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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646800/regulated-and-unregulated-halogenated-disinfection-byproduct-formation-from-chlorination-of-saline-groundwater
#1
Aleksandra Szczuka, Kimberly M Parker, Cassandra Harvey, Erin Hayes, Avner Vengosh, William A Mitch
Coastal utilities exploiting mildly saline groundwater (<150 mg/L chloride) may be challenged by disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation, a concern likely to increase with sea-level rise. Groundwater from North Carolina coastal aquifers is characterized by large variations in concentrations of halides (bromide up to 10,600 μg/L) and dissolved organic carbon (up to 5.7 mg-C/L). Formation of 33 regulated and unregulated halogenated DBPs, including trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), haloacetonitriles, haloacetamides, and haloacetaldehydes, was measured after simulated chlorination of 24 coastal North Carolina groundwater samples under typical chlorination conditions...
June 12, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646780/sem-eds-and-optical-microscopy-analyses-of-microplastics-in-ocean-trawl-and-fish-guts
#2
Zhong-Min Wang, Jeff Wagner, Sutapa Ghosal, Gagandeep Bedi, Stephen Wall
Microplastic particles from Atlantic and Pacific Ocean trawls, lab-fed fish guts and ocean fish guts have been characterized using optical microscopy and SEM/EDS in terms of size, morphology, and chemistry. We assessed whether these measurements could serve as a rapid screening process for subsequent identification of the likely microplastic candidates by micro-spectroscopy. Optical microscopy enabled morphological classification of the types of particles or fibers present in the sample, as well as the quantification of particle size ranges and fiber lengths...
June 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646758/thermo-responsive-diblock-and-triblock-cationic-copolymers-at-the-silica-aqueous-interface-a-qcm-d-and-afm-study
#3
Saeed Zajforoushan Moghaddam, Kaizheng Zhu, Bo Nyström, Esben Thormann
The properties of synthesized diblock poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-poly((3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride) and triblock methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-poly((3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride) cationic copolymers at the silica/aqueous interface are investigated using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Moreover, dynamic light scattering is employed to assess the copolymers in terms of the hydrodynamic size and interchain aggregation...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646683/fabrication-of-low-fire-hazard-flexible-poly-vinyl-chloride-via-reutilization-of-heavy-metal-biosorbents
#4
Ye-Tang Pan, De-Yi Wang
As a naturally abundant biopolymer, chitosan is considered to be a suitable adsorbent for stannate (SnO3(2-)) in tin plating wastewater. However, mass transfer of the adsorbent and its recycling remain challenging problems. Though flexible poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is highly flammable due to the addition of plasticizers, the traditional flame retardant, antimony trioxide (Sb2O3), is potentially harmful. In this study, chitosan was anchored onto the surface of PVC resin to adsorb SnO3(2-) from wastewater. Thereafter, tin-doped chitosan-coated PVC resin was readily recycled and processed into a flexible PVC composite (modified fPVC)...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646605/observations-and-impacts-of-bleach-washing-on-indoor-chlorine-chemistry
#5
J P S Wong, N Carslaw, R Zhao, S Zhou, J P D Abbatt
Ambient levels of chlorinated gases and aerosol components were measured by on-line chemical ionization and aerosol mass spectrometers after an indoor floor was repeatedly washed with a commercial bleach solution. Gaseous chlorine (Cl2 , 10's of ppbv) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl, 100's of ppbv) arise after floor washing, along with nitryl chloride (ClNO2 ), dichlorine monoxide (Cl2 O) and chloramines (NHCl2 , NCl3 ). Much higher mixing ratios would prevail in a room with lower and more commonly encountered air exchange rates than that observed in the study (12...
