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Color contrast sensitivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724749/columnar-segregation-of-magnocellular-and-parvocellular-streams-in-human-extrastriate-cortex
#1
Roger B H Tootell, Shahin Nasr
'Magno- vs. parvo-cellular' (M-P) streams are fundamental to the organization of macaque visual cortex. Segregated, paired M-P streams extend from retina through LGN into V1. The M stream extends further into area V5/MT, and parts of V2. However elsewhere in visual cortex, it remains unclear whether M-P-derived information 1) becomes intermixed, or 2) remains segregated in M-P dominated columns and neurons. Here we tested whether M-P streams exist in extrastriate cortical columns, in 8 human subjects (4 female)...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683118/reef-calcifiers-are-adapted-to-episodic-heat-stress-but-vulnerable-to-sustained-warming
#2
Marleen Stuhr, Claire E Reymond, Vera Rieder, Pamela Hallock, Jörg Rahnenführer, Hildegard Westphal, Michal Kucera
Shallow marine ecosystems naturally experience fluctuating physicochemical conditions across spatial and temporal scales. Widespread coral-bleaching events, induced by prolonged heat stress, highlight the importance of how the duration and frequency of thermal stress influence the adaptive physiology of photosymbiotic calcifiers. Large benthic foraminifera harboring algal endosymbionts are major tropical carbonate producers and bioindicators of ecosystem health. Like corals, they are sensitive to thermal stress and bleach at temperatures temporarily occurring in their natural habitat and projected to happen more frequently...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669719/changing-similarity-stable-and-flexible-modulations-of-psychological-dimensions
#3
Michael Dieciuc, Nelson A Roque, Jonathan R Folstein
Successfully categorizing objects requires discriminating between relevant and irrelevant dimensions (e.g., shape, color). Categorization can lead to changes in the visual system that stretch psychological space, making relevant dimensions more distinct and irrelevant dimensions more similar. These changes are known as dimensional modulation (DM) and they can be both stable and flexible in nature. The current study examined the interaction between stable DM and flexible DM, as well as the time course of relative changes in similarity...
June 29, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656455/malignancy-detection-on-mammography-using-dual-deep-convolutional-neural-networks-and-genetically-discovered-false-color-input-enhancement
#4
Philip Teare, Michael Fishman, Oshra Benzaquen, Eyal Toledano, Eldad Elnekave
Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy in the US and the third highest cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Regular mammography screening has been attributed with doubling the rate of early cancer detection over the past three decades, yet estimates of mammographic accuracy in the hands of experienced radiologists remain suboptimal with sensitivity ranging from 62 to 87% and specificity from 75 to 91%. Advances in machine learning (ML) in recent years have demonstrated capabilities of image analysis which often surpass those of human observers...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653828/generating-color-from-polydisperse-near-micron-sized-tio2-particles
#5
Al-Mahmnur Alam, Kyungnae Baek, Jieun Son, Yi-Rong Pei, Dong Ha Kim, Jin-Ho Choy, Jerome K Hyun
Single particle Mie calculations of near micron-sized TiO2 particles predict strong light scattering dominating the visible range that would give rise to a white appearance. We demonstrate that a polydisperse collection of these "white" particles can result in the generation of visible colors through ensemble scattering. The weighted averaging of the scattering over the particle size distribution modifies the sharp, multiple, high order scattering modes from individual particles into broad variations in the collective extinction...
July 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647197/characterizing-tissue-perfusion-after-lower-extremity-intervention-using-two-dimensional-color-coded-digital-subtraction-angiography
#6
Ann H Kim, Andrew J Shevitz, Katherine L Morrow, Daniel E Kendrick, Karem Harth, Henry Baele, Vikram S Kashyap
OBJECTIVE: Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) of the peripheral arterial vasculature provides lumenographic information but only a qualitative assessment of blood flow. The ability to quantify adequate tissue perfusion of the lower extremities would enable real-time perfusion assessment during DSA of patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). In this study, we used a novel real-time imaging software to delineate tissue perfusion parameters in the foot in PAD patients. METHODS: Between March 2015 and June 2016, patients (N = 31) underwent lower extremity angiography using a two-dimensional perfusion (2DP) imaging protocol (Philips Healthcare, Andover, Mass)...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633153/association-between-visual-function-and-subretinal-drusenoid-deposits-in-normal-and-early-age-related-macular-degeneration-eyes
#7
David Neely, Anna V Zarubina, Mark E Clark, Carrie E Huisingh, Gregory R Jackson, Yuhua Zhang, Gerald McGwin, Christine A Curcio, Cynthia Owsley
PURPOSE: To examine the association between subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDDs) identified by multimodal retinal imaging and visual function in older eyes with normal macular health or in the earliest phases of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: Age-related macular degeneration status for each eye was defined according to the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) 9-step classification system (normal = Step 1, early AMD = Steps 2-4) based on color fundus photographs...
