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Jong Min Kim, Seung Beom Woo, Zeeihn Lee, Sung Jae Heo, Donghwi Park
RATIONALE: Verbal auditory agnosia is the selective inability to recognize verbal sounds. Patients with this disorder lose the ability to understand language, write from dictation, and repeat words with reserved ability to identify nonverbal sounds. However, to the best of our knowledge, there was no report about verbal auditory agnosia in adult patient with traumatic brain injury. PATIENT CONCERNS: He was able to clearly distinguish between language and nonverbal sounds, and he did not have any difficulty in identifying the environmental sounds...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Elena Rusconi
This chapter offers a perspective on the origin, operational definition, historic vicissitudes, and current status of Gerstmann syndrome. The main issues and controversy accompanying Gerstmann syndrome throughout the years are reviewed. The clinical picture of Gerstmann syndrome as it emerges from a series of modern-day pure cases is described. In current clinical practice, a diagnosis of Gerstmann syndrome indicates the concomitant presence of four acquired symptoms: finger agnosia, acalculia, left-right disorientation, and agraphia...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
A David Milner, Cristiana Cavina-Pratesi
It is argued here that apperceptive object agnosia (generally now known as visual form agnosia) is in reality not a kind of agnosia, but rather a form of "imperception" (to use the term coined by Hughlings Jackson). We further argue that its proximate cause is a bilateral loss (or functional loss) of the visual form processing systems embodied in the human lateral occipital cortex (area LO). According to the dual-system model of cortical visual processing elaborated by Milner and Goodale (2006), area LO constitutes a crucial component of the ventral stream, and indeed is essential for providing the figural qualities inherent in our normal visual perception of the world...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Yves Rossetti, Laure Pisella
This chapter reviews clinical and scientific approaches to optic ataxia. This double historic track allows us to address important issues such as the link between Bálint syndrome and optic ataxia, the alleged double dissociation between optic ataxia and visual agnosia, and the use of optic ataxia to argue for a specific vision-for-action occipitoposterior parietal stream. Clinical cases are described and reveal that perceptual deficits have been long shown to accompany ataxia. Importantly, the term ataxia appears to be misleading as patients exhibit a combination of visual and nonvisual perceptual, attentional, and visuomotor guidance deficits, which are confirmed by experimental approaches...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Joost Heutink, Dana L Indorf, Christina Cordes
Visual agnosia and Balint's syndrome are complex neurological disorders of the higher visual system that can have a remarkable impact on individuals' lives. Rehabilitation of these individuals is important to enable participation in everyday activities despite the impairment. However, the literature about the rehabilitation of these disorders is virtually silent. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to give an overview of available literature describing treatment approaches and their effectiveness with regard to these disorders...
January 24, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Breno José Alencar Pires Barbosa, Marcelo Houat de Brito, Júlia Chartouni Rodrigues, Gabriel Taricani Kubota, Jacy Bezerra Parmera
A 75-year-old right-handed woman presented to the emergency department with simultanagnosia and right unilateral optic ataxia. Moreover, the patient had agraphia, acalculia, digital agnosia and right-left disorientation, consistent with complete Gerstmann's syndrome. This case highlights the concurrence of Gerstmann's syndrome and unilateral optic ataxia in the acute phase of a left middle cerebral artery stroke.
October 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
Nuria Lacuey, Bilal Zonjy, Johnson P Hampson, M R Sandhya Rani, Anita Zaremba, Rup K Sainju, Brian K Gehlbach, Stephan Schuele, Daniel Friedman, Orrin Devinsky, Maromi Nei, Ronald M Harper, Luke Allen, Beate Diehl, John J Millichap, Lisa Bateman, Mark A Granner, Deidre N Dragon, George B Richerson, Samden D Lhatoo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate periictal central apnea as a seizure semiological feature, its localizing value, and possible relationship with sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) pathomechanisms. METHODS: We prospectively studied polygraphic physiological responses, including inductance plethysmography, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2 ), electrocardiography, and video electroencephalography (VEEG) in 473 patients in a multicenter study of SUDEP...
