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Eileen E Birch, Sarah E Morale, Reed M Jost, Angie De La Cruz, Krista R Kelly, Yi-Zhong Wang, Peter J Bex
Purpose: Suppression has a key role in the etiology of amblyopia, and contrast-balanced binocular treatment can overcome suppression and improve visual acuity. Quantitative assessment of suppression could have a role in managing amblyopia. We describe a novel eye chart to assess suppression in children. Methods: We enrolled 100 children (7-12 years; 63 amblyopic, 25 nonamblyopic with strabismus or anisometropia, 12 controls) in the primary cohort and 22 children (3-6 years; 13 amblyopic, 9 nonamblyopic) in a secondary cohort...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Cinthia C Stempin, Claudia C Motrán, María P Aoki, Cristian R Falcón, Fabio M Cerbán, Laura Cervi
Macrophage plasticity is critical for controlling inflammation including those produced by helminth infections, where alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) are accumulated in tissues. AAM expressing the co-inhibitory molecule programmed death ligand 2 (PD-L2), which is capable of binding programmed death 1 (PD-1) expressed on activated T cells, have been demonstrated in different parasitic infections. However, the role of PD-L2 during F. hepatica infection has not yet been explored. We observed that F. hepatica infection or a F...
October 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Shauna Katz, Delphine Cussigh, Noelia Urbán, Isabelle Blomfield, François Guillemot, Laure Bally-Cuif, Marion Coolen
Throughout life, adult neural stem cells (NSCs) produce new neurons and glia that contribute to crucial brain functions. Quiescence is an essential protective feature of adult NSCs; however, the establishment and maintenance of this state remain poorly understood. We demonstrate that in the adult zebrafish pallium, the brain-enriched miR-9 is expressed exclusively in a subset of quiescent NSCs, highlighting a heterogeneity within these cells, and is necessary to maintain NSC quiescence. Strikingly, miR-9, along with Argonaute proteins (Agos), is localized to the nucleus of quiescent NSCs, and manipulating their nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio impacts quiescence...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Alexandre Fisette, Stephanie Tobin, Léa Décarie-Spain, Khalil Bouyakdan, Marie-Line Peyot, S R Murthy Madiraju, Marc Prentki, Stephanie Fulton, Thierry Alquier
α/β-Hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6) is a monoacylglycerol hydrolase that degrades the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Although complete or peripheral ABHD6 loss of function is protective against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance, the role of ABHD6 in the central control of energy balance is unknown. Using a viral-mediated knockout approach, targeted endocannabinoid measures, and pharmacology, we discovered that mice lacking ABHD6 from neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH(KO)) have higher VMH 2-AG levels in conditions of endocannabinoid recruitment and fail to physiologically adapt to key metabolic challenges...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
C Buratti, F Fantozzi, M Barbanera, E Lascaro, M Chiorri, L Cecchini
Beef cattle production is a widespread activity in Italy in the agricultural field and determines an important impact on environment and resources consumption. Carbon footprint evaluation is thus necessary to evaluate the contributions of the different stages and the possible improvements of the production chain. In this study, two typical Italian beef production systems, a conventional and an organic one are investigated in order to evaluate the greenhouse gas emissions from "cradle to gate farm" by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach; the carbon footprint (CF) per 1kg of live weight meat is calculated...
