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Color contrast sensitivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033863/the-peaceful-co-existence-of-input-frequency-and-structural-intervention-effects-on-the-comprehension-of-complex-sentences-in-german-speaking-children
#1
Flavia Adani, Maja Stegenwallner-Schütz, Talea Niesel
The predictions of two contrasting approaches to the acquisition of transitive relative clauses were tested within the same groups of German-speaking participants aged from 3 to 5 years old. The input frequency approach predicts that object relative clauses with inanimate heads (e.g., the pullover that the man is scratching) are comprehended earlier and more accurately than those with an animate head (e.g., the man that the boy is scratching). In contrast, the structural intervention approach predicts that object relative clauses with two full NP arguments mismatching in number (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992194/a-novel-display-system-reveals-anisotropic-polarization-perception-in-the-motion-vision-of-the-butterfly-papilio-xuthus
#2
Finlay J Stewart, Michiyo Kinoshita, Kentaro Arikawa
While the linear polarization of light is virtually invisible to humans, many invertebrates' eyes can detect it. How this information is processed in the nervous system, and what behavioral function it serves, are in many cases unclear. One reason for this is the technical difficulty involved in presenting images or video containing polarization contrast, particularly if intensity and/or color contrast is also required. In this primarily methods-focused article, we present a novel technique based on projecting video through a synchronously rotating linear polarizer...
August 24, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984142/visual-inspection-of-mr-relative-cerebral-blood-volume-maps-has-limited-value-for-distinguishing-progression-from-pseudoprogression-in-glioblastoma-multiforme-patients
#3
Melissa Kerkhof, Pauline L Tans, Rogier E Hagenbeek, Geert J Lycklama À Nijeholt, Finn K Holla, Tjeerd J Postma, Chiara S Straathof, Linda Dirven, Martin Jb Taphoorn, Maaike J Vos
AIM: We examined whether visual interpretation of relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) color maps made with dynamic susceptibility-weighted perfusion MRI can reliably distinguish progressive disease (PD) from pseudoprogression (PsPD) in glioblastoma patients during treatment with temozolomide chemoradiation. MATERIALS & METHODS: Magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion-weighted images were evaluated based on visual inspection of rCBV maps. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated to assess if rCBV can reliably differentiate between PD and PsPD, during standard chemoradiation therapy...
October 6, 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983674/contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-ceus-of-the-abdominal-vasculature
#4
REVIEW
Vasileios Rafailidis, Cheng Fang, Gibran T Yusuf, Dean Y Huang, Paul S Sidhu
Vascular diseases account for a significant proportion of abdominal pathology and represent a common referral source for abdominal ultrasonographic examinations. B-mode, color Doppler, and spectral Doppler analyses are well-established in the evaluation of abdominal blood vessels although they may occasionally be limited by lower sensitivity for slow flow visualization or the deeper location of abdominal vascular structures. The introduction of microbubbles as ultrasonographic contrast agents has rendered contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), a valuable complementary ultrasonographic technique, which is capable of addressing clinically significant problems and guiding patient management...
October 5, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913514/the-incidence-of-needle-stick-and-sharp-injuries-and-their-associations-with-visual-function-among-hospital-nurses
#5
Mohammad Ghasemi, Mehdi Khabazkhoob, Hassan Hashemi, Abbasali Yekta, Payam Nabovati
PURPOSE: To determine the one-year incidence of needle stick and sharp injuries (NSIs and SIs) and their associations with visual function among Iranian nurses. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 278 nurses working at one hospital were selected through stratified random sampling. After applying the exclusion criteria, the final analysis was performed on the data of 267 nurses. The data of occupational injuries were collected through a researcher-administered questionnaire...
September 2017: Journal of Current Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910168/reduced-central-retinal-artery-blood-flow-is-related-to-impaired-central-visual-function-in-retinitis-pigmentosa-patients
#6
Samantha Kayser, Patricia Vargas, Deborah Mendelsohn, Jorge Han, Hua Bi, Alexandra Benavente, Ava K Bittner
PURPOSE: We evaluated the test-retest repeatability of blood flow velocities in the retrobulbar central retinal artery (CRA) and explored whether reduced blood flow is related to the degree of visual function loss in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients with wide range of disease severity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured CRA peak systolic velocity (PSV) and end diastolic velocity (EDV) to calculate mean flow velocity (MFV) in 18 RP patients using color Doppler imaging with spectral flow Doppler (GE Logiq7 ultrasound) twice in each eye at each of two visits within a month...