March 2018: Epilepsia
Rafael Batista João, Raquel Mattos Filgueiras, Marcelo Lucci Mussi, João Eliezer Ferri de Barros
Gerstmann Syndrome (GS) is a rare neurological condition described as a group of cognitive changes corresponding to a tetrad of symptoms comprising agraphia, acalculia, right-left disorientation and finger agnosia. It is known that some specific brain lesions may lead to such findings, particularly when there is impairment of the angular gyrus and adjacent structures. In addition, the possibility of disconnection syndrome should be considered in some cases. The purpose of this article is to report a case of a young, cardiac patient, non-adherent to treatment, who presented with a stroke in which transient clinical symptoms were compatible with the tetrad of GS...
April 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
L Piccardi, M De Luca, A Di Vita, L Palermo, A Tanzilli, C Dacquino, M R Pizzamiglio
We report Developmental Landmark Agnosia (DLA) in a 6-year-old boy (L.G.) who was referred to us for congenital prosopagnosia (see Pizzamiglio et al., 2017 , in which both testing and rehabilitation of Congenital Prosopagnosia are reported). We investigated his performance using a neuropsychological battery and eye movement recordings. The assessment showed the presence of deficits in recognizing familiar places (along with Congenital Prosopagnosia), but not common objects. Eye movement recordings confirmed his problems in recognizing familiar landmarks and misrecognition of unfamiliar places...
December 1, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Juan Manuel Orjuela-Rojas, Ana Luisa Sosa-Ortiz, Ana Ruth Díaz-Victoria, Oscar René Marrufo Melendez, Nicolás Leyva Townsend
Paintings produced spontaneously by patients with neurological lesions represent a fascinating opportunity to analyze some aspects of the underlying disease and involved brain mechanisms. Many cases of artists who have suffered spatial neglect following a neurological disease have been reported in the literature. However, only a few studies evaluating the different subtypes of graphic neglect and aspects related to the construction of perspective (three dimensionality) in works of art have been published. In the present article, we present the case of an artist who, after resection of a central neurocytoma that affected the right thalamo-parietal connections, suffered an impairment of the ability to create perspective in his paintings and involuntary omission of only shapes in the left side of his paintings, although colors and contours were preserved...
October 2017: Neurocase
Jacob Geskin, Marlene Behrmann
A longstanding controversy concerns the functional organization of high-level vision, and the extent to which the recognition of different classes of visual stimuli engages a single system or multiple independent systems. We examine this in the context of congenital prosopagnosia (CP), a neurodevelopmental disorder in which individuals, without a history of brain damage, are impaired at face recognition. This paper reviews all CP cases from 1976 to 2016, and explores the evidence for the association or dissociation of face and object recognition...
November 22, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Douglas J Lanska
In 1937, Heinrich Klüver and Paul Bucy described a dramatic behavioral syndrome in monkeys after bilateral temporal lobectomy. The full Klüver-Bucy syndrome (KBS) - hyperorality, placidity, hypermetamorphosis, dietary changes, altered sexual behavior, and visual agnosia - is evident within 3 weeks following operation. Some KBS features (i.e., hyperorality, placidity, hypermetamorphosis) persist indefinitely, whereas others gradually resolve over several years. Klüver and Bucy were initially unaware of an earlier report of KBS by Sanger Brown and Edward Schäfer in 1888...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Antonio Carota, Julien Bogousslavsky
A right "minor hemisphere" does not exist as the right hemisphere is dominant for awareness (nosognosia), spatial attention, emotional regulation, facial and voice expressions, visual recognition, and topographical orientation. Without the right hemisphere, the world would be flat, deprived of general and spatial attentions, pointing preferentially to the right side of the space, lacking visual experiences and emotions, exhibiting diminished awareness of the self and environment. Clinical-related syndromes of the right hemisphere are unilateral spatial neglect, object and face visual agnosia, the anosognosia for hemiparesis and/or hemianopia, misidentification syndromes, mania, and other obsessions for the food and the body...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Francesca Strappini, Gaspare Galati, Marialuisa Martelli, Enrico Di Pace, Sabrina Pitzalis