October 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Sharon M Moe
Calcium is an important ion in cell signaling, hormone regulation, and bone health. Its regulation is complex and intimately connected to that of phosphate homeostasis. Both ions are maintained at appropriate levels to maintain the extracellular to intracellular gradients, allow for mineralization of bone, and to prevent extra skeletal and urinary calcification. The homeostasis involves the target organs intestine, parathyroid glands, kidney, and bone. Multiple hormones converge to regulate the extracellular calcium level: parathyroid hormone, vitamin D (principally 25(OH)D or 1,25(OH)2D), fibroblast growth factor 23, and α-klotho...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Colin H Brown
The posterior pituitary gland secretes oxytocin and vasopressin (the antidiuretic hormone) into the blood system. Oxytocin is required for normal delivery of the young and for delivery of milk to the young during lactation. Vasopressin increases water reabsorption in the kidney to maintain body fluid balance and causes vasoconstriction to increase blood pressure. Oxytocin and vasopressin secretion occurs from the axon terminals of magnocellular neurons whose cell bodies are principally found in the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Joan Maria Estrada-Masllorens, Eva Maria Guix-Comellas, Sandra Cabrera-Jaime, Jordi Galimany-Masclans, Juan Roldán-Merino, Teresa Lluch-Canut
BACKGROUND: The nursing education program framework in Spain has recently been adapted and modified. This study aimed to analyze university postgraduate master'slevel nursing education during the past 21 years in Spain in terms of educational supply and demand. METHOD: A retrospective, longitudinal, descriptive, and observational design was used. The educational offerings at 15 university nursing schools in Spain were examined. The target population was 7,871 registered and licensed nurses who had completed postgraduate education...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Nursing Education
Gabriel de Souza Prim, Francisco Assis Souza Santos, Milton Vieira, Victor Nassar
Individuals with transtibial amputations have difficulties in performing march and stay in balance, directly affecting their quality of life. The use of prostheses can enable the rehabilitation of the individual, but we question how effective are for certain tasks and how they can still improve. To evaluate the prosthesis for transtibial amputation, a comparative study was conducted with two groups: Amputee and NOT Amputees. With the help of Motion Capture technology was held measuring the angles of static balance, walking speed and scores in the execution of daily activities...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Colby Hansen, Dan Cushman, Nicholas Anderson, Wei Chen, Christine Cheng, Shirley D Hon, Man Hung
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric head injuries occur commonly and are being reported in increasing numbers. Balance testing is a key component in the evaluation of suspected concussion, and the balance error scoring system (BESS) is likely the most well-known and widely used measure. To date, normative BESS scores for adults have been reported but not for children. DESIGN: Normative data for BESS scores and modified BESS scores were created in a cohort of healthy children. Potential variables were analyzed as predictors of BESS performance...
November 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Anastasia Kruchinina, Elias Rudberg, Emanuel H Rubensson
Parameterless stopping criteria for recursive polynomial expansions to construct the density matrix in electronic structure calculations are proposed. Based on convergence order estimation the new stopping criteria automatically and accurately detect when the calculation is dominated by numerical errors and continued iteration does not improve the result. Difficulties in selecting a stopping tolerance and appropriately balancing it in relation to parameters controlling the numerical accuracy are avoided. Thus, our parameterless stopping criteria stand in contrast to the standard approach to stop as soon as some error measure goes below a user-defined parameter or tolerance...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Aaron C W Lin, Wendy Strugnell, Robyn Riley, Benjamin Schmitt, Michael Zenge, Michaela Schmidt, Norman R Morris, Christian Hamilton-Craig
PURPOSE: To assess the clinical feasibility of a compressed sensing cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence of both high temporal and spatial resolution (CS_bSSFP) in comparison to a balanced steady-state free precession cine (bSSFP) sequence for reliable quantification of left ventricular (LV) volumes and mass. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Segmented MRI cine images were acquired on a 1.5T scanner in 50 patients in the LV short-axis stack orientation using a retrospectively gated conventional bSSFP sequence (generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition [GRAPPA] acceleration factor 2), followed by a prospectively triggered CS_bSSFP sequence with net acceleration factor of 8...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Tania Gallart-Aragón, Carolina Fernández-Lao, Eduardo Castro-Martín, Irene Cantarero-Villanueva, Antonio Cózar-Ibáñez, Manuel Arroyo-Morales
OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has demonstrated high long-term effectiveness and major advantages over other techniques. The objective of this study was to analyze changes in physical fitness parameters in morbidly obese patients during 6 months after LSG. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a descriptive observational study with 6-month follow-up in 72 LSG patients, evaluating changes in body mass index (BMI), functional capacity (6-min walking test), hand grip strength (manual dynamometry), flexibility (fingertip-to-floor test), balance (Flamingo test), physical activity level (International Physical Activity Questionnaire, IPAQ), and perception of general physical fitness (International Fitness Scale [IFIS] questionnaire)...
October 25, 2016: Obesity Surgery
I P Shabalkin, E Yu Grigor'eva, M V Gudkova, Yu V Stukalov, A S Mas'ko
Using the autoradiographic method, we studied the kinetics of DNA synthesis over the mitotic cycle in mouse corneal epithelium cells in delayed periods after γ-irradiation in different points of the S phase of the first mitotic cycle. The index labeled cells during 1-3 periods of DNA synthesis most adequately reflects quantitative changes in the cell population composition after cell exposure during the first S period. The relative number of labeled S phase cells in the second mitotic cycle in experiments where the cells were irradiated in the S1 phase of the first S period was 4-fold lower than in experiments where the cells were exposed during S2 phase...
