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David Carrera, Bruce C V Campbell, Jordi Cortés, Montse Gorchs, Marisol Querol, Xavier Jiménez, Mònica Millán, Antoni Dávalos, Natalia Pérez de la Ossa
BACKGROUND: Prehospital clinical scales to identify patients with acute stroke with a large vessel occlusion (LVO) and direct them to an endovascular-capable stroke center are needed. We evaluated whether simplification of the Rapid Arterial oCclusion Evaluation (RACE) scale, a 5-item scale previously validated in the field, could maintain its high performance to identify patients with LVO. METHODS: Using the original prospective validation cohort of the RACE scale, 7 simpler versions of the RACE scale were designed and retrospectively recalculated for each patient...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Martijn Barendregt, Serge O Dumoulin, Bas Rokers
Many individuals with normal visual acuity are unable to discriminate the direction of 3-D motion in a portion of their visual field, a deficit previously referred to as a stereomotion scotoma. The origin of this visual deficit has remained unclear. We hypothesized that the impairment is due to a failure in the processing of one of the two binocular cues to motion in depth: changes in binocular disparity over time or interocular velocity differences. We isolated the contributions of these two cues and found that sensitivity to interocular velocity differences, but not changes in binocular disparity, varied systematically with observers' ability to judge motion direction...
September 27, 2016: Psychological Science
Shannon Schultz, Lori Grafton, David R Gater
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Alfredo Ardila, Monica Rosselli
It is proposed that depending upon the specific pattern of cognitive abilities, each individual lives in an idiosyncratic "cognitive world." Brain pathology can be associated with some disturbed abilities, and frequently experiential changes (i.e., how the world is understood) are observed. Because these patients often are aware of their intellectual changes, they may represent excellent models to illustrate the diversity of cognitive interpretations an individual can have about the surrounding environmental conditions...
September 20, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Kunal Kishor Jha, Satyajeet Kumar Singh, Prem Kumar, Charu Dutt Arora
Tubercular meningitis (TBM) is a devastating extra pulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis and demonstrates a high neurological morbidity. A rare complication of this condition is Kluver-Bucy syndrome (KBS), which is a neurobehavioral disorder characterised by hyper-sexuality, visual agnosia, bulimia, placidity, hyperorality and memory deficits caused by lesions to the amygdala. The amygdala lesions can be due to many causes, including traumatic brain injury, systemic conditions and infections such as tuberculosis...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
George Mihai Bădescu, Mădălina Fîlfan, Raluca Elena Sandu, Roxana Surugiu, Ovidiu Ciobanu, Aurel Popa-Wagner
Neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism represent a significant economic burden, which justify vigorous research to uncover its genetics and developmental clinics for a diagnostic workup. The urgency of addressing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbidities is seen in the chilling fact that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mood disorders, substance use disorders and obesity each increase the risk for mortality. However, data about comorbidity is mainly descriptive, with mechanistic studies limited to genetic epidemiological studies that document shared genetic risk factors among these conditions...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
Xin Wang, Lin Cai, Lingyan Li, Yanjie Yang, Xiongzhao Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Neurological soft signs (NSSs) may reflect neurodevelopmental anomalies in association with the spectrum of schizophrenia disorders. We examined NSSs in Chinese adolescents with schizophrenia and schizotypal personality traits. METHODS: Eighty-seven schizophrenic adolescents (SCH group), 85 adolescents with only schizotypal personality traits (SPT group), and 88 healthy controls (HC group) were enrolled. The NSS subscales of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory (CNI) were administered to all 260 participants...
October 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
A Suárez-González, S J Crutch, F Roldán Lora, E Franco-Macías, E Gil-Néciga
BACKGROUND: Early and progressive disabling visual impairment is a core feature for the diagnosis of posterior cortical atrophy (PCA). However, some individuals that fulfil criteria over time might initially present with an onset of prominent posterior dysfunction other than visuoperceptual. METHODS: The clinical profile of five patients with a predominantly 'non-visual' posterior presentation (PCA2) was investigated and compared with sixteen individuals with visually predominant PCA (PCA1) and eighteen with typical amnestic Alzheimer disease (tAD)...
August 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Xin Wang, Lin Cai, Lingyan Li, Yanjie Yang, Shuqiao Yao, Xiongzhao Zhu
The current study was designed to explore the specific relationship between neurologic soft signs (NSSs) and characteristics of antisocial personality traits in adolescents, and to investigate particular NSSs linked to certain brain regions in adolescents with antisocial personality traits. The research was conducted on 96 adolescents diagnosed with ASP traits (ASP trait group) using the ASPD subscale of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire for the DSM-IV (PDQ-4+) and 96 adolescents without traits of any personality disorder (control group)...
September 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Mario A Caro, Xavier F Jimenez
OBJECTIVE: Klüver-Bucy syndrome (KBS) is often perceived as rare and limited to cases with bilateral amygdala destruction. In fact, various alternate mechanisms may be involved, warranting exploration of the syndrome's presentation, pathophysiology, prognosis, and management. DATA SOURCES: Clinical management and the electronic medical records were examined for 2 patients diagnosed with partial KBS (ICD-10 F07.0) after experiencing ≥ 3 of the following: placidity, indiscriminate dietary behavior, hyperorality, hypersexuality, visual agnosia, and hypermetamorphosis...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Graeme J Taylor, R Michael Bagby, James D A Parker
The recent proposal of a new type of agnosia termed 'affective agnosia' extends Freud's legacy and captures the concept of not knowing one's own emotions. This concept links well with the theory of levels of emotional awareness and maps onto a hierarchical model of neural substrates of emotional experience, but does not encompass the pensée opératoire component of the alexithymia construct. Moreover, identifying agnosia and anomia subtypes, which connotes a categorical conceptualization of alexithymia, is inconsistent with the dimensional nature of the construct...
September 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Gobran Taha Ahmed Alfotih, Mei Guang Zheng, Wang Qing Cai, Xin Ke Xu, Zhen Hu, Fang Cheng Li
BACKGROUND: Radiation induced brain injury ranges from acute reversible edema to late, irreversible radiation necrosis. Radiation induced temporal lobe necrosis is associated with permanent neurological deficits and occasionally progresses to death. OBJECTIVE: We present our experience with surgery on radiation induced temporal lobe necrosis (RTLN) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with special consideration of clinical presentation, surgical technique, and outcomes...
2016: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Olivier Maillot, Arnaud Attyé, Eric Boyer, Olivier Heck, Adrian Kastler, Sylvie Grand, Sébastien Schmerber, Alexandre Krainik
UNLABELLED: Hearing loss is a common functional disorder after trauma, and radiologists should be aware of the ossicular, labyrinthine or brain lesions that may be responsible. After a trauma, use of a systematic approach to explore the main functional components of auditory pathways is essential. Conductive hearing loss is caused by the disruption of the conductive chain, which may be due to ossicular luxation or fracture. This pictorial review firstly describes the normal 2-D and 3-D anatomy of the ossicular chain, including the incudo-malleolar and incudo-stapedial joints...
June 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Josef Zihl, Charles A Heywood
Visual neuroscience is concerned with the neurobiological foundations of visual perception, that is, the morphological, physiological, and functional organization of the visual brain and its co-operative partners. One important approach for understanding the functional organization of the visual brain is the study of visual perception from the pathological perspective. The study of patients with focal injury to the visual brain allows conclusions about the representation of visual perceptual functions in the framework of association and dissociation of functