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Md Nasir Uddin, Teresa D Figley, Chase R Figley
Tissue contrast can be enhanced by dividing T1 -weighted (T1 w) images by T2 -weighted (T2 w) images to map the so-called T1 w/T2 w ratio, which has become an increasingly popular technique for quantifying brain tissue changes associated with neurodevelopment, aging, and a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. However, although it is self-evident that T1 w/T2 w ratios increase with the amount of T2 -weighting in the T2 w image - which is determined by the echo time (TE), all else being equal - longer TEs also reduce the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the T2 w images, and it is not clear how these SNR characteristics affect the reliability of T1 w/T2 w measurements...
April 19, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
José A Valdes Franco, Yi Wang, Naxin Huo, Grisel Ponciano, Howard A Colvin, Colleen M McMahan, Yong Q Gu, William R Belknap
BACKGROUND: Guayule (Parthenium argentatum A. Gray) is a rubber-producing desert shrub native to Mexico and the United States. Guayule represents an alternative to Hevea brasiliensis as a source for commercial natural rubber. The efficient application of modern molecular/genetic tools to guayule improvement requires characterization of its genome. RESULTS: The 1.6 Gb guayule genome was sequenced, assembled and annotated. The final 1.5 Gb assembly, while fragmented (N50  = 22 kb), maps > 95% of the shotgun reads and is essentially complete...
April 19, 2018: BMC Genomics
Jessica R de Bruyn, Gijs R van den Brink, Jessica Steenkamer, Christianne J Buskens, Willem A Bemelman, Sander Meisner, Vanesa Muncan, Anje A Te Velde, Geert R D'Haens, Manon E Wildenberg
Background and Aims: Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the intestine and often leads to fibrosis, characterized by excess extracellular matrix [ECM] deposition, increased tissue stiffness, and stricture formation. Here we evaluated the contribution of myofibroblast-ECM interactions to the development of intestinal fibrosis in Crohn's disease. Methods: Matched primary human myofibroblasts were isolated from stenotic, inflamed and normal-appearing small intestine within the same Crohn's disease patient [n = 10]...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Alexander B Kuntz, Jaclyn N Chopp-Hurley, Elora C Brenneman, Sarah Karampatos, Emily G Wiebenga, Jonathan D Adachi, Michael D Noseworthy, Monica R Maly
OBJECTIVE: Certain exercises could overload the osteoarthritic knee. We developed an exercise program from yoga postures with a minimal knee adduction moment for knee osteoarthritis. The purpose was to compare the effectiveness of this biomechanically-based yoga exercise (YE), with traditional exercise (TE), and a no-exercise attention-equivalent control (NE) for improving pain, self-reported physical function and mobility performance in women with knee osteoarthritis. DESIGN: Single-blind, three-arm randomized controlled trial...
2018: PloS One
Brett S Nickerson, Grant M Tinsley
The purpose of this study was to compare body fat estimates and fat-free mass (FFM) characteristics produced by multicompartment models when utilizing either dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (SF-BIA) for bone mineral content (BMC) in a sample of physically active adults. Body fat percentage (BF%) was estimated with 5-compartment (5C), 4-compartment (4C), 3-compartment (3C), and 2-compartment (2C) models, and DXA. The 5C-Wang with DXA for BMC (i.e., 5C-WangDXA ) was the criterion...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
T V Raudina, S V Loiko, A Lim, R M Manasypov, L S Shirokova, G I Istigechev, D M Kuzmina, S P Kulizhsky, S N Vorobyev, O S Pokrovsky
Soil pore waters are a vital component of the ecosystem as they are efficient tracers of mineral weathering, plant litter leaching, and nutrient uptake by vegetation. In the permafrost environment, maximal hydraulic connectivity and element transport from soils to rivers and lakes occurs via supra-permafrost flow (i.e. water, gases, suspended matter, and solutes migration over the permafrost table). To assess possible consequences of permafrost thaw and climate warming on carbon and Green House gases (GHG) dynamics we used a "substituting space for time" approach in the largest frozen peatland of the world...
April 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Philipp Gude, Claudia Rieckert, Nicolai Bissantz, Thomas Peter Weber, Heike Vogelsang, Stefan Dazert, Jan Peter Thomas
OBJECTIVE: Tonsil surgery is one of the most painful operations in childhood. The Children's and Infants' Postoperative Pain Scale (CHIPPS), the Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R) and the little-known German version of the parents' postoperative pain measure (PPPM-D) are age-appropriate measures. Children undergoing intracapsular tonsillectomy (TO) or extracapsular tonsillectomy (TE) received the non-opioids ibuprofen (IBU) and paracetamol (PCM) on a "as needed"-basis requested by parents...
