer, Sarah Chabal, John M Clarke, David M Fothergill
BACKGROUND: Submarines routinely operate with higher levels of ambient carbon dioxide (CO2) (i.e., 2000 - 5000 ppm) than what is typically considered normal (i.e., 400 - 600 ppm). Although significant cognitive impairments are rarely reported at these elevated CO2 levels, recent studies using the Strategic Management Simulation (SMS) test have found impairments in decision-making performance during acute CO2 exposure at levels as low as 1000 ppm. This is a potential concern for submarine operations, as personnel regularly make mission-critical decisions that affect the safety and efficiency of the vessel and its crew while exposed to similar levels of CO2...
June 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784074/effects-of-fenbendazole-impregnated-feed-and-topical-moxidectin-during-quarantine-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-c57bl-6-mice
#4
Scott W Korte, Craig L Franklin, Rebecca A Dorfmeyer, Aaron C Ericsson
To protect the biosecurity of research rodent colonies, research institutions frequently require a quarantine period for live animals transferred into their facilities. Quarantine practices often include antibiotic and antiparasitic treatment with drugs such as fenbendazole and macrolide lactones. The influence of these compounds on the resident gut microbiota of mice is unknown, and any effects might subsequently affect model reproducibility. To test the influence of standard quarantine procedures on the composition of the microbiota, C57BL/6 mice, purchased from 2 different commercial suppliers, were randomly assigned to treatment groups (n = 12) by vendor and treated with fenbendazole-supplemented feed, topical moxidectin, both treatments, or no treatment (control), according to our institution's standard treatment regimen and duration...
May 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783951/the-transcriptomic-and-proteomic-responses-of-daphnia-pulex-to-changes-in-temperature-and-food-supply-comprise-environment-specific-and-clone-specific-elements
#5
Dörthe Becker, Yann Reydelet, Jacqueline A Lopez, Craig Jackson, John K Colbourne, Susan Hawat, Michael Hippler, Bettina Zeis, Rüdiger J Paul
BACKGROUND: Regulatory adjustments to acute and chronic temperature changes are highly important for aquatic ectotherms because temperature affects their metabolic rate as well as the already low oxygen concentration in water, which can upset their energy balance. This also applies to severe changes in food supply. Thus, we studied on a molecular level (transcriptomics and/or proteomics) the immediate responses to heat stress and starvation and the acclimation to different temperatures in two clonal isolates of the model microcrustacean Daphnia pulex from more or less stressful environments, which showed a higher (clone M) or lower (clone G) tolerance to heat and starvation...
May 21, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781253/developmental-plasticity-in-reptiles-insights-from-temperature-dependent-gene-expression-in-wall-lizard-embryos
#6
Nathalie Feiner, Alfredo Rago, Geoffrey M While, Tobias Uller
Many features of the development of reptiles are affected by temperature, but very little is known about how incubation temperature affects gene expression. Here, we provide a detailed case study of gene expression profiles in common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) embryos developing at stressfully low (15°C) versus benign (24°C) temperature. For maximum comparability between the two temperature regimes, we selected a precise developmental stage early in embryogenesis defined by the number of somites. We used a split-clutch design and lizards from four different populations to evaluate the robustness of temperature-responsive gene expression profiles...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778222/exploring-dinoflagellate-biology-with-high-throughput-proteomics
#7
REVIEW
David Morse, Sirius P K Tse, Samuel C L Lo
Dinoflagellates are notorious for their ability to form the harmful algal blooms known as "red tides," yet the mechanisms underlying bloom formation remain poorly understood. Despite recent advances in nucleic acid sequencing, which have generated transcriptomes from a wide range of species exposed to a variety of different conditions, measuring changes in RNA levels have not generally produced great insight into dinoflagellate cell biology or environmental physiology, nor do we have a thorough grasp on the molecular events underpinning bloom formation...
