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Yuhan Yang, Bo Li, Wenmin Liu, Rumeng Zhang, Lintao Yu, Qin-Ge Ma, Rongrong Lv, Donghua Du, Ting Li
A Cp*CoIII-catalyzed C2-selective C-H alkenylation/ annulation cascade transformation of 1-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-indoles with internal alkynes to afford pyrido[2',1':2,3]pyrimido[1,6-a]indol-5-iums is presented. Moreover, 6,7-dihydro-4H-pyrido[2',1':2,3]pyrimido[1,6-a]indole, a new functionalized N-fused indole core heterocycle, could be constructed effectively via reduction of pyrido[2',1':2,3]pyrimido[1,6-a]indol-5-ium by NaBH4.
October 25, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Yuefeng Zhang, Risheng Huang, Weihe Zhou, Qifeng Zhao, Zhenye Lü
Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-192-5p in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. H9c2 cardiomyocytes were subjected to H/R and tested for miR-192-5p expression. Overexpression and knockdown experiments were performed to determine the effects of manipulating miR-192-5p on apoptotic responses. H/R-treated H9c2 cells exhibited a 2.2-fold increase in miR-192-5p levels. Overexpression of miR-192-5p significantly augmented apoptosis in H9c2 cells after H/R, which was accompanied by a significant increase in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Mustafa Ceylan, Umit M Kocyigit, Necibe Canan Usta, Belma Gürbüzlü, Yusuf Temel, Saleh H Alwasel, İlhami Gülçin
Benzothiazepine compounds have a wide range of applications such as antibacterial, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, antihypertensives, antibiotics, antifungal, hypnotic, enzyme inhibitors, antitumor, anticancer and anti-HIV agents. In this study, the synthesis of novel tetralone-based benzothiazepine derivatives (1-16) and their in vitro antibacterial activity and human carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes I and II (hCA I and II) inhibitory effects were investigated. Both isoenzymes were purified by sepharose-4B-l-tyrosine-sulfanilamide affinity chromatography from fresh human red blood cells...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
E Rudy, K W Bauer, S O Hughes, T M O'Connor, K Vollrath, A Davey, N E M Correa, T-A Chen, J O Fisher
BACKGROUND: Snacking among US preschoolers has increased in recent decades, raising questions about whether snacking contributes to dietary excess. OBJECTIVES: This research aimed to characterize snacking contributions to dietary excess and to evaluate associations with appetite and weight among preschool-aged children. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional, observational study of 187 Hispanic low-income preschoolers. Three 24-h dietary recalls were used to assess snacking frequency and parameters of dietary excess including energy, saturated fat, trans fats and added sugars...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
Hui Zhao, Nainan Hei, Yiling Wu, Winston Chan, Xiudong Lei, Carrie Cameron, Shine Chang, Mariana Chavez-MacGregor, Sharon H Giordano
BACKGROUND: The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B35 and International Breast Cancer Intervention Studies II Ductal Carcinoma In Situ trials showed similar treatment effects of anastrozole and tamoxifen in reducing cancer recurrence risk among ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) patients. Studies have shown low levels of hormone therapy drug initiation for DCIS patients, but the current body of literature lacks information on the 5-year adherence rates for these drugs from population-based studies...
October 25, 2016: Cancer
R Dorajoo, R T-H Ong, X Sim, L Wang, W Liu, E S Tai, J Liu, S-M Saw
INTRODUCTION: Recent genome-wide association studies have identified 103 adult obesity risk loci; however, it is unclear if these findings are relevant to East-Asian childhood body mass index (BMI) levels. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated for paediatric obesity associations at these risk loci utilizing genome-wide data from Chinese childhood subjects in the Singapore Cohort study Of the Risk factors for Myopia study (N = 1006). A weighted gene-risk score of all adult obesity risk loci in the Singapore Cohort study Of the Risk factors for Myopia study showed strong associations with BMI at age 9 (p-value = 3...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
Merja Kokki, Marja Heikkinen, Pyry Välitalo, Heidi Hautajärvi, Juho Hokkanen, Hanna Pitkänen, Ulla Sankilampi, Veli-Pekka Ranta, Hannu Kokki
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to characterize the pharmacokinetics of oxycodone and its major metabolites in infants and covered the age range between extremely preterm neonates and 2-year old infants. METHODS: Seventy-nine infants (gestational age 23-42 weeks; postnatal age 0-650 days) received intravenous oxycodone hydrochloride trihydrate at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg during or after surgery. Three to seven blood samples were taken from each infant, and plasma concentrations of oxycodone, noroxycodone, oxymorphone, and noroxymorphone were quantified...