June 24, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646571/comparison-of-reed-water-lettuce-in-constructed-wetland-for-sewage-water-treatment
#6
Abdullah Yasar, Ayesha Zaheer, Amtul Bari Tabinda, Marryam Khan Yusra Mahfooz
In the present study two designs Vertical and Horizontal system were used and two different plant species, water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) and reed plant (Phragmites karka) were compared for their removal efficiency. Vertical system appeared to be more stable and efficient for almost all the parameters. Vertical planted with water lettuce showed % removal efficiency for BOD, phosphate and chloride as 82, 95.4 and 51 respectively while turbidity and total suspended solids (TSS) removal efficiency was almost same...
June 21, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646163/aldosterone-modulates-the-association-between-ncc-and-enac
#7
Brandi M Wynne, Abinash C Mistry, Otor Al-Khalili, Rickta Mallick, Franziska Theilig, Douglas C Eaton, Robert S Hoover
Distal sodium transport is a final step in the regulation of blood pressure. As such, understanding how the two main sodium transport proteins, the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) and the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), are regulated is paramount. Both are expressed in the late distal nephron; however, no evidence has suggested that these two sodium transport proteins interact. Recently, we established that these two sodium transport proteins functionally interact in the second part of the distal nephron (DCT2)...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646130/congenital-chloride-diarrhea-ccd-a-case-report-of-ccd-suspected-by-prenatal-ultrasonography-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri
#8
Takakazu Kawamura, Tomizou Nishiguchi
BACKGROUND Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that is difficult to distinguish from fetal lower intestinal obstruction. A prenatal diagnosis will make a contribution to the prognosis of the newborn. CASE REPORT We report a rare case of congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) prenatally suspected by ultrasound and MRI. The prenatal ultrasound revealed signs of intestinal dilatation suggesting lower intestinal obstruction. MRI findings also revealed intestinal dilatation that continued from the rectum...
June 24, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646128/%C3%AE-copi-mediates-the-retention-of-kae1-g701d-protein-in-golgi-apparatus-a-mechanistic-explanation-of-drta-associated-g701d-mutation
#9
Natapol Duangtum, Mutita Junking, Suratchanee Phadngam, Nunghathai Sawasdee, Andrea Castiglioni, Komgrid Charngkaew, Thawornchai Limjindaporn, Ciro Isidoro, Pa-Thai Yenchitsomanus
Mutations of solute carrier family 4 member 1 ( SLC4A1 ) gene encoding kidney anion (chloride/bicarbonate ion) exchanger 1 (kAE1) can cause genetic distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). Different SLC4A1 mutations give rise to mutant kAE1 proteins with distinct defects in protein trafficking. The mutant kAE1 protein may be retained in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, or mis-targeted to the apical membrane, failing to display its function at the baso-lateral membrane. The ER-retained mutant kAE1 interacts with calnexin chaperone protein; disruption of this interaction permits the mutant kAE1 to reach the cell surface and display anion exchange activity...
June 23, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645709/aquatic-biodiversity-in-sedimentation-ponds-receiving-road-runoff-what-are-the-key-drivers
#10
Zhenhua Sun, John E Brittain, Ekaterina Sokolova, Helene Thygesen, Svein Jakob Saltveit, Sebastien Rauch, Sondre Meland
Recently, increased attention has been paid to biodiversity conservation provided by blue-green solutions such as engineered ponds that are primarily established for water treatment and flood control. However, little research has been done to analyse the factors that affect biodiversity in such ponds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on aquatic biodiversity, mainly macroinvertebrate communities, in road sedimentation ponds in order to provide a foundation for recommendations on aquatic biodiversity conservation...