May 2018: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778201/acclimation-strategies-in-gilts-to-control-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae-infection
#8
REVIEW
Laura Garza-Moreno, Joaquim Segalés, Maria Pieters, Anna Romagosa, Marina Sibila
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) is the primary causative agent of enzootic pneumonia (EP), one of the most economically important infectious disease for the swine industry worldwide. M. hyopneumoniae transmission occurs mainly by direct contact (nose-to-nose) between infected to susceptible pigs as well as from infected dams to their offspring (sow-to-piglet). Since disease severity has been correlated with M. hyopneumoniae prevalence at weaning in some studies, and gilts are considered the main bacterial shedders, an effective gilt acclimation program should help controlling M...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778148/qualitatively-and-quantitatively-assessing-the-aggregation-ability-of-sludge-during-aerobic-granulation-process-combined-xdlvo-theory-with-physicochemical-properties
#9
Shasha Yuan, Mingming Gao, Hui Ma, Muhammad Zaheer Afzal, Yun-Kun Wang, Mingyu Wang, Hai Xu, Shu-Guang Wang, Xin-Hua Wang
Inexact mechanism of aerobic granulation still impedes optimization and application of aerobic granules. In this study, the extended Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (XDLVO) theory and physicochemical properties were combined to assess the aggregation ability of sludge during aerobic granulation process qualitatively and quantitatively. Results show that relative hydrophobicity of sludge and polysaccharide content of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) increased, while electronegativity of sludge decreased during acclimation phase...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777170/systematic-biology-analysis-on-photosynthetic-carbon-metabolism-of-maize-leaf-following-sudden-heat-shock-under-elevated-co-2
#10
Mingnan Qu, Genyun Chen, James A Bunce, Xiaocen Zhu, Richard C Sicher
Plants would experience more complex environments, such as sudden heat shock (SHS) stress combined with elevated CO2 in the future, and might adapt to this stressful condition by optimizing photosynthetic carbon metabolism (PCM). It is interesting to understand whether this acclimation process would be altered in different genotypes of maize under elevated CO2 , and which metabolites represent key indicators reflecting the photosynthetic rates (PN ) following SHS. Although B76 had greater reduction in PN during SHS treatment, our results indicated that PN in genotype B76, displayed faster recovery after SHS treatment under elevated CO2 than in genotype B106...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775611/reduced-adiposity-by-compensatory-wat-browning-upon-ibat-removal-in-mice
#11
Zhengyu Piao, Baiqiang Zhai, Xiaoxiao Jiang, Meng Dong, Changguo Yan, Jun Lin, Wanzhu Jin
The strong effects of classic brown adipose tissue (BAT) and recruited beige adipocytes in treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome have been attracting increasing research interest. Cold treatment is an effective, convenient approach to stimulate BAT activity and induce white adipose tissue (WAT) browning. Here, we utilized prolonged cold exposure (from 2 h to 2 weeks in a 4° cold chamber) to elucidate dynamic changes in BAT and in WAT browning during acute and chronic cold exposure in mice. BAT mass decreased quickly, with reduced lipid droplet sizes within 8 h of cold exposure owing to the utilization of BAT pre-storage triglycerides, and subsequently increased during prolonged cold exposure...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775125/influence-of-tetramethylammonium-hydroxide-tmah-on-the-microbial-properties-of-anaerobic-granular-sludge-acclimated-to-isoplophyl-alcohol-ipa-wastewater-under-psychrophilic-conditions
#12
Tsuyoshi Danshita, Yuma Miyaoka, Norihisa Matsuura, Haruhiko Sumino, Takashi Yamaguchi, Kazuaki Syutsubo
In this study, a continuous flow experiment was conducted in which a lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor at psychrophilic conditions (18-19°C) was fed with artificial wastewater, containing tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and isoplophyl alcohol (IPA), from the electronics industry. This was done to evaluate process performance and microbial properties of the granular sludge that was retained in the reactor. The inoculated granular sludge was precultured with IPA containing wastewater but not TMAH; as a result, no degradation was observed in 30 days of operation...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774944/can-traits-predict-individual-growth-performance-a-test-in-a-hyperdiverse-tropical-forest
#13
Lourens Poorter, Carolina V Castilho, Juliana Schietti, Rafael S Oliveira, Flávia R C Costa
The functional trait approach has, as a central tenet, that plant traits are functional and shape individual performance, but this has rarely been tested in the field. Here, we tested the individual-based trait approach in a hyperdiverse Amazonian tropical rainforest and evaluated intraspecific variation in trait values, plant strategies at the individual level, and whether traits are functional and predict individual performance. We evaluated > 1300 tree saplings belonging to > 383 species, measured 25 traits related to growth and defense, and evaluated the effects of environmental conditions, plant size, and traits on stem growth...
May 18, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773581/dynamic-changes-between-two-lhcx-related-energy-quenching-sites-control-diatom-photoacclimation
#14
Lucilla Taddei, Volha Chukhutsina, Bernard Lepetit, Giulio R Stella, Roberto Bassi, Herbert van Amerongen, Jean-Pierre Bouly, Marianne Jaubert, Giovanni Finazzi, Angela Falciatore
Marine diatoms are prominent phytoplankton organisms, optimally performing photosynthesis in extremely variable environments. Diatoms possess a strong ability to dissipate excess absorbed energy as heat via non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). This process relies on changes in carotenoid pigment composition (xanthophyll cycle) and on specific members of the light-harvesting complex (LHC) family specialized in photoprotection (LHCX), which potentially act as NPQ effectors. However, the link between light stress, NPQ, and the existence of different LHCX isoforms is not understood in these organisms...
