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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813857/kinematic-effects-of-inertia-and-friction-added-by-a-robotic-knee-exoskeleton-after-prolonged-walking
#1
C Shirota, M R Tucker, O Lambercy, R Gassert
The capabilities of robotic gait assistive devices are ever increasing; however, their adoption outside of the lab is still limited. A critical barrier for the functionality of these devices are the still unknown mechanical properties of the human leg during dynamic conditions such as walking. We built a robotic knee exoskeleton to address this problem. Here, we present the effects of our device on the walking pattern of four subjects. We assessed the effects after a short period of acclimation as well as after a 1...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811214/semi-empirical-modeling-of-microalgae-photosynthesis-in-different-acclimation-states-application-to-n-gaditana
#2
Andrea Bernardi, Andreas Nikolaou, Andrea Meneghesso, Benoît Chachuat, Tomas Morosinotto, Fabrizio Bezzo
The development of mathematical models capable of accurate predictions of the photosynthetic productivity of microalgae under variable light conditions is paramount to the development of large-scale production systems. The process of photoacclimation is particularly important in outdoor cultivation systems, whereby seasonal variation of the light irradiance can greatly influence microalgae growth. This paper presents a dynamic model that captures the effect of photoacclimation on the photosynthetic production...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811161/acceleration-of-electroactive-anammox-electroammox-start-up-by-switching-acetate-pre-acclimated-biofilms-to-electroammox-biofilms
#3
Jiahuan Tang, Shanshan Chen, Lingyan Huang, Xiaojuan Zhong, Guiqin Yang, Shungui Zhou
In this study, an operational method of switching acetate media to ammonium media after the formation of stable acetate-oxidizing biofilms (ACAM mode), was developed. The results showed that the start-up time was shortened to 48days in the ACAM mode compared to the AM (always ammonium media) mode (>120days), and an ammonia removal rate of 82±3% was achieved successfully and sustainably in the ACAM mode during the following long-term operation of more than 2months. Moreover, the ACAM mode was more efficient in enriching both electroammox bacteria and electricigens with Ignavibacteriaceae, Geobacteraceae and Nitrosomonadaceae as dominant families, which could favour the formation of high-performance electroammox biofilms...
August 9, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808135/mutations-in-eif5b-confer-thermosensitive-and-pleiotropic-phenotypes-via-translation-defects-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#4
Liyuan Zhang, Xinye Liu, Kishor Gaikwad, Xiaoxia Kou, Fei Wang, Xuejun Tian, Mingming Xin, Zhongfu Ni, Qixin Sun, Huiru Peng, Elizabeth Vierling
The conserved eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5B, eIF5B, is a GTPase that acts late in translation initiation. We found that an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant sensitive to hot temperatures 3 (hot3-1), which behaves as wild type in the absence of stress but is unable to acclimate to high temperature, carries a missense mutation in eIF5B1 gene (At1g76810),, producing a temperature sensitive protein. A more severe, T-DNA insertion allele (hot3-2) causes pleiotropic developmental phenotypes. Surprisingly, Arabidopsis has three other eIF5B genes that do not substitute for eIF5B1; two of these appear to be in the process of pseudogenization...
August 14, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805482/cyclophilin-20-3-is-positioned-as-a-regulatory-hub-between-light-dependent-redox-and-12-oxo-phytodienoic-acid-signaling
#5
Hoon Cheong, Izailda Barbosa Dos Santos, Wenshan Liu, Heather N Gosse, Sang-Wook Park
The jasmonate family of phytohormones plays central roles in plant development and stress acclimation. However, the regulatory modes of their signaling circuitry remain largely unknown. Here we describe that cyclophilin 20-3 (CYP20-3), a binding protein of (+)-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), crisscrosses stress responses with light-dependent redox reactions, which fine-tunes the activity of key enzymes in the plastid photosynthetic carbon assimilation and sulfur assimilation pathways. Under stressed states, OPDA - accumulated in the chloroplasts - binds and promotes CYP20-3 to transfer electron (e(-)) from thioredoxins (i...
