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N Singh, I Petrinic, C Hélix-Nielsen, S Basu, M Balakrishnan
Treatment of sugarcane molasses distillery wastewater is challenging due to the presence of complex phenolic compounds (melanoidins and polyphenols) having antioxidant properties. Due to zero liquid discharge regulations, Indian distilleries continue to explore effective treatment options. This work examines the concentration of distillery wastewater by forward osmosis (FO) using aquaporin biomimetic membranes and magnesium chloride hexahydrate (MgCl2.6H2O) as draw solution. The operational parameters viz. feed solution and draw solution flow rate and draw solution concentration were optimized using 10% v/v melanoidins model feed solution...
December 8, 2017: Water Research
Qamar Abbas, François Béguin
Cholinium chloride at a concentration of 5 mol kg-1 in water is proposed as low cost and environmentally friendly aqueous electrolyte enabling to extend the operating range of carbon/carbon supercapacitors (SCs) down to -40°C. This solution exhibits a pH close to neutrality (pH = 6.1) and high conductivity of 88 mS cm-1 at 24°C. The supercapacitors demonstrate a high capacitance of 126 F g-1 (per mass of one electrode) and long life span at voltages up to 1.5 V. At -40°C, the carbon/carbon SCs display excellent electrochemical characteristics featured by slightly reduced capacitance of 106 F g-1 and negligible ohmic losses...
December 14, 2017: ChemSusChem
Habib Tabatabai, Mohammed Aljuboori
Hundreds of people are killed or injured annually in the United States in accidents related to ice formation on roadways and bridge decks. In this paper, a novel embedded sensor system is proposed for the detection of black ice as well as wet, dry, and frozen pavement conditions on roads, runways, and bridges. The proposed sensor works by detecting changes in electrical resistance between two sets of stainless steel poles embedded in the concrete sensor to assess surface and near-surface conditions. A preliminary decision algorithm is developed that utilizes sensor outputs indicating resistance changes and surface temperature...
December 14, 2017: Sensors
Monica Vasiliu, J Grant Hill, Kirk A Peterson, David A Dixon
Geometry parameters, vibrational frequencies, heats of formation, bond dissociation energies, cohesive energies, and selected fluoride affinities (difluorides) are predicted for the late alkaline earth (Sr, Ba and Ra) oxides, fluorides, chlorides, and hydroxides at the coupled cluster theory [CCSD(T)] level. Additional corrections (scalar relativistic and pseudopotential corrections, vibrational zero-point energies, and atomic spin-orbit effects) were included to accurately calculate the total atomization energies and heats of formation following the Feller-Peterson-Dixon methodology...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Guangxin Hu, Hui Yang, Qingfeng Hou, Donghong Guo, Gang Chen, Fanghui Liu, Ting Chen, Xuefeng Shi, Yu Su, Jinben Wang
A pH and salt dually responsive emulsion has been designed on the basis of a novel amphiphilic macromolecule. It was found that the water separation of an oil-in-water emulsion reached up to ∼60% after standing for 10 min at low pH. 2-(Diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DEA) residues were found to induce the macromolecules to protonate and to be hydrophilic at pH values between 2 and 6, resulting in dewetting from oil droplet surfaces in water. Besides, the macromolecules form aggregates with different structures at the water/oil interface, depending on the pH value or salt concentration of the emulsion system, enabling the system to be demulsified in response to the pH or salt stimulus...
December 14, 2017: Soft Matter
S T Li, B Braun-Cula, S Hoof, C Limberg
The synthesis of the ligand systems L1 and L2 with two different N3-binding sites linked through a dibenzofuran spacer and their coordination properties towards a variety of CuI precursors are reported. The reaction of L1 with copper halides leads to the formation of a bimetallic species [(L1)(CuICl)2] (1), and metallodimers [((L1)(CuIX)2)2(μ-(Cu)(μ-X)2)] (2: X = Br, 3: X = I) in which two dicopper complexes are bridged by a (μ-(Cu)(μ-X)2)-moiety whereas L2 reacts with copper chloride to afford {[Cu(L2)Cl2]}n (8)...
December 14, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Matthew M Morgan, J Mikko Rautiainen, Warren E Piers, Heikki M Tuononen, Chris Gendy
The reactions of 1-bora-7a-azaindenide anions, prepared in moderate to excellent yields by reduction of the appropriate 1-bora-7a-azaindenyl chlorides with KC8 in THF, with alkyl halides and carbon dioxide were studied. With alkyl halides (CH2Cl2, CH3I and BrCH(D)CH(D)tBu), the anions behave as boron anions, alkylating the boron centre via a classic SN2 mechanism. This was established with DFT methods and via experiments utilizing the neo-hexyl stereoprobe BrCH(D)CH(D)tBu. These reactions were in part driven by a re-aromatization of the six membered pyridyl ring upon formation of the product...