July 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628420/value-of-multiparametric-us-in-the-assessment-of-intratesticular-lesions
#8
Thomas Auer, Tobias De Zordo, Christian Dejaco, Leonhard Gruber, Renate Pichler, Werner Jaschke, Vikram S Dogra, Friedrich Aigner
Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of multiparametric ultrasonography (US) consisting of gray-scale US, color Doppler US, strain elastography, and contrast agent-enhanced US in the assessment of intratesticular lesions. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective study. From January 2012 to December 2015, 55 focal testicular lesions that were indeterminate on gray-scale US scans were further characterized with color Doppler US, strain elastography, and contrast-enhanced US...
June 16, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600993/robust-sensitive-and-facile-method-for-detection-of-f-cn-and-ac-anions
#9
P Madhusudhana Reddy, Shih-Rong Hsieh, Jem-Kun Chen, Chi-Jung Chang, Jing-Yuan Kang, Chih-Hsien Chen
Sensing of F(-), CN(-) and Ac(-) is important from the viewpoint of both medically and environmentally. Particularly, sensing of the anions in 100% water by a colorimetric chemical sensor is a highly difficult task as water molecules interfere the sensing mechanism. In this regard, sensor R1, having azo and nitrophenyl groups as signaling units and thiourea as a binding site was prepared. This sensor exclusively detected CN(-) ion over other testing anions in 30% aq. DMSO solution by exhibiting distinct spectral and visual color changes...
June 6, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597330/the-utility-of-superb-microvascular-imaging-for-monitoring-low-velocity-venous-flow-following-pancreas-transplantation-report-of-a-case
#10
Kazuaki Tokodai, Shigehito Miyagi, Chikashi Nakanishi, Yasuyuki Hara, Wataru Nakanishi, Koji Miyazawa, Kenji Shimizu, Masafumi Goto, Takashi Kamei, Michiaki Unno
Vascular thrombosis is a major complication after pancreas transplantation. Because delays in detecting thrombosis often result in graft failure, monitoring blood flow is crucial. Periodic evaluation using color Doppler ultrasonography is mostly performed for monitoring blood flow in the grafted pancreas. However, conventional color Doppler imaging has limited capability to visualize low-velocity blood flow. Superb microvascular imaging (SMI) is a novel ultrasound Doppler technique that is especially sensitive in detecting low-velocity flow...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574037/-diagnostic-significance-of-the-color-duplex-scanning-in-estimation-of-the-arteries-state-at-different-stages-of-infrainguinal-reconstructions
#11
I E Timina, I I Piatkova, A E Zotikov, Z A Adyrkhaev
AIM: The study was aimed at assessing diagnostic possibilities of duplex scanning (DS) of lower limb arteries, used as 'ultrasonographic angiography' in patients presenting with critical ischaemia for appropriately planning complicated infrainguinal reconstructions at stages of surgical management, including dynamic follow up in the postoperative period. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We examined a total of 30 patients. Of these, 14 patients composed the control group and 16 patients with critical ischaemia of lower limb arteries who underwent 8 external iliac-tibial and 8 femorotibial bypass graftings with a relieving arteriovenous fistula and application of a venous cuff according to the type of 'St...
2017: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567705/diagnostic-value-of-doppler-echocardiography-for-identifying-hemodynamic-significant-pulmonary-valve-regurgitation-in-tetralogy-of-fallot-comparison-with-cardiac-mri
#12
Niek E G Beurskens, Thomas M Gorter, Petronella G Pieper, Elke S Hoendermis, Beatrijs Bartelds, Tjark Ebels, Rolf M F Berger, Tineke P Willems, Joost P van Melle
Quantification of pulmonary regurgitation (PR) is essential in the management of patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). We sought to evaluate the accuracy of first-line Doppler echocardiography in comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify hemodynamic significant PR. Paired cardiac MRI and echocardiographic studies (n = 97) in patients with repaired TOF were retrospectively analyzed. Pressure half time (PHT) and pulmonary regurgitation index (PRi) were measured using continuous wave Doppler...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561084/a-label-free-colorimetric-biosensor-for-sensitive-detection-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-165
#13
Huige Zhang, Liang Peng, Maoxing Li, Ji Ma, Shengda Qi, Hongli Chen, Lei Zhou, Xingguo Chen
Sensitive detection of a low abundant protein is essential for biomedical research and clinical diagnostics. Herein, we develop a label-free colorimetric biosensor for the sensitive detection of recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (VEGF165). This biosensor consists of an aptamer-based hairpin probe, an assistant DNA-trigger duplex and a linear template. In the presence of VEGF165, the specific binding of VEGF165 with the aptamer-based hairpin probe results in the opening of a hairpin probe and the opened hairpin probe subsequently hybridizes with the single-stranded region of the assistant DNA-trigger duplex to initiate the strand displacement amplification (SDA) to yield abundant triggers...