August 14, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805245/tropical-rainforest-carbon-sink-declines-during-el-ni%C3%A3-o-as-a-result-of-reduced-photosynthesis-and-increased-respiration-rates
#6
Molly A Cavaleri, Adam P Coble, Michael G Ryan, William L Bauerle, Henry W Loescher, Steven F Oberbauer
Changes in tropical forest carbon sink strength during El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events can indicate future behavior under climate change. Previous studies revealed ˜6 Mg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) lower net ecosystem production (NEP) during ENSO year 1998 compared with non-ENSO year 2000 in a Costa Rican tropical rainforest. We explored environmental drivers of this change and examined the contributions of ecosystem respiration (RE) and gross primary production (GPP) to this weakened carbon sink. For 1998-2000, we estimated RE using chamber-based respiration measurements, and we estimated GPP in two ways: using (1) the canopy process model MAESTRA, and (2) combined eddy covariance and chamber respiration data...
August 14, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804462/heat-acclimation-mediated-cross-tolerance-origins-in-within-life-epigenetics
#7
REVIEW
Michal Horowitz
The primary outcome of heat acclimation is increased thermotolerance, which stems from enhancement of innate cytoprotective pathways. These pathways produce "ON CALL" molecules that can combat stressors to which the body has never been exposed, via cross-tolerance mechanisms (heat acclimation-mediated cross-tolerance-HACT). The foundation of HACT lies in the sharing of generic stress signaling, combined with tissue/organ- specific protective responses. HACT becomes apparent when acclimatory homeostasis is achieved, lasts for several weeks, and has a memory...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801823/quantification-of-light-screening-by-anthocyanins-in-leaves-of-berberis-thunbergii
#8
Lars Nichelmann, Wolfgang Bilger
Up to 40% of incident light was screened in red Berberis leaves in vivo by anthocyanins, resulting also in up to 40% reduction of light-limited photosynthesis. The biological function of anthocyanins in leaves has been strongly discussed, but the hypothesis of a screening function is favored by most authors. For an evaluation of the function as photoprotective pigments, a quantification of their screening of the mesophyll is important. Here, chlorophyll fluorescence excitation of leaves of a red and a green variety of Berberis thunbergii was used to estimate the extent of screening by anthocyanins at 545 nm and over the whole photosynthetically active wavelength range...
August 11, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800433/global-gene-expression-analysis-of-the-muscle-tissues-of-medaka-acclimated-to-low-and-high-environmental-temperatures
#9
Daisuke Ikeda, Hiroki Koyama, Nanami Mizusawa, Nobuhiro Kan-No, Engkong Tan, Shuichi Asakawa, Shugo Watabe
Medaka (Oryzias latipes) is a temperate eurythermal fish that is able to survive over a wide range of water temperatures ranging from near zero to over 30°C throughout the year; it maintains its normal physiological and biochemical processes through temperature acclimation. To determine the mechanisms involved in temperature acclimation of fish, the fast skeletal muscle tissues of medaka underwent global gene expression analysis using next-generation sequencing. Ten individuals were placed into two aquariums at 24°C...
