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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444545/bretschneider-and-del-nido-solutions-are-they-safe-for-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-if-so-how-should-we-use-them
#1
REVIEW
Shirin Siddiqi, Eugene H Blackstone, Faisal G Bakaeen
A variety of cardioplegic solutions are being used widely today to arrest the heart during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and other cardiac operations. To minimize interruptions during the surgery for intermittent dosing of the cardioplegia and to facilitate less invasive cardiac procedures, single-shot solutions, including Bretschneider and del Nido solutions, have been introduced. This review examines the evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of Bretschneider and del Nido cardioplegia during CABG...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444502/starch-combined-with-sucrose-provokes-greater-root-dentine-demineralization-than-sucrose-alone
#2
Samilly Evangelista Souza, Aline Araújo Sampaio, Altair Antoninha Del Bel Cury, Yuri Wanderley Cavalcanti, Antônio Pedro Ricomini Filho, Jaime Aparecido Cury
Since there is no consensus about whether starch increases the cariogenic potential of sucrose, we used a validated 3-species biofilm model to evaluate if starch combined with sucrose provokes higher root dentine demineralization than sucrose alone. Biofilms (n = 18) composed by Streptococcus mutans (the most cariogenic bacteria), Actinomces naeslundii (which has amylolytic activity), and Streptococcus gordonii (which binds salivary amylase) were formed on root dentine slabs under exposure 8 ×/day to one of the following treatments: 0...
February 14, 2018: Caries Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444471/optimization-of-the-polysaccharide-hydrolysate-from-auricularia-auricula-with-antioxidant-activity-by-response-surface-methodology
#3
Yaoyao Xu, Meng Shen, Yidan Chen, Yeqing Lou, Ruichao Luo, Jiajia Chen, Yongjun Zhang, Jia Li, Weimin Wang
An efficient acid-hydrolysis method was developed and optimized for the hydrolyses of polysaccharide from Auricularia auricula with the ABTS· scavenging ability as the detective marker. Based on the single factor experimental results, Box-Behnken design (BBD) were applied for the optimization of acid-hydrolysis conditions. The possible antioxidant mechanism of the hydrolyses (AAPs-F) in vivo was performed using the C. elegans model. The acid-hydrolysis conditions were found to be the optimal hydrolyzing time 2...
February 11, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444466/interference-and-problem-size-effect-in-multiplication-fact-solving-individual-differences-in-brain-activations-and-arithmetic-performance
#4
Alice De Visscher, Stephan E Vogel, Gernot Reishofer, Eva Hassler, Karl Koschutnig, Bert De Smedt, Roland H Grabner
In the development of math ability, a large variability of performance in solving simple arithmetic problems is observed and has not found a compelling explanation yet. One robust effect in simple multiplication facts is the problem size effect, indicating better performance for small problems compared to large ones. Recently, behavioral studies brought to light another effect in multiplication facts, the interference effect. That is, high interfering problems (receiving more proactive interference from previously learned problems) are more difficult to retrieve than low interfering problems (in terms of physical feature overlap, namely the digits, De Visscher and Noël, 2014)...
February 11, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444465/simultaneous-detection-of-human-cyp2c19-polymorphisms-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-helicobacter-pylori-using-a-personalized-diagnosis-kit
#5
Jun Zhang, Jing Zhong, Jian Ding, Jiemin Shi, Tao Tang, Qiqi Liu, Huilian Huang, Licheng Dai, Ningmin Yang
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated a personalized diagnosis kit for Helicobacter pylori that employs visual gene chip technology for the simultaneous detection of CYP2C19 polymorphisms, and clarithromycin/levofloxacin antibiotic resistance. METHODS: H. pylori isolates from the gastric antrum mucosa of 394 patients were tested using the kit. DNA sequencing and antibiotic susceptibility testing were also performed. RESULTS: In total, 267/394 (67.77%) specimens were positive for H...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444459/cell-adhesion-and-matricellular-support-by-astrocytes-of-the-tripartite-synapse
#6
REVIEW
Anne E J Hillen, J Peter H Burbach, Elly M Hol
Astrocytes contribute to the formation, function, and plasticity of synapses. Their processes enwrap the neuronal components of the tripartite synapse, and due to this close interaction they are perfectly positioned to modulate neuronal communication. The interaction between astrocytes and synapses is facilitated by cell adhesion molecules and matricellular proteins, which have been implicated in the formation and functioning of tripartite synapses. The importance of such neuron-astrocyte integration at the synapse is underscored by the emerging role of astrocyte dysfunction in synaptic pathologies such as autism and schizophrenia...