June 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644866/the-high-tolerance-to-aluminium-in-crucian-carp-carassius-carassius-is-associated-with-its-ability-to-avoid-hypoxia
#11
Antonio B S Poléo, Joachim Schjolden, Jørgen Sørensen, Göran E Nilsson
It is well known that aluminium is the principle toxicant killing fish in acidified freshwater systems, and it has been shown that crucian carp (Carassius carassius) can survive exposures to aqueous aluminium levels toxic to most other freshwater fish species. The crucian carp has a remarkable ability to survive anoxic conditions, and the aim of the present study was to reveal if the tolerance to aluminium can be associated with the ability to survive prolonged anoxia. Crucian carps were exposed to either acidic Al-rich water (pH 5...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644688/intraosseous-administration-of-antidotes-a-systematic-review
#12
Audrée Elliott, Pierre-André Dubé, Amélie Cossette-Côté, Laura Patakfalvi, Eric Villeneuve, Martin Morris, Sophie Gosselin
CONTEXT: Intraosseous (IO) access is an established route of administration in resuscitation situations. Patients with serious poisoning presenting to the emergency department may require urgent antidote therapy. However, intravenous (IV) access is not always readily available. OBJECTIVE: This study reviews the current evidence for IO administration of antidotes that could be used in poisoning. The primary outcome was mortality as a surrogate of efficacy. Secondary outcomes included hemodynamic variables, electrocardiographic variables, neurological status, pharmacokinetics outcomes, and adverse effects as defined by each article...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644464/a-synthetic-ion-transporter-that-disrupts-autophagy-and-induces-apoptosis-by-perturbing-cellular-chloride-concentrations
#13
Nathalie Busschaert, Seong-Hyun Park, Kyung-Hwa Baek, Yoon Pyo Choi, Jinhong Park, Ethan N W Howe, Jennifer R Hiscock, Louise E Karagiannidis, Igor Marques, Vítor Félix, Wan Namkung, Jonathan L Sessler, Philip A Gale, Injae Shin
Perturbations in cellular chloride concentrations can affect cellular pH and autophagy and lead to the onset of apoptosis. With this in mind, synthetic ion transporters have been used to disturb cellular ion homeostasis and thereby induce cell death; however, it is not clear whether synthetic ion transporters can also be used to disrupt autophagy. Here, we show that squaramide-based ion transporters enhance the transport of chloride anions in liposomal models and promote sodium chloride influx into the cytosol...
July 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644346/twelve-novel-mutations-in-the-slc26a3-gene-in-17-sporadic-cases-of-congenital-chloride-diarrhea
#14
Felice Amato, Giuseppe Cardillo, Renato Liguori, Manuela Scorza, Marika Comegna, Ausilia Elce, Sonia Giordano, Laura Lucaccioni, Licia Lugli, Sabrina Cardile, Claudio Romano, Vincenza Pezzella, Giuseppe Castaldo, Roberto Berni Canani
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to improve the knowledge of pathogenic mutations in sporadic cases of congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) and emphasize the importance of functional studies to define the effect of novel mutations. METHODS: All member 3 of solute carrier family 26 (SLC26A3) coding regions were sequenced in 17 sporadic patients with CCD. Moreover, the minigene system was used to analyze the effect of 2 novel splicing mutations. RESULTS: We defined the SLC26A3 genotype of all 17 patients with CCD and identified 12 novel mutations...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644059/carbonic-anhydrase-i-ii-iv-and-ix-inhibition-with-a-series-of-7-amino-3-4-dihydroquinolin-2-1h-one-derivatives
#15
Murat Bozdag, Silvia Bua, Sameh M Osman, Zeid AlOthman, Claudiu T Supuran
A series of new derivatives was prepared by derivatisation of the 7-amino moiety present in 7-amino-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one, a compound investigated earlier as CAI. The derivatisation was achieved by: i) reaction with arylsulfonyl isocyanates/aryl isocyanates; (ii) reaction with fluorescein isothiocyanate; (iii) condensation with substituted benzoic acids in the presence of carbodiimides; (iv) reaction with 2,4,6-trimethyl-pyrylium tetrafluoroborate; (v) reaction with methylsulfonyl chloride and (vi) reaction with maleic anhydride...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643951/magnetic-graphene-oxide-modified-by-imidazole-based-ionic-liquids-for-the-magnetic-based-solid-phase-extraction-of-polysaccharides-from-brown-alga