November 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866638/prediction-of-hyperperfusion-phenomenon-after-carotid-artery-stenting-and-carotid-angioplasty-using-quantitative-dsa-with-cerebral-circulation-time-imaging
#7
Keita Yamauchi, Yukiko Enomoto, Katharina Otani, Yusuke Egashira, Toru Iwama
BACKGROUND: Hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid interventions has a low incidence but it can lead to morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of quantitative DSA for predicting hyperperfusion phenomenon (HPP) after carotid artery stenting and angioplasty. METHODS: Thirty-three consecutive patients with carotid stenosis treated with carotid artery stenting or angioplasty between February 2014 and August 2016 were included...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858647/hair-segmentation-using-adaptive-threshold-from-edge-and-branch-length-measures
#8
Ian Lee, Xian Du, Brian Anthony
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive imaging techniques allow the monitoring of skin structure and diagnosis of skin diseases in clinical applications. However, hair in skin images hampers the imaging and classification of the skin structure of interest. Although many hair segmentation methods have been proposed for digital hair removal, a major challenge in hair segmentation remains in detecting hairs that are thin, overlapping, of similar contrast or color to underlying skin, or overlaid on highly-textured skin structure...
August 24, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851585/development-of-a-sensitive-generic-and-easy-to-use-organophosphate-skin-disclosure-kit
#9
Franz Worek, Andreas Wosar, Madlen Baumann, Horst Thiermann, Timo Wille
Various organophosphorus compounds (OP), primarily the nerve agent VX and other V-agents, are highly toxic to humans after skin exposure. Percutaneous exposure by such OP results in a delayed onset of toxic signs which enables the initiation of specific countermeasures if contamination is detected rapidly. Presently available mobile detection systems can hardly detect skin exposure by low volatile OP. In order to fill this gap an OP skin disclosure kit was developed which should fulfill different requirements, i...
October 5, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837721/visual-function-in-asymptomatic-patients-with-homozygous-sickle-cell-disease-and-temporal-macular-atrophy
#10
Gilles C Martin, Charlotte Dénier, Olivia Zambrowski, David Grévent, Lenaïc Bruère, Valentine Brousse, Mariane de Montalembert, Dominique Brémond-Gignac, Matthieu P Robert
Importance: Temporal macular involvement in sickle cell disease can now easily be detected by optical coherence tomography (OCT). However, while recent studies have demonstrated its high prevalence, little is known about its potential consequences on visual function. Objective: To assess the visual function of patients with sickle cell disease with no visual symptoms despite temporal macular atrophy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective case series included data collection and explorations made in a single referral center for sickle cell disease in 2016...
October 1, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805589/visual-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Richard A Armstrong
This chapter describes the visual problems likely to be encountered in Parkinson's disease (PD) and whether such signs are useful in differentiating the parkinsonian syndromes. Visual dysfunction in PD may involve visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color discrimination, pupil reactivity, saccadic and pursuit eye movements, motion perception, visual fields, and visual processing speeds. In addition, disturbance of visuospatial orientation, facial recognition problems, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder, and chronic visual hallucinations may be present...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800648/fundus-autofluorescence-findings-in-eyes-with-birdshot-chorioretinitis
#12
MULTICENTER STUDY
Christian Böni, Jennifer E Thorne, Richard F Spaide, Trucian A Ostheimer, David Sarraf, Ralph D Levinson, Debra A Goldstein, Lana M Rifkin, Albert T Vitale, Glenn J Jaffe, Gary N Holland
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe fundus autofluorescence (FAF) findings in eyes with birdshot chorioretinitis (BSCR) and to compare findings to demographic, medical, and clinical characteristics. Methods: In this multicenter, prospective, cross-sectional study, 172 eyes (86 patients) with BSCR were investigated. Participants underwent a standardized evaluation including collection of demographic data, ophthalmic and treatment history, and ophthalmologic examination...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800205/wide-field-color-imaging-of-scatter-based-tissue-contrast-using-both-high-spatial-frequency-illumination-and-cross-polarization-gating
#13
Mackenzie L Carlson, David M McClatchy, Jason R Gunn, Jonathan T Elliott, Keith D Paulsen, Stephen C Kanick, Brian W Pogue
This study characterizes the scatter-specific tissue contrast that can be obtained by high spatial frequency (HSF) domain imaging and cross-polarization (CP) imaging, using a standard color imaging system, and how combining them may be beneficial. Both HSF and CP approaches are known to modulate the sensitivity of epi-illumination reflectance images between diffuse multiply-scattered and superficially backscattered photons, providing enhanced contrast from microstructure and composition than what is achieved by standard wide-field imaging...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795358/psychophysical-measurements-of-luminance-contrast-sensitivity-and-color-discrimination-with-transparent-and-blue-light-filter-intraocular-lenses
#14
Marcelo Fernandes da Costa, Augusto Paranhos Júnior, Claudio Luiz Lottenberg, Leonardo Cunha Castro, Dora Fix Ventura
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to measure luminance contrast sensitivity and color vision thresholdfs in normal subjects using a blue light filter lens and transparent intraocular lens material. METHODS: Monocular luminance grating contrast sensitivity was measured with Psycho for Windows (version 2.36; Cambridge Research Systems) at 3.0, 6.0, 12.0, 20.0, and 30.0 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) in 15 normal subjects (eight female), with a mean age of 21...