February 11, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444449/dendritic-spine-density-and-ephrinb2-levels-of-hippocampal-and-anterior-cingulate-cortex-neurons-increase-sequentially-during-formation-of-recent-and-remote-fear-memory-in-the-mouse
#7
Georgia Abate, Sandra Colazingari, Alessandra Accoto, David Conversi, Arturo Bevilacqua
Memory consolidation is a dynamic process that involves a sequential remodeling of hippocampal-cortical circuits. Although synaptic events underlying memory consolidation are well assessed, fine molecular events controlling this process deserve further characterization. To this aim, we challenged male C57BL/6N mice in a contextual fear conditioning (CFC) paradigm and tested their memory 24 h, 7 days or 36 days later. Mice displayed a strong fear response at all time points with an increase in dendritic spine density and protein levels of the cell adhesion factor EphrinB2 in CA1 hippocampal neurons 24 h and 7 days post conditioning (p...
February 11, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444439/differential-effector-engagement-by-oncogenic-kras
#8
Tina L Yuan, Arnaud Amzallag, Rachel Bagni, Ming Yi, Shervin Afghani, William Burgan, Nicole Fer, Leslie A Strathern, Katie Powell, Brian Smith, Andrew M Waters, David Drubin, Ty Thomson, Rosy Liao, Patricia Greninger, Giovanna T Stein, Ellen Murchie, Eliane Cortez, Regina K Egan, Lauren Procter, Matthew Bess, Kwong Tai Cheng, Chih-Shia Lee, Liam Changwoo Lee, Christof Fellmann, Robert Stephens, Ji Luo, Scott W Lowe, Cyril H Benes, Frank McCormick
KRAS can bind numerous effector proteins, which activate different downstream signaling events. The best known are RAF, phosphatidylinositide (PI)-3' kinase, and RalGDS families, but many additional direct and indirect effectors have been reported. We have assessed how these effectors contribute to several major phenotypes in a quantitative way, using an arrayed combinatorial siRNA screen in which we knocked down 41 KRAS effectors nodes in 92 cell lines. We show that every cell line has a unique combination of effector dependencies, but in spite of this heterogeneity, we were able to identify two major subtypes of KRAS mutant cancers of the lung, pancreas, and large intestine, which reflect different KRAS effector engagement and opportunities for therapeutic intervention...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444434/b1-cell-ige-impedes-mast-cell-mediated-enhancement-of-parasite-expulsion-through-b2-ige-blockade
#9
Rebecca K Martin, Sheela R Damle, Yolander A Valentine, Matthew P Zellner, Briana N James, Joseph C Lownik, Andrea J Luker, Elijah H Davis, Martha M DeMeules, Laura M Khandjian, Fred D Finkelman, Joseph F Urban, Daniel H Conrad
Helminth infection is known for generating large amounts of poly-specific IgE. Here we demonstrate that innate-like B1 cells are responsible for this IgE production during infection with the nematode parasites Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri. In vitro analysis of B1 cell immunoglobulin class switch recombination to IgE demonstrated a requirement for anti-CD40 and IL-4 that was further enhanced when IL-5 was added or when the B1 source was helminth infected mice. An IL-25-induced upregulation of IgE in B1 cells was also demonstrated...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444429/glucagon-receptor-antagonism-improves-glucose-metabolism-and-cardiac-function-by-promoting-amp-mediated-protein-kinase-in-diabetic-mice
#10
Ankit X Sharma, Ezekiel B Quittner-Strom, Young Lee, Joshua A Johnson, Sarah A Martin, Xinxin Yu, Jianping Li, John Lu, Zheqing Cai, Shiuhwei Chen, May-Yun Wang, Yiyi Zhang, Mackenzie J Pearson, Andie C Dorn, Jeffrey G McDonald, Ruth Gordillo, Hai Yan, Dung Thai, Zhao V Wang, Roger H Unger, William L Holland