October 25, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Lisa N McAuliffe, Kieran N Kilcawley, Jeremiah J Sheehan, Paul L H McSweeney
Liposome-encapsulated ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was incorporated into a model miniature Gouda-type cheese (20 g) in order to assess its effect on rennet gelation, starter viability, pH, and moisture content. EDTA was encapsulated within 2 different food-grade proliposome preparations, Pro-Lipo Duo and Pro-Lipo C (50% and 40% unsaturated soybean phospholipids and 50% and 60% aqueous medium, respectively), using the following high-shear technologies: Ultra-Turrax (5000 rpm), 2-stage homogenization (345 bar), or microfluidization (690 bar)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Food Science
Lenneke Schrier, Rob Zuiker, Frans W H M Merkus, Erica S Klaassen, Zheng Guan, Bert Tuk, Joop M A van Gerven, Ronald van der Geest, Geert Jan Groeneveld
AIM: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, nasal tolerance and effects on sedation of a highly concentrated aqueous intranasal midazolam formulation (Nazolam) and to compare these to intravenous midazolam. METHODS: In this four-way crossover, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 16 subjects received 2.5 mg Nazolam, 5.0 mg Nazolam, 2.5 mg intravenous midazolam or placebo on different occasions. Pharmacokinetics of midazolam and α-hydroxy-midazolam were characterized and related to outcome variables for sedation (Saccadic Peak Velocity, the Bond and Lader Visual Analogue Scale for sedation, the Simple Reaction Time Task and the Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation)...
October 25, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Michael Ingleson, Valerio Fasano, Liam Curless, James Radcliffe
N-Me-benzothiazolium salts are introduced as a new family of Lewis acids able to activate Si-H σ bonds. These carbon centered Lewis acids were demonstrated to have comparable Lewis acidity towards hydride as found for the triarylboranes widely used in Si-H σ bond activation. However, they display low Lewis acidity towards hard Lewis bases such as Et3PO and H2O in contrast to triarylboranes. The N-Me-benzothiazolium salts are effective catalysts for a range of hydrosilylation and dehydrosilylation reactions...
October 25, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Ashlee J Howarth, Cassandra T Buru, Yangyang Liu, Ann M Ploskonka, Karel J Hartlieb, Monica McEntee, John J Mahle, James H Buchanan, Erin M Durke, Salih S Al-Juaid, J Fraser Stoddart, Jared B Decoste, Joseph T Hupp, Omar K Farha
A fullerene-based photosensitizer is incorporated postsynthetically into a Zr6-based MOF, NU-1000, for enhanced singlet oxygen production. The structural organic linkers in the MOF platform also act as photosensitizers which contribute to the overall generation of singlet oxygen from the material under UV irradiation. The singlet oxygen generated by the MOF/fullerene material is shown to oxidize sulfur mustard selectively to the less toxic bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfoxide with a half-life of only 11 min.
October 25, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
J H M Driessen, F de Vries, H van Onzenoort, N C Harvey, C Neef, J van den Bergh, P Vestergaard, R M A Henry
The aim of the present study was to estimate the effect of incretins on fracture risk in the real world situation by meta-analysis of the available population-based cohort data. Pubmed and Embase were searched for original articles investigating use of incretin agents, and fracture risk up to December 2015. Adjusted results were extracted and results were pooled by use of generic inverse variance methods, assuming a random-effects model. Neither current dipeptidyl peptidase 4 - inhibitors use, nor current glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists use was associated with a decreased risk of fracture: pooled relative risk [pooled RR (95% CI): 1...
October 25, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
H U Brauer, W Walther, M Dick
Background: Legal expert opinions are a crucial instrument of professional self-control in medicine. To give impulses for further development, focus groups were initiated to reflect upon the perspective of legal dental experts. Methods: 5 focus group discussions on the topic "Professionalization of legal dental experts" were conducted. A total of 32 experienced legal dental experts participated in the discussions. The results were evaluated by qualitative content analysis. Results: A catalogue of 68 ideas was generated for improvement and divided into 15 categories...