April 16, 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
J Lewin, L Sayers, D Kee, I Walpole, A Sanelli, L Te Marvelde, A Herschtal, J Spillane, D Gyorki, D Speakman, V Estall, S Donahoe, M Pohl, K Pope, M Chua, S Sandhu, G A McArthur, C J McCormack, M Henderson, R J Hicks, M Shackleton
Background: As early detection of recurrent melanoma maximizes treatment options, patients usually undergo post-operative imaging surveillance, increasingly with FDG-PET/CT (PET). To assess this, we evaluated stage 3 melanoma patients who underwent prospectively applied and sub-stage-specific schedules of PET surveillance. Patients and Methods: From 2009, patients with stage 3 melanoma routinely underwent PET +/- MRI brain scans via defined schedules based on sub-stage-specific relapse probabilities...
April 12, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Marc R J Ten Broek, Peter J Ausems, Erik T Te Beek
Evaluation of the urinary bladder on PET with F-FDG is hampered by accumulation of activity in the urinary bladder due to physiological excretion of F-FDG in urine. We present 2 examples that demonstrate the utility of delayed scanning in lateral recumbent or prone position to improve evaluation of the bladder by differentiating between active bladder wall lesions and intraluminal activity. Changing the body position from a supine to a lateral recumbent or prone position can result in migration of intraluminal activity due to gravitational force, whereas F-FDG uptake in bladder wall lesions will show no migration...
April 13, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Maria Teresa Monforte, Antonella Smeriglio, Maria Paola Germanò, Simona Pergolizzi, Clara Circosta, Enza Maria Galati
The juice of R. fruticosus (RFJ) fruits grown in Sicily was analysed for polyphenol compounds and tested to evaluate in vitro antioxidant and in vivo antiinflammatory and gastroprotective effects. RFJ, containing mainly anthocyanins, such as cyanidin derivatives, significant amounts of phenolic acids, and smaller amounts of flavonoids, showed significant antioxidant activity in DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical) (4,147.194 ± 17.199 mg trolox equivalent [TE]/100 ml), TE antioxidant capacity (8,312...
April 15, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Y R Guo, F Dong, C Qiao, J J Wang, S Y Wang, Ming Xu, Y X Zheng, R J Zhang, L Y Chen, C Z Wang, K M Ho
Crystalline Sb2Te3 is widely studied due to its important applications in memory materials and topological insulators. The liquid and amorphous structures of this compound as well as the dynamics upon quenching, however, are yet to be fully understood. In this work, we have systematically studied the dynamical properties and local structure of Sb2Te3 at different temperatures using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The calculated structure factors agree well with the experimental results. The atomic number density and mean-squared displacement as a function of temperature clearly indicate three states as the temperature decreases, namely, melt, undercooled liquid and glass state, respectively...
April 13, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Raúl Cabrera-Rodríguez, Octavio P Luzardo, Ana González-Antuña, Luis D Boada, Maira Almeida-González, María Camacho, Manuel Zumbado, Andrea Carolina Acosta-Dacal, Cristian Rial-Berriel, Luis Alberto Henríquez-Hernández
There is growing concern about environmental pollution produced by elements, including "emerging" contaminants, such as rare earth elements (REE) and other trace elements (TE), which are extensively and increasingly employed in the manufacture of consumer electronics. Previous research has shown that prenatal exposure to some elements (mainly heavy metals) may be associated with decreased fetal growth and other adverse birth outcomes. Recent studies have also shown that environmental exposure to REE and TE may be related to adverse effects on human health...