October 25, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Masaaki Nakayama, Yoshindo Kawaguchi, Takashi Akiba, Masao Kim, Hidemune Naito, Shigeko Hara, Teruhiko Maeba, Noriaki Yorioka, James A Sloand, Mark R Marshall
BACKGROUND: We report here two new peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDFs) for Japan [BLR 250, BLR 350 (Baxter Limited, Japan)]. The PDFs use two-chamber systems, and have bicarbonate and lactate buffer to a total of 35 mmol/L. In separate trials, the new PDFs were compared to two "standard" systems [PD-4, PD-2 (Baxter Limited, Japan)]. The trials aimed to demonstrate non-inferiority of peritoneal creatinine clearance (pCcr), peritoneal urea clearance (pCurea) and ultrafiltration volume (UF), and compare acid-base and electrolyte balance...
October 25, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Yuwen Wang, Chao Xu, Kang Li, Xiaojie Cai, Min Wu, Guoxiang Chen
Iron deficiency is an important abiotic stress that limits productivity of crops all over the world. We selected a hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.), LYPJ, which is super high-yield and widely cultured in China, to investigate changes in the components and structure of thylakoid membranes and photosynthetic performance in response to iron deficiency. Our results demonstrated that photosystem I (PSI) is the primary target for iron deficiency, while the changes in photosystem II (PSII) are important for rebuilding a balance in disrupted energy utilization and dissipation caused by differential degradation of photosynthetic components...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jennifer Hochheim, Angela Kranz, Karin Krumbach, Sascha Sokolowsky, Lothar Eggeling, Stephan Noack, Marco Bocola, Michael Bott, Jan Marienhagen
OBJECTIVES: To explore systemic effects of mutations in the UDP-N-acetylmuramoylalanyl-D-glutamate 2,6-diaminopimelate ligase (MurE) of Corynebacterium glutamicum, that leads to extracellular L-lysine accumulation by this bacterium. RESULTS: The analysis of a mutant cohort of C. glutamicum strains carrying all possible 20 amino acids at position 81 of MurE revealed unexpected effects on cellular properties. With increasing L-lysine accumulation the growth rate of the producing strain is reduced...
October 25, 2016: Biotechnology Letters
Wyman Chen, Rose Caston, Bijina Balakrishnan, Anwer Siddiqi, Kamalpreet Parmar, Manshu Tang, Merry Feng, Kent Lai
Despite adequate dietary management, patients with classic galactosemia continue to have increased risks of cognitive deficits, speech dyspraxia, primary ovarian insufficiency, and abnormal motor development. A recent evaluation of a new galactose-1 phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT)-deficient mouse model revealed reduced fertility and growth restriction. These phenotypes resemble those seen in human patients. In this study, we further assess the fidelity of this new mouse model by examining the animals for the manifestation of a common neurological sequela in human patients: cerebellar ataxia...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Woongsik Jang, Sunyong Ahn, Soyun Park, Jong Hyeok Park, Dong Hwan Wang
The importance of conductive polymer electrodes with a balance between the morphology and electrical conductivity for flexible organic photovoltaic properties has been demonstrated. Highly transparent PEDOT:PSS anodes with controlled conductivity and surface properties were realized by insertion of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and a fluorosurfactant (Zonyl) as efficient additives and used for flexible organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) which are based on a bulk-heterojunction of polythieno[3,4-b]-thiophene-co-benzodithiophene (PTB7):[6,6]phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM)...
October 26, 2016: Nanoscale
Kari Skrautvol, Dagfinn Nåden
People living with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) experienced that knowledge about their embodied tolerance limits, diet, mental problem solving, and change in lifestyle together with integrative health care could promote recovery from their diagnosed disease in calmer periods of suffering. A hermeneutic approach was used to analyze interviews with patients living with IBD outside hospitals. Thirteen young adults between 18 and 45 years of age in calmer phases of IBD participated in the study. Three main themes emerged from the analysis of the interviews: (1) Understanding limits in embodied tolerance, (2) Restoring balance is creating a new equilibrium, and (3) Creating resilience through integrative care...
October 25, 2016: Holistic Nursing Practice
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