August 9, 2017: Ophthalmology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762732/a-plasmonic-elisa-based-on-nanospherical-brush-induced-signal-amplification-for-the-ultrasensitive-naked-eye-simultaneous-detection-of-the-typical-tetrabromobisphenol-a-derivative-and-byproduct
#15
Zhen Zhang, Nuanfei Zhu, Shuaibing Dong, Menglu Huang, Liuqing Yang, Xiangyang Wu, Zhenjiang Liu, Jiahao Jiang, Yanmin Zou
Based on H2O2-mediated growth of gold nanoparticle (AuNPs), a novel plasmonic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (pELISA) was developed with a polyclonal antibody for the ultrasensitive simultaneous naked-eye detection of tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2-hydroxyetyl) ether (TBBPA DHEE) and tetrabromobisphenol A mono(hydroxyethyl) ether (TBBPA MHEE), one of the major derivatives and byproducts of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), respectively. In this modified indirect competitive pELISA, glucose oxidase (GOx) played an important role leading to the growth of AuNPs through a reaction between GOx and glucose to produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762668/luminescent-properties-of-single-phase-ba2-x-1-5y-1-5z-p2-o7-xeu-2-yce-3-ztb-3-phosphors-for-white-light-emitting-diode
#16
Sha-Sha Liu, Da-Chuan Zhu, Cong Zhao, Tao Han
A series of Ba2 P2 O7 :xEu(2+) ,yCe(3+) ,zTb(3+) phosphors was synthesized via a co-precipitation method, then their crystal structure, quantum efficiency and luminescent properties were analyzed by XRD and FL, respectively. The results showed that these phosphors not only presented the excitation characteristics of Ba2 P2 O7 :xEu(2+) ,zTb(3+) , but also exhibited that of the Ba2 P2 O7 :yCe(3+) ,zTb(3+) phosphor. Meanwhile, the tri-doped phosphor showed a stronger absorption around 320 nm in contrast with the Eu(2+) /Ce(3+) :Tb(3+) co-doped phosphor...
August 1, 2017: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751656/gene-based-therapy-in-a-mouse-model-of-blue-cone-monochromacy
#17
Yuxin Zhang, Wen-Tao Deng, Wei Du, Ping Zhu, Jie Li, Fan Xu, Jingfen Sun, Cecilia D Gerstner, Wolfgang Baehr, L Boye Sanford, Chen Zhao, William W Hauswirth, Ji-Jing Pang
Cones are responsible for daylight, central, high acuity and color vision. Three proteins found in human cones, i.e. long-wavelength (L)-, middle-wavelength (M)-, and short-wavelength sensitive (S)-opsins, are responsible for red, green and blue color recognition, respectively. Human blue cone monochromacy (BCM) is characterized by functional loss of both L- and M-cone opsins due to mutations in the OPN1LW/OPN1MW gene cluster on the X chromosome. BCM patients, who rely on their vision from only S-cones and rods, suffer severely reduced visual acuity and impaired color vision...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734946/impaired-rhodopsin-generation-in-the-rat-model-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#18
Volha V Malechka, Gennadiy Moiseyev, Yusuke Takahashi, Younghwa Shin, Jian-Xing Ma
Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus. Diabetic patients experience functional deficits in dark adaptation, contrast sensitivity, and color perception before microvascular pathologies become apparent. Herein, we evaluated early changes in neural retinal function and in retinoid metabolism in the eye in diabetes. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed decreased a- and b-wave amplitudes of scotopic and photopic electroretinography responses 4 months after diabetes induction compared to nondiabetic controls...
October 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724749/columnar-segregation-of-magnocellular-and-parvocellular-streams-in-human-extrastriate-cortex
#19
Roger B H Tootell, Shahin Nasr
Magnocellular versus parvocellular (M-P) streams are fundamental to the organization of macaque visual cortex. Segregated, paired M-P streams extend from retina through LGN into V1. The M stream extends further into area V5/MT, and parts of V2. However, elsewhere in visual cortex, it remains unclear whether M-P-derived information (1) becomes intermixed or (2) remains segregated in M-P-dominated columns and neurons. Here we tested whether M-P streams exist in extrastriate cortical columns, in 8 human subjects (4 female)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683118/reef-calcifiers-are-adapted-to-episodic-heat-stress-but-vulnerable-to-sustained-warming
#20
Marleen Stuhr, Claire E Reymond, Vera Rieder, Pamela Hallock, Jörg Rahnenführer, Hildegard Westphal, Michal Kucera
Shallow marine ecosystems naturally experience fluctuating physicochemical conditions across spatial and temporal scales. Widespread coral-bleaching events, induced by prolonged heat stress, highlight the importance of how the duration and frequency of thermal stress influence the adaptive physiology of photosymbiotic calcifiers. Large benthic foraminifera harboring algal endosymbionts are major tropical carbonate producers and bioindicators of ecosystem health. Like corals, they are sensitive to thermal stress and bleach at temperatures temporarily occurring in their natural habitat and projected to happen more frequently...
2017: PloS One
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