October 25, 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
Núria Rovira-Graells, Sara Aguilera-Simón, Elisabet Tintó-Font, Alfred Cortés
The growth phenotype of asexual blood stage malaria parasites can influence their virulence and also their ability to survive and achieve transmission to the next host, but there are few methods available to characterise parasite growth parameters in detail. We developed a new assay to measure growth rates at different starting parasitaemias in a 96-well format and applied it to characterise the growth of Plasmodium falciparum lines 3D7-A and 3D7-B, previously shown to have different invasion rates and to use different invasion pathways...
2016: PloS One
Jürgen Dieker, Jo H Berden, Marinka Bakker, Jean-Paul Briand, Sylviane Muller, Reinhard Voll, Christopher Sjöwall, Martin Herrmann, Luuk B Hilbrands, Johan van der Vlag
Persistent exposure of the immune system to death cell debris leads to autoantibodies against chromatin in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Deposition of anti-chromatin/chromatin complexes can instigate inflammation in multiple organs including the kidney. Previously we identified specific cell death-associated histone modifications as targets of autoantibodies in SLE. In this study we addressed, in a large cohort of SLE patients and controls, the question whether plasma reactivities with specific histone peptides associated with serology and clinical features...
2016: PloS One
Xiang Li, Handong Wang, Yongyue Gao, Liwen Li, Chao Tang, Guodao Wen, Yuan Zhou, Mengliang Zhou, Lei Mao, Youwu Fan
The present investigation was carried out to elucidate a possible molecular mechanism related to the protective effect of quercetin administration against oxidative stress on various mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits with special emphasis on the role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in mitochondrial biogenesis. Recently, quercetin has been proved to have a protective effect against mitochondria damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, its precise role and underlying mechanisms in traumatic brain injury are not yet fully understood...
2016: PloS One
Kuan-Ho Lin, Chien-Liang Liu, Wei-Wen Kuo, Catherine Reena Paul, Wei-Kung Chen, Su-Ying Wen, Cecilia Hsuan Day, Hsi-Chin Wu, Vijaya Padma Viswanadha, Chih-Yang Huang
Cardiac trauma has been recognized as a complication associated with blunt chest trauma involving coronary artery injury, myocardium contusion and myocardial rupture. Secondary cardiac injuries after trauma supposed to be a critical factor in trauma patients, but the mechanism is not fully explored. Overproduction of TNF-alpha had been reported in multiple trauma animals, this induces oxidative stress resulting in cardiac apoptosis. Apoptosis gradually increases after trauma and reaches to a maximum level in 12 h time...
2016: PloS One
Karen H Keddy, Arvinda Sooka, Anthony M Smith, Alfred Musekiwa, Nomsa P Tau, Keith P Klugman, Frederick J Angulo
BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever remains an important disease in Africa, associated with outbreaks and the emerging multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) haplotype, H58. This study describes the incidence of, and factors associated with mortality due to, typhoid fever in South Africa, where HIV prevalence is high. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Nationwide active laboratory-based surveillance for culture-confirmed typhoid fever was undertaken from 2003-2013...
2016: PloS One
Kathryn H Hrinkevich, Robert A Progar, David C Shaw
The balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae (Ratzeburg) (Homoptera: Adelgidae)) (BWA) is a nonnative, invasive insect that threatens Abies species throughout North America. It is well established in the Pacific Northwest, but continues to move eastward through Idaho and into Montana and potentially threatens subalpine fir to the south in the central and southern Rocky Mountains. We developed a climatic risk model and map that predicts BWA impacts to subalpine fir using a two-step process. Using 30-year monthly climate normals from sites with quantitatively derived BWA damage severity index values, we built a regression model that significantly explained insect damage...
2016: PloS One
Ramnath Subbaraman, Ruvandhi R Nathavitharana, Srinath Satyanarayana, Madhukar Pai, Beena E Thomas, Vineet K Chadha, Kiran Rade, Soumya Swaminathan, Kenneth H Mayer
BACKGROUND: India has 23% of the global burden of active tuberculosis (TB) patients and 27% of the world's "missing" patients, which includes those who may not have received effective TB care and could potentially spread TB to others. The "cascade of care" is a useful model for visualizing deficiencies in case detection and retention in care, in order to prioritize interventions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The care cascade constructed in this paper focuses on the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP), which treats about half of India's TB patients...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
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