August 2, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798467/acclimation-to-prolonged-hypoxia-alters-hemoglobin-isoform-expression-and-increases-hemoglobin-oxygen-affinity-and-aerobic-performance-in-a-marine-fish
#10
Yihang K Pan, Rasmus Ern, Phillip R Morrison, Colin J Brauner, Andrew J Esbaugh
Hemoglobin (Hb) multiplicity is common in fish, yet despite its ubiquitous nature, the functional significance is unclear. Here we explore the hypothesis that Hb multiplicity plays a role in hypoxia tolerance using the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Red drum is an economically and ecologically important species native to coastal regions and estuaries of the Gulf of Mexico - habitats that routinely experience pronounced hypoxic events. Using a transcriptomic approach, we demonstrate that red drum red blood cells express 7 and 5 Hbα and Hbβ isoforms, respectively...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798081/a-role-for-tight-junction-associated-marvel-proteins-in-larval-sea-lamprey-petromyzon-marinus-osmoregulation
#11
Dennis Kolosov, Phuong Bui, Andrew Donini, Mike P Wilkie, Scott P Kelly
This study reports on tight junction-associated MARVEL proteins of larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and their potential role in ammocoete osmoregulation. Two Occludin isoforms (designated Ocln and Ocln-a) and a tricellulin (Tric) were identified. Transcripts encoding ocln, ocln-a, and tric were broadly expressed in larval lamprey, with greatest abundance of ocln in gut, liver and kidney, ocln-a in the gill and skin, and tric in the kidney. Ocln and Ocln-a resolved as ∼63 kDa and ∼35 kDa MW proteins respectively while Tric resolved as a ∼50 kDa protein...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797668/salinity-stress-enhancing-basal-and-induced-immune-responses-in-striped-catfish-pangasianodon-hypophthalmus-sauvage
#12
Mélodie Schmitz, Tamar Ziv, Arie Admon, Sébastien Baekelandt, Syaghalirwa N M Mandiki, Maëlenn L'Hoir, Patrick Kestemont
In the Mekong Delta, striped catfish are faced with chronic salinity stress related to saltwater intrusion induced by global climatic changes. In this study, striped catfish juveniles were submitted to a prolonged salinity stress (up to 10ppt) over three weeks followed by infection with a virulent bacterial strain, Edwardsiella ictaluri. Osmoregulatory parameters were investigated. In addition, a label free quantitative proteomics workflow was performed on kidneys. The workflow consisted of an initial global profiling of relative peptide abundances (by LC/MS, peak area quantification based on extracted ion currents), followed by identification (by MS/MS)...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797596/an-update-on-aureochromes-phylogeny-mechanism-function
#13
REVIEW
Peter G Kroth, Christian Wilhelm, Tilman Kottke
Light is important for algae, as it warrants metabolic independence via photosynthesis. In addition to the absorption of light by the photosystems, algae possess a variety of specific photoreceptors that allow the quantification of the light fluxes as well as the assessment of light qualities. About a decade ago, aureochromes have been described in the xanthophyte alga Vaucheria frigida. These proteins represent a new type of blue light photoreceptor as they possess both a light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domain for light reception as well as a basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) domain for DNA binding, indicating that they represent light-driven transcription factors...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797480/can-acclimation-of-thermal-tolerance-in-adults-and-across-generations-act-as-a-buffer-against-climate-change-in-tropical-marine-ectotherms
#14
S A Morley, K D Nguyen, L S Peck, C-H Lai, K S Tan
Thermal acclimation capacity was investigated in adults of three tropical marine invertebrates, the subtidal barnacle Striatobalanus amaryllis, the intertidal gastropod Volegalea cochlidium and the intertidal barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite. To test the relative importance of transgenerational acclimation, the developmental acclimation capacity of A. amphitrite was investigated in F1 and F2 generations reared at a subset of the same incubation temperatures. The increase in CTmax (measured through loss of key behavioural metrics) of F0 adults across the incubation temperature range 25...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797475/long-term-hypoxia-exposure-alters-the-cardiorespiratory-physiology-of-steelhead-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-but-does-not-affect-their-upper-thermal-tolerance
#15
Roman Motyka, Tommy Norin, Lene H Petersen, Duane B Huggett, A Kurt Gamperl