#16
Xiaoqin Wang, Guizhen Li, Kyung Ho Row
Magnetic graphene oxide was modified by four imidazole-based ionic liquids to synthesize materials for the extraction of polysaccharides by magnetic solid-phase extraction. Fucoidan and laminarin were chosen as the representative polysaccharides owing to their excellent pharmaceutical value and availability. FTIR spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis were applied to characterize the synthesized materials. Single-factor experiments showed that the extraction efficiency of polysaccharides was affected by the amount of ionic liquids for modification, solid-liquid ratio of brown alga and ethanol, the stirring time of brown alga and ionic liquid modified magnetic graphene oxide materials, and amount of 1-(3-aminopropyl)imidazole chloride modified magnetic graphene oxide materials added to the brown alga sample solution...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643864/hydroxyacetone-a-glycerol-based-platform-for-electrocatalytic-hydrogenation-and-hydrodeoxygenation-processes
#17
Waldemar Sauter, Olaf Lennart Bergmann, Uwe Schröder
Here we propose the use of hydroxyacetone, a dehydration product of glycerol, as a platform for the electrocatalytic synthesis of acetone, 1,2-propanediol and 2-propanol. 11 non-noble metals were investigated as electrode materials in combination with three different electrolyte compositions towards the selectivity, Coulomb efficiency (CE) and reaction rates of the electrocatalytic hydrogenation (formation of 1,2-propanediol) and hydrodeoxygenation (formation of acetone and propanol) of hydroxyacetone. With a selectivity of 84...
June 23, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643413/effects-of-sodium-chloride-on-heat-resistance-oxidative-susceptibility-motility-biofilm-and-plaque-formation-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei
#18
Pornpan Pumirat, Muthita Vanaporn, Usa Boonyuen, Nitaya Indrawattana, Amporn Rungruengkitkun, Narisara Chantratita
Burkholderia pseudomallei is an environmental saprophyte and the causative agent of melioidosis, a severe infectious disease prevalent in tropical areas, including southeast Asia and northern Australia. In Thailand, the highest incidence of melioidosis is in the northeast region, where saline soil and water are abundant. We hypothesized that B. pseudomallei develops an ability to thrive in saline conditions and gains a selective ecological advantage over other soil-dwelling microorganisms. However, little is known about how an elevated NaCl concentration affects survival and adaptive changes in this pathogen...
June 23, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642968/enhancing-the-enzymatic-saccharification-of-bamboo-shoot-shell-by-sequential-biological-pretreatment-with-galactomyces-sp-cczu11-1-and-deep-eutectic-solvent-extraction
#19
Yong Dai, Hai-Sheng Zhang, Bin Huan, Yucai He
In this study, sequential biological pretreatment (BP) with Galactomyces sp. CCZU11-1 at 30 °C for 3 days and deep eutectic solvent (DES) choline chloride: oxalic acid (ChCl:OA, 1 mol/2 mol) extraction at 120 °C for 1.5 h was used for pretreating BSS. It was found that combination pretreatment could effectively remove xylan and lignin for enhancing enzymatic saccharification. The reducing sugars and glucose from the hydrolysis of 100 g/L pretreated BSS with complexed cellulases of Galactomyces sp. CCZU11-1 were obtained in the yields of 81...
June 22, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642866/evaluation-of-serum-for-pathophysiological-effects-of-prolonged-low-salinity-water-exposure-in-displaced-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus
#20
Ruth Y Ewing, Blair Mase-Guthrie, Wayne McFee, Forrest Townsend, Charles A Manire, Michael Walsh, Rose Borkowski, Gregory D Bossart, Adam M Schaefer
We conducted a retrospective study of serum biochemistry and hematologic findings from displaced, out-of-habitat bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) exposed to various low salinity environments in waters along the southern United States including southeastern Atlantic and northern Gulf of Mexico. Serum sodium, chloride, and calculated osmolality were significantly lower and below reference ranges in displaced animals compared to free-ranging case control animals. This suggests clinical hyponatremia, hypochloremia, and hypo-osmolality due to an uptake of low saline water from the environment...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
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