December 14, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Mehdi Ahmadi, Farshid Ghanbari
Several efforts have been carried out to present an efficient method for PMS activation. This work presented the use of UVC-LEDs (light emitting diodes) and US (ultrasound) to activate PMS for decolorization of Direct Orange 26 (DO26). The performance of UVC-LEDs/US/PMS process was effective in a broad range of pH (3.0-9.0). Complete decolorization was obtained in only 12 min in pH = 7.0 and 1.5 mM PMS. Bicarbonate and nitrite ions showed inhibitory effect on decolorization while sulfate, chloride, and nitrate had no significant effect on the performance of the process...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
James C Courtenay, Susana M Ramalhete, William J Skuze, Rhea Soni, Yaroslav Z Khimyak, Karen J Edler, Janet L Scott
Stiff, elastic, viscous shear thinning aqueous gels are formed upon dispersion of low weight percent concentrations of cationically modified cellulose nanofibrils (CCNF) in water. CCNF hydrogels produced from cellulose modified with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride, with degree of substitution (DS) in the range 10.6(3)-23.0(9)%, were characterised using NMR spectroscopy, rheology and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to probe the fundamental form and dimensions of the CCNF and to reveal interfibrillar interactions leading to gelation...
December 13, 2017: Soft Matter
Alma Nieto, David G Pérez Ishiwara, Esther Orozco, Virginia Sánchez Monroy, Consuelo Gómez García
Transcriptional regulation of the multidrug resistance EhPgp5 gene in Entamoeba histolytica is induced by emetine stress. EhPgp5 overexpression alters the chloride-dependent currents that cause trophozoite swelling, diminishing induced programmed cell death (PCD) susceptibility. In contrast, antisense inhibition of P-glycoprotein (PGP) expression produces synchronous death of trophozoites and the enhancement of the biochemical and morphological characteristics of PCD induced by G418. Transcriptional gene regulation analysis identified a 59 bp region at position -170 to -111 bp promoter as putative emetine response elements (EREs)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Kayla D Coldsnow, Rick A Relyea, Jennifer M Hurley
Environmental contamination is a common cause of rapid evolution. Recent work has shown that Daphnia pulex, an important freshwater species, can rapidly evolve increased tolerance to a common contaminant, sodium chloride (NaCl) road salt. While such rapid evolution can benefit organisms, allowing them to adapt to new environmental conditions, it can also be associated with unforeseen tradeoffs. Given that exposure to environmental contaminants can cause circadian disruption, we investigated whether the circadian clock was affected by evolving a tolerance to high levels of road salt...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Lidia Elena Ayón-Reyna, José Ángel López-Valenzuela, Francisco Delgado-Vargas, Martha Edith López-López, Francisco Javier Molina-Corral, Armando Carrillo-López, Misael Odín Vega-García
Anthracnose of papaya fruit caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most economically important postharvest diseases. Hot water immersion (HW) and calcium chloride (Ca) treatments have been used to control papaya postharvest diseases; however, the effect of the combination HW-Ca on the pathogen growth and the development of the disease in infected papaya fruit has been scarcely studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the HW-Ca treatment on the in vitro growth of C...
December 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Laurent Salade, Nathalie Wauthoz, Magali Deleu, Marjorie Vermeersch, Carine De Vriese, Karim Amighi, Jonathan Goole
The aim of the present study was to develop a ghrelin-containing formulation based on liposomes coated with chitosan intended for nose-brain delivery for the treatment of cachexia. Among the three types of liposomes developed, anionic liposomes provided the best results in terms of encapsulation efficiency (56%) and enzymatic protection against trypsin (20.6% vs 0% for ghrelin alone) and carboxylesterase (81.6% vs 17.2% for ghrelin alone). Ghrelin presented both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions with the anionic lipid bilayer, as demonstrated by isothermal titration calorimetry...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Christian Hinze, Janett Ruffert, Katharina Walentin, Nina Himmerkus, Elham Nikpey, Olav Tenstad, Helge Wiig, Kerim Mutig, Zeliha Yesim Yurtdas, Janet D Klein, Jeff M Sands, Federica Branchi, Michael Schumann, Sebastian Bachmann, Markus Bleich, Kai M Schmidt-Ott
Collecting ducts make up the distal-most tubular segments of the kidney, extending from the cortex, where they connect to the nephron proper, into the medulla, where they release urine into the renal pelvis. During water deprivation, body water preservation is ensured by the selective transepithelial reabsorption of water into the hypertonic medullary interstitium mediated by collecting ducts. The collecting duct epithelium forms tight junctions composed of barrier-enforcing claudins and exhibits a higher transepithelial resistance than other segments of the renal tubule exhibit...