May 17, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770969/homeostatic-levels-of-nonstructural-carbohydrates-after-13-yr-of-drought-and-irrigation-in-pinus-sylvestris
#15
Leonie Schönbeck, Arthur Gessler, Günter Hoch, Nate G McDowell, Andreas Rigling, Marcus Schaub, Mai-He Li
Nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) are important for the growth and survival of trees. Drought may lead to a decrease in tree growth and to NSC depletion, whereas increased soil moisture in otherwise dry ecosystems may increase growth and NSC concentrations. A long-term (13 yr) irrigation experiment was conducted in a Pinus sylvestris-dominated forest located at the dry margin of the species in southern Switzerland. We measured the relative leaf area, growth, NSCs, needle δ13 C, [N] and [P] in trees on control and irrigated plots...
May 17, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768936/nutrient-removal-and-biomass-production-advances-in-microalgal-biotechnology-for-wastewater-treatment
#16
Sudharsanam Abinandan, Suresh R Subashchandrabose, Kadiyala Venkateswarlu, Mallavarapu Megharaj
Owing to certain drawbacks, such as energy-intensive operations in conventional modes of wastewater treatment (WWT), there has been an extensive search for alternative strategies in treatment technology. Biological modes for treating wastewaters are one of the finest technologies in terms of economy and efficiency. An integrated biological approach with chemical flocculation is being conventionally practiced in several-sewage and effluent treatment plants around the world. Overwhelming responsiveness to treat wastewaters especially by using microalgae is due to their simplest photosynthetic mechanism and ease of acclimation to various habitats...
May 17, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767812/tolerance-of-subzero-winter-cold-in-kudzu-pueraria-montana-var-lobata
#17
Heather A Coiner, Katharine Hayhoe, Lewis H Ziska, Jeff Van Dorn, Rowan F Sage
The use of species distribution as a climate proxy for ecological forecasting is thought to be acceptable for invasive species. Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) is an important invasive whose northern distribution appears to be limited by winter survival; however, kudzu's cold tolerance thresholds are uncertain. Here, we used biogeographic evidence to hypothesize that exposure to - 20 °C is lethal for kudzu and thus determines its northern distribution limit. We evaluated this hypothesis using survival tests and electrolyte leakage to determine relative conductivity, a measure of cell damage, on 14 populations from eastern North America...
May 16, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767090/combined-effects-of-chitosan-and-microencapsulated-enterococcus-faecalis-cg1-0007-probiotic-supplementation-on-performance-and-diarrhea-incidences-in-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-k88-challenged-piglets
#18
Kolawole Aluko, Deepak E Velayudhan, Ehsan Khafipour, Aike Li, Yulong Yin, Martin Nyachoti
The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) and a microencapsulated Enterococcus faecalis CG1.0007 probiotic (PRO) on growth performance and diarrhea incidences in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88+ challenged piglets in a 14-d study. Thirty piglets, 7.19 ± 0.52 kg initial BW weaned at 21 ± 1 d, were allotted to 5 treatment groups ( n =  6) consisting of a corn-soybean meal diet with no additive (negative control, NC), NC + 0.25% chlortetracycline (positive control, PC), NC + 400 mg/kg COS (COS), NC + 100 mg/kg PRO (PRO) and NC + a combination of COS and PRO (CPRO)...
December 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765071/effects-of-cold-acclimation-and-dsrna-injections-on-gs1l-gene-splicing-in-drosophila-montana
#19
David Hopkins, Tapio Envall, Noora Poikela, Olli T Pentikäinen, Maaria Kankare
Alternative splicing, in which one gene produce multiple transcripts, may influence how adaptive genes respond to specific environments. A newly produced transcriptome of Drosophila montana shows the Gs1-like (Gs1l) gene to express multiple splice variants and to be down regulated in cold acclimated flies with increased cold tolerance. Gs1l's effect on cold tolerance was further tested by injecting cold acclimated and non-acclimated flies from two distantly located northern and southern fly populations with double stranded RNA (dsRNA) targeting Gs1l...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764987/rapid-and-dynamic-alternative-splicing-impacts-the-arabidopsis-cold-response-transcriptome
#20
Cristiane P G Calixto, Wenbin Guo, Allan B James, Nikoleta A Tzioutziou, Juan C Entizne, Paige E Panter, Heather Knight, Hugh Nimmo, Runxuan Zhang, John W S Brown
Plants have adapted to tolerate and survive constantly changing environmental conditions by re-programming gene expression. The dynamics of the contribution of alternative splicing (AS) to stress responses are unknown. RNA-sequencing of a time-series of Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to cold determines the timing of significant AS changes. This shows a massive and rapid AS response with coincident waves of transcriptional and AS activity occurring in the first few hours of temperature reduction, and further AS throughout the cold...
May 15, 2018: Plant Cell
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