The antidiabetic potential of glucagon receptor antagonism presents an opportunity for use in an insulin-centric clinical environment. To investigate the metabolic effects of glucagon receptor antagonism in type 2 diabetes, we treated Leprdb/dband Lepob/obmice with REMD 2.59, a human monoclonal antibody and competitive antagonist of the glucagon receptor. As expected, REMD 2.59 suppresses hepatic glucose production and improves glycemia. Surprisingly, it also enhances insulin action in both liver and skeletal muscle, coinciding with an increase in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mediated lipid oxidation...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444428/agrp-neurons-require-carnitine-acetyltransferase-to-regulate-metabolic-flexibility-and-peripheral-nutrient-partitioning
#11
Alex Reichenbach, Romana Stark, Mathieu Mequinion, Raphael R G Denis, Jeferson F Goularte, Rachel E Clarke, Sarah H Lockie, Moyra B Lemus, Greg M Kowalski, Clinton R Bruce, Cheng Huang, Ralf B Schittenhelm, Randall L Mynatt, Brian J Oldfield, Matthew J Watt, Serge Luquet, Zane B Andrews
AgRP neurons control peripheral substrate utilization and nutrient partitioning during conditions of energy deficit and nutrient replenishment, although the molecular mechanism is unknown. We examined whether carnitine acetyltransferase (Crat) in AgRP neurons affects peripheral nutrient partitioning. Crat deletion in AgRP neurons reduced food intake and feeding behavior and increased glycerol supply to the liver during fasting, as a gluconeogenic substrate, which was mediated by changes to sympathetic output and peripheral fatty acid metabolism in the liver...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444412/heart-rate-variability-responses-to-acute-and-repeated-post-exercise-sauna-in-trained-cyclists
#12
Anthony S Leicht, Aaron Halliday, Wade H Sinclair, Shaun D'Auria, Martin Buchheit, Glen P Kenny, Jamie Stanley
Short- to medium-term (i.e. 4-14 days) heating protocols induce physiological adaptations including improved cardiac autonomic modulations, as assessed using heart rate variability, which may contribute to greater exercise performance. Whether similar cardiac autonomic changes occur during an intense heating protocol (sauna) reported to increase plasma volume in athletes remains to be confirmed. This study examined the changes in heart rate and its variability during a single, extreme heat (sauna) exposure and repeated exposures in athletes...
February 14, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444399/a-chemical-understanding-of-the-limited-site-specificity-in-molecular-inner-shell-photofragmentation
#13
Ludger Inhester, Bart Oostenrijk, Minna Patanen, Esko Kokkonen, Stephen H Southworth, Christoph Bostedt, Oksana Travnikova, Tatiana Marchenko, Sang-Kil Son, Robin Santra, Marc Simon, Linda Young, Stacey L Sorensen
In many cases fragmentation of molecules upon inner-shell ionization is very unspecific with respect to the initially localized ionization site. Often this finding is interpreted in terms of an equilibration of internal energy into vibrational degrees of freedom after Auger decay. Here we investigate the x-ray photofragmentation of ethyl trifluoroacetate upon core electron ionization at environmentally distinct carbon sites using photoelectron-photoion-photoion coincidence measurements and ab-initio electronic structure calculations...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444356/long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-decline-rapidly-in-milk-from-mothers-delivering-extremely-preterm-indicating-the-need-for-supplementation
#14
Anders K Nilsson, Chatarina Löfqvist, Svetlana Najm, Gunnel Hellgren, Karin Sävman, Mats X Andersson, Lois E H Smith, Ann Hellström
AIM: Our aim was perform an in-depth analysis of the composition of fatty acids in milk from mothers delivering extremely preterm babies. We investigated longitudinal changes in milk fatty acid profiles and the relationship between several types of fatty acids, including omega-3 and omega-6. METHODS: Milk samples were collected at three stages of lactation from 78 mothers who delivered at less than 28 weeks of pregnancy at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden, from April 2013 to September 2015...