December 13, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Ethan C Rath, Hunter Gill, Yongsheng Bai
The shelf-life of fresh carcasses and produce depends on the chemical and physical properties of antimicrobials currently used for treatment. For many years the gold standard of these antimicrobials has been Cetylpyridinium Chloride (CPC) a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC). CPC is very effective at removing bacterial pathogens from the surface of chicken but has not been approved for other products due to a toxic residue left behind after treatment. Currently there is also a rising trend in QAC resistant bacteria...
2017: PloS One
Sarah L Zieger, Silke Ammerschubert, Andrea Polle, Stefan Scheu
Evidence is increasing that soil animal food webs are fueled by root-derived carbon (C) and also by root-derived nitrogen (N). Functioning as link between the above- and belowground system, trees and their species identity are important drivers structuring soil animal communities. A pulse labeling experiment using 15N and 13C was conducted by exposing beech (Fagus sylvatica) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior) seedlings to 13CO2 enriched atmosphere and tree leaves to 15N ammonium chloride solution in a plant growth chamber under controlled conditions for 72 h...
2017: PloS One
Cristina Paulino, Valeria Kalienkova, Andy K M Lam, Yvonne Neldner, Raimund Dutzler
The calcium-activated chloride channel TMEM16A is a ligand-gated anion channel that opens in response to an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. The protein is broadly expressed and contributes to diverse physiological processes, including transepithelial chloride transport and the control of electrical signalling in smooth muscles and certain neurons. As a member of the TMEM16 (or anoctamin) family of membrane proteins, TMEM16A is closely related to paralogues that function as scramblases, which facilitate the bidirectional movement of lipids across membranes...
December 13, 2017: Nature
Shangyu Dang, Shengjie Feng, Jason Tien, Christian J Peters, David Bulkley, Marco Lolicato, Jianhua Zhao, Kathrin Zuberbühler, Wenlei Ye, Lijun Qi, Tingxu Chen, Charles S Craik, Yuh Nung Jan, Daniel L Minor, Yifan Cheng, Lily Yeh Jan
Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) encoded by TMEM16A control neuronal signalling, smooth muscle contraction, airway and exocrine gland secretion, and rhythmic movements of the gastrointestinal system. To understand how CaCCs mediate and control anion permeation to fulfil these physiological functions, knowledge of the mammalian TMEM16A structure and identification of its pore-lining residues are essential. TMEM16A forms a dimer with two pores. Previous CaCC structural analyses have relied on homology modelling of a homologue (nhTMEM16) from the fungus Nectria haematococca that functions primarily as a lipid scramblase, as well as subnanometre-resolution electron cryo-microscopy...
December 13, 2017: Nature
Wenmin Cai, Jiajun Chen, Qingwei Wang, Meng Wei
Presently, the large amount of industrial leaded wastewater creates a great challenge to both environmental governance and wastewater recycling. Lead complexes in washed water must be removed mostly before the washed water can be recycled. This paper reports the mechanism and factors of removing Pb complexes in simulated washed water by the sulfide precipitation method. The reaction time, sodium sulfide dosage, pH, and polymeric aluminum chloride (PAC) dosage were analyzed and the optimal conditions were explored...
December 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Jia-Heng Zhou, Gao-Feng Cheng, Chang-Hua Wu, Qian-Kun Hong, Yao-Zhong Li, Hong-Yu Wang
Poly dimethyldiallylammonium chloride (PDMDAAC) was applied in membrane bioreactor (MBR) to study its effects on mitigation of MBR membrane fouling. Floc size, zeta potential, soluble microbial substances (SMP) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) secretion were studied with respect to PDMMAAC dosing operations. Results demonstrated that sustainable filtration cycle extended 3.3 times with the optimal PDMDAAC dosage of 90 mg L-1. The addition of PDMDAAC could increase zeta potential of sludge floc, which led to the decrease of repulsive electrostatic interactions between flocs, as well as the facilitation of flocs-to-flocs aggregation...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Technology
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