May 31, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554087/negative-emotion-enhances-mnemonic-precision-and-subjective-feelings-of-remembering-in-visual-long-term-memory
#14
Weizhen Xie, Weiwei Zhang
Negative emotion sometimes enhances memory (higher accuracy and/or vividness, e.g., flashbulb memories). The present study investigates whether it is the qualitative (precision) or quantitative (the probability of successful retrieval) aspect of memory that drives these effects. In a visual long-term memory task, observers memorized colors (Experiment 1a) or orientations (Experiment 1b) of sequentially presented everyday objects under negative, neutral, or positive emotions induced with International Affective Picture System images...
September 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547388/is-color-doppler-a-reliable-method-for-the-diagnosis-of-malrotation
#15
İbrahim Karaman, Ayşe Karaman, Hasibe Gökçe Çınar, Ahmet Ertürk, Derya Erdoğan, İsmet Faruk Özgüner
PURPOSE: The gold standard for the diagnosis of malrotation is barium contrast study of the upper gastrointestinal system (UGCS), while color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) is another method used in the diagnosis. We investigated the value of CDUS for the diagnosis of malrotation in this study. METHODS: UGCS images, CDUS images, plain abdominal images, demographic data, and symptoms of 82 patients who were investigated for presumed malrotation during a 7-year period were evaluated, retrospectively...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546509/behavioral-color-vision-in-a-cichlid-fish-metriaclima-benetos
#16
Daniel Escobar-Camacho, Justin Marshall, Karen L Carleton
Color vision is the capacity of discriminating color regardless of brightness. It is essential for many fish species as they rely on color discrimination for numerous ecological tasks. The study of color vision is important because it can unveil the mechanisms that shape coloration patterns, visual system sensitivities and hence, visual signals. In order to understand better the mechanisms underlying color vision an integrative approach is necessary. This usually requires combining behavioral, physiological, and genetic experiments with quantitative modeling, resulting in a distinctive characterization of the visual system...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545983/feedback-from-higher-to-lower-visual-areas-for-visual-recognition-may-be-weaker-in-the-periphery-glimpses-from-the-perception-of-brief-dichoptic-stimuli
#17
Li Zhaoping
Eye movements bring attended visual inputs to the center of vision for further processing. Thus, central and peripheral vision should have different functional roles. Here, we use observations of visual perception under dichoptic stimuli to infer that there is a difference in the top-down feedback from higher brain centers to primary visual cortex. Visual stimuli to the two eyes were designed such that the sum and difference of the binocular input from the two eyes have the form of two different gratings. These gratings differed in their motion direction, tilt direction, or color, and duly evoked ambiguous percepts for the corresponding feature...
June 6, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533455/coevolution-of-coloration-and-colour-vision
#18
Olle Lind, Miriam J Henze, Almut Kelber, Daniel Osorio
The evolutionary relationship between signals and animal senses has broad significance, with potential consequences for speciation, and for the efficacy and honesty of biological communication. Here we outline current understanding of the diversity of colour vision in two contrasting groups: the phylogenetically conservative birds, and the more variable butterflies. Evidence for coevolution of colour signals and vision exists in both groups, but is limited to observations of phenotypic differences between visual systems, which might be correlated with coloration...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527199/the-value-of-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-ceus-using-a-high-end-ultrasound-system-in-the-characterization-of-endoleaks-after-endovascular-aortic-repair-evar
#19
J Rübenthaler, M Reiser, V Cantisani, D Rjosk-Dendorfer, D A Clevert
PURPOSE: To evaluate the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) using a high-end ultrasound system in the characterization of endoleaks after endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this mono-center study, 41 patients were retrospectively analyzed after being examined using a modern high-end ultrasound system (RS80A with Prestige, Samsung Medison Co., Ltd., Seoul, Korea). The maximum diameters of the aneurysms were measured in two planes (right-left and ventral-dorsal)...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526539/diagnostic-accuracy-of-lung-subtraction-iodine-mapping-ct-for-the-evaluation-of-pulmonary-perfusion-in-patients-with-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension-correlation-with-perfusion-spect-ct
#20
Masashi Tamura, Yoshitake Yamada, Takashi Kawakami, Masaharu Kataoka, Yu Iwabuchi, Hiroaki Sugiura, Masahiro Hashimoto, Tadaki Nakahara, Shigeo Okuda, Seishi Nakatsuka, Fumiya Sano, Takayuki Abe, Yuichiro Maekawa, Keiichi Fukuda, Masahiro Jinzaki
BACKGROUND: For treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), the evaluation of segmental pulmonary perfusion is important. There are no previous reports about lung subtraction iodine mapping (LSIM) computed tomography (CT) for evaluation of segmental pulmonary perfusion in patients with CTEPH, using lung perfusion SPECT/CT (LPS) as the reference. METHODS: 50 patients (age, 60.7±16.7years) with known or suspected CTEPH were enrolled in this study...
May 4, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
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