It has been suggested that exposure to high temperature or hypoxia may confer tolerance to the other oxygen-limited stressor (i.e., 'cross-tolerance'). Thus, we investigated if chronic hypoxia-acclimation (>3 months at 40% air saturation) improved the steelhead trout's critical thermal maximum (CTMax), or affected key physiological variables that could impact upper thermal tolerance. Neither CTMax (24.7 vs. 25.3°C) itself, nor oxygen consumption ( [Formula: see text] ), haematocrit, blood haemoglobin concentration, or heart rate differed between hypoxia- and normoxia-acclimated trout when acutely warmed...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794198/the-absence-or-temporal-offset-of-visual-feedback-does-not-influence-adaptation-to-novel-movement-dynamics
#16
Erin McKenna, Laurence C Jayet Bray, Weiwei Zhou, Wilsaan Mychal Joiner
Delays in transmitting and processing sensory information require correctly associating delayed feedback to issued motor commands for accurate error compensation. The flexibility of this alignment between motor signals and feedback has been demonstrated for movement recalibration to visual manipulations, but the alignment dependence for adapting movement dynamics is largely unknown. Here we examined the effect of visual feedback manipulations on force-field adaptation. Three subject groups used a manipulandum while experiencing a lag in the corresponding cursor motion (0, 75 or 150 ms)...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793212/intrinsically-disordered-stress-protein-cor15a-resides-at-the-membrane-surface-during-dehydration
#17
Anne Bremer, Ben Kent, Thomas Hauß, Anja Thalhammer, Nageshwar R Yepuri, Tamim A Darwish, Christopher J Garvey, Gary Bryant, Dirk K Hincha
Plants from temperate climate zones are able to increase their freezing tolerance during exposure to low, above-zero temperatures in a process termed cold acclimation. During this process, several cold-regulated (COR) proteins are accumulated in the cells. One of them is COR15A, a small, intrinsically disordered protein that contributes to leaf freezing tolerance by stabilizing cellular membranes. The isolated protein folds into amphipathic α-helices in response to increased crowding conditions, such as high concentrations of glycerol...
August 8, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792470/differential-mechanisms-of-photosynthetic-acclimation-to-light-and-low-temperature-in-arabidopsis-and-the-extremophile-eutrema-salsugineum
#18
Nityananda Khanal, Geoffrey E Bray, Anna Grisnich, Barbara A Moffatt, Gordon R Gray
Photosynthetic organisms are able to sense energy imbalances brought about by the overexcitation of photosystem II (PSII) through the redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, estimated as the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter 1-qL, also known as PSII excitation pressure. Plants employ a wide array of photoprotective processes that modulate photosynthesis to correct these energy imbalances. Low temperature and light are well established in their ability to modulate PSII excitation pressure...
August 9, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792065/environmental-plasticity-of-pinot-noir-grapevine-leaves-a-trans-european-study-of-morphological-and-biochemical-changes-along-a-1500-km-latitudinal-climatic-gradient
#19
Antonella Castagna, Kristóf Csepregi, Susanne Neugart, Gaetano Zipoli, Kristýna Večeřová, Gábor Jakab, Tjaša Jug, Laura Llorens, Javier Martínez-Abaigar, Johann Martínez-Lüscher, Encarnación Núñez-Olivera, Annamaria Ranieri, Katharina Schoedl-Hummel, Monika Schreiner, Péter Teszlák, Susanne Tittmann, Otmar Urban, Dolors Verdaguer, Marcel A K Jansen, Éva Hideg
A two-year study explored metabolic and phenotypic plasticity of sun acclimated Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir leaves collected from twelve locations across a 36.69(o) N - 49.98(o) N latitudinal gradient. Leaf morphological and biochemical parameters were analysed in the context of meteorological parameters and the latitudinal gradient. We found that leaf fresh weight and area were negatively correlated with both global and UV radiation; cumulated global radiation being a stronger correlator. Cumulative UV radiation (sumUVR) was the strongest correlator with most leaf metabolites and pigments...
August 9, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791680/immigrant-reproductive-dysfunction-facilitates-ecological-speciation
#20
Ola Svensson, Johanna Gräns, Malin C Celander, Jonathan Havenhand, Erica H Leder, Kai Lindström, Sofie Schöld, Cock van Oosterhout, Charlotta Kvarnemo
The distributions of species are not only determined by where they can survive - they must also be able to reproduce. Although immigrant inviability is a well-established concept, the fact that immigrants also need to be able to effectively reproduce in foreign environments has not been fully appreciated in the study of adaptive divergence and speciation. Fertilization and reproduction are sensitive life history stages that could be detrimentally affected for immigrants in non-native habitats. We propose that 'immigrant reproductive dysfunction' is a hitherto overlooked aspect of reproductive isolation caused by natural selection on immigrants...
August 9, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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