Visual crowding is a perceptual phenomenon with far-reaching implications in both perceptual (e.g., object recognition and reading) and clinical (e.g., developmental dyslexia and visual agnosia) domains. Here, we combined event-related fMRI measurements and wide-field brain mapping methods to investigate whether the BOLD response evoked by visual crowding is modulated by different attentional conditions. Participants underwent two sessions of psychophysical training outside the scanner, and then fMRI BOLD activity was measured simultaneously in early visual areas (including the visual word form area, VWFA), while they viewed strongly-crowded and weakly-crowded Gabor patches in attended and unattended conditions...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Tomoyuki Ueno, Yasushi Hada, Yukiyo Shimizu, Thoru Yamada
PURPOSE: The somatosensory event-related potential N140 is thought to be related to selective attention. This study aimed to compare the somatosensory event-related potential N140 in healthy subjects to that in patients with stroke to determine whether N140 and attentiveness are associated in patients with stroke with or without hemispatial agnosia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Normal somatosensory event-related potential N140 values were determined using data from ten healthy subjects...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
R C Hamdy, J V Lewis, R Copeland, A Depelteau, A Kinser, T Kendall-Wilson, K Whalen
Patients with dementia, especially Alzheimer's disease and particularly those in early stages, are susceptible to become victims of predators: Their agnosia (see Case 1) prevents them from detecting and accurately interpreting subtle signals that otherwise would have alerted them that they are about to fall for a scam. Furthermore, their judgment is impaired very early in the disease process, often before other symptoms manifest themselves and usually before a diagnosis is made. Patients with early stages of dementia are therefore prime targets for unscrupulous predators, and it behooves caregivers and health care professionals to ensure the integrity of these patients...
January 2017: Gerontology & Geriatric Medicine
Tzvi Ganel, Melvyn A Goodale
Patient DF, who has bilateral damage in the ventral visual stream, is perhaps the best known individual with visual form agnosia in the world, and has been the focus of scores of research papers over the past twenty-five years. The remarkable dissociation she exhibits between a profound deficit in perceptual report and a preserved ability to generate relatively normal visuomotor behaviour was early on a cornerstone in Goodale and Milner's (1992) two visual systems hypothesis. In recent years, however, there has been a greater emphasis on the damage that is evident in the posterior regions of her parietal cortex in both hemispheres...
September 23, 2017: Neuropsychologia
Johannes Rennig, Sonja Cornelsen, Helmut Wilhelm, Marc Himmelbach, Hans-Otto Karnath
We examined a stroke patient (HWS) with a unilateral lesion of the right medial ventral visual stream, involving the right fusiform and parahippocampal gyri. In a number of object recognition tests with lateralized presentations of target stimuli, HWS showed significant symptoms of hemiagnosia with contralesional recognition deficits for everyday objects. We further explored the patient's capacities of visual expertise that were acquired before the current perceptual impairment became effective. We confronted him with objects he was an expert for already before stroke onset and compared this performance with the recognition of familiar everyday objects...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Sameen Haque, Michael S Vaphiades, Christian J Lueck
BACKGROUND: There are many disorders of higher visual processing that result from damage to specific areas of the cerebral cortex that have a specific role in processing certain aspects (modalities) of vision. These can be grouped into those that affect the ventral, or "what?", pathway (e.g., object agnosia, cerebral achromatopsia, prosopagnosia, topographagnosia, and pure alexia), and those that affect the dorsal, or "where?", pathway (e.g., akinetopsia, simultanagnosia, and optic ataxia)...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Mari N Maia da Silva, Rebecca S Millington, Holly Bridge, Merle James-Galton, Gordon T Plant
Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a syndromic diagnosis. It is characterized by progressive impairment of higher (cortical) visual function with imaging evidence of degeneration affecting the occipital, parietal, and posterior temporal lobes bilaterally. Most cases will prove to have Alzheimer pathology. The aim of this review is to summarize the development of the concept of this disorder since it was first introduced. A critical discussion of the evolving diagnostic criteria is presented and the differential diagnosis with regard to the underlying pathology is reviewed...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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