February 14, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444322/physiological-reactions-to-long-term-fishing-in-the-barents-sea
#15
B Netterstrøm, Å M Hansen, D Isaacson, A M Simonsen, P Weihe
Background: Fishing in distant waters for months may induce physiological stress. Aims: To assess the physiological stress reactions in fishermen working for 2-3 months continuously in 6-h shifts on trawlers in the Barents Sea. Methods: The crew of five trawlers fishing in the Barents Sea from January to April 2004 were invited to participate. In the week before and 5-7 days after the trip, the following measures were collected: salivary cortisol four times a day, 24-h urinary cortisol, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol, serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol), HbA1c (glycosylated haemoglobin) and weight...
February 10, 2018: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444320/effect-of-phytase-on-growth-performance-phytate-degradation-and-gene-expression-of-myo-inositol-transporters-in-the-small-intestine-liver-and-kidney-of-21-day-old-broilers
#16
C L Walk, M R Bedford, O A Olukosi
An experiment was conducted to evaluate phytase supplementation on growth, phytate degradation, and the gene expression of myo-inositol transporters in 21-day old broilers. Ross 308, male broilers (n = 240) were assigned to one of four diets, with 10 pens/diet and six birds/pen from day one to 21. The diets consisted of a negative control (NC) formulated to meet or exceed Ross 308 nutrient requirements, with the exception of calcium (Ca) and available P (avP), which were reduced by 0.16 and 0.15%, respectively...
February 12, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444312/in-concert-orchestrated-changes-in-carbohydrate-homeostasis-are-critical-for-plant-abiotic-stress-tolerance
#17
Benjamin Pommerrenig, Frank Ludewig, Jelena Cvetkovic, Oliver Trentmann, Patrick A W Klemens, H Ekkehard Neuhaus
The sessile lifestyle of higher plants is accompanied by their remarkable ability to tolerate unfavourable environmental conditions. This is, because during evolution plants developed a sophisticated repertoire of molecular and metabolic reactions to cope with changing biotic and abiotic challenges. In particular, the abiotic factors light intensity and ambient temperature are characterized by altering their amplitude within comparably short periods of time and are causative for onset of dynamic plant responses...
February 10, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444311/income-inequality-and-self-reported-health-in-a-representative-sample-of-27-017-residents-of-state-capitals-of-brazil
#18
K H C Massa, R Pabayo, A D P Chiavegatto Filho
Background: The association between income inequality and health has been analyzed predominantly in developed countries with modest levels of inequality. The study aimed to analyze the association between income inequality and self-reported health (SRH) in the adult population of the 27 Brazilian capitals. Methods: Individuals aged 18 years or older from the National Health survey residing in Brazilian capitals in 2013 were analyzed (n = 27 017). Bayesian multilevel models were applied after controlling for individual factors and area-level socioeconomic characteristics...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444310/radiological-hazard-indices-of-granitic-rocks-used-for-the-construction-of-buildings-from-nuba-mountains-sudan
#19
Nooreldin Fadol, Hajo Idriss, Isam Salih, Nserdin A Ragab, Safa Osman, Adam K Sam
This study was conducted to assess the level of radioactivity and the radiation hazards associated with granite rocks used for construction of buildings. The measurement of radioactivity content of the rock samples was performed with gamma-spectrometry equipped with Nal (TI) detector. From the results obtained in this study the average activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were 20.64, 30.50 and 295.19 Bq kg-1, respectively. The absorbed dose rate in air at 1 m above ground level, the annual effective dose and the gamma index were determined with the aim to assess the possible radiological impact on inhabitants of dwellings built using such rocks...
February 12, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444297/draft-genomes-of-two-blister-beetles-genus-hycleus-harvested-for-the-potent-blistering-agent-cantharidin
#20
Yuan-Ming Wu, Jiang Li, Xiang-Sheng Chen
Background: Commonly known as blister beetles or Spanish fly, there are more than 1,500 species in the Meloidae family (Hexapoda: Coleoptera: Tenebrionoidea) that produce the potent defensive blistering agent cantharidin. Cantharidin and its derivatives have been used to treat cancers, such as liver, stomach, lung and esophageal cancers. Hycleus cichorii and Hycleus phaleratus are the most commercially important blister beetles in China due to their ability to biosynthesize this potent vesicant...
February 10, 2018: GigaScience
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