April 9, 2018: Environment International
Endalkachew Admassie, Leanne Chalmers, Luke R Bereznicki
BACKGROUND: Although utilization of anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) has increased in recent years, contemporary data regarding thromboembolism and mortality incidence rates are limited outside of clinical trials. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) on the clinical outcomes of patients with AF included in the Tasmanian Atrial Fibrillation Study. METHODS: The medical records of all patients with a primary or secondary diagnosis of AF who presented to public hospitals in Tasmania, Australia, between 2011 and 2015, were retrospectively reviewed...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Yechan Kim, Seoung-Tae Kim, Dahye Kang, Te-Ik Sohn, Eunyoung Jang, Mu-Hyun Baik, Sungwoo Hong
The systematic investigation of chiral bidentate auxiliaries has resulted in the discovery of a chiral 2,2-dimethyl-1-(pyridin-2-yl)propan-1-amine-derived directing group that enables stereoselective palladium(ii)-catalyzed intramolecular C(sp3 )-O bond formation. This new chiral directing group exhibited high reactivity in the activation of methylene C(sp3 )-H bonds with excellent levels of stereoselectivity (a diastereomeric ratio of up to 39 : 1), which allowed the construction of a wide range of oxaspirocycles...
February 14, 2018: Chemical Science
Amanda R Jensen, Natalie A Drucker, Jan P Te Winkel, Michael J Ferkowicz, Troy A Markel
PURPOSE: Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) has many beneficial properties and may serve as a novel treatment in patients suffering from intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R). The purpose of this study was to examine the method of delivery and timing of administration of H2 S for intestinal therapy during ischemic injury. We hypothesized that 1) route of administration of hydrogen sulfide would impact intestinal recovery following acute mesenteric ischemia and 2) preischemic H2 S conditioning using the optimal mode of administration as determined above would provide superior protection compared to postischemic application...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
C Grunenwald, I Sidor, R Mickley, C Dwyer, R Gerhold
During an outbreak of Wellfleet Bay virus (WFBV) in common eiders ( Somateria mollissima) from the Cape Cod region of Massachusetts, several birds were diagnosed with trichomonosis consisting of multiple trichomonad species. Six birds were examined, with trichomonads found in ceca in four birds and associated typhlitis in three of these four birds. PCR and DNA sequencing utilizing trichomonad-specific primers targeting the ITS1 region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) revealed the presence of Tetratrichomonas gallinarum in the gastrointestinal tracts of five birds and Trichomonas spp...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
Natalie A Drucker, Amanda R Jensen, Jan P Te Winkel, Michael J Ferkowicz, Troy A Markel
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) continues to be a devastating condition among preterm infants. Nitric oxide, which is synthesized in the intestine by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), acts as a potent vasodilator and antioxidant within the mesentery and may play a role in prevention of NEC. We hypothesized that loss of endothelial nitric oxide would worsen both intestinal and associated lung injury and increase local and systemic inflammation during experimental NEC...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
I-Te Lee, Wayne Huey-Herng Sheu, Wen-Jane Lee, Der-Yuan Chen
Night shift work is associated with cardiovascular disease and central nervous system disorders in female nurses. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) exerts protective effects on neural and endothelial functions. This study examined the association between serum BDNF levels and pulse pressure after rest in female nurses working night shifts. In this study, blood samples were collected for BDNF measurement after a night shift when nurses had been working night shifts for three continuous weeks. Blood pressure was assessed before and after a one-hour morning rest within a week of resuming the night shift after one month without any night shift work...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pim J Koelink, Manon E Wildenberg, Larry W Stitt, Brian G Feagan, Martin Koldijk, Angélique B van 't Wout, Raja Atreya, Michael Vieth, Johannan F Brandse, Suzanne Duijst, Anje A Te Velde, Geert R A M D'Haens, Barrett G Levesque, Gijs R van den Brink
Background and Aims: Although several endoscopic and histopathologic indices are available to evaluate severity of inflammation in mouse models of colitis, the reliability of these scoring instruments is unknown. Our aim was to evaluate the reliability of the individual items in the existing indices and develop new scoring systems by selection of the most reliable index items. Methods: Two observers scored the histological slides (n=224) and endoscopy videos (n=201) from treated and untreated Interleukin(IL)-10 knock-out and T-cell transferred SCID mice...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Jan Te Nijenhuis, Kyu Yeong Choi, Yu Yong Choi, Jang Jae Lee, Eun Hyun Seo, Hoowon Kim, Kun Ho Lee
BACKGROUND: Being a carrier of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is a clear risk factor for development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). On some neurocognitive tests, there are smaller differences between carriers and noncarriers, while other tests show larger differences. AIMS: We explore whether the size of the difference between carriers and noncarriers is a function of how well the tests measure general intelligence, so whether there are Jensen effects. METHODS: We used the method of correlated vectors on 441 Korean older adults at risk for AD and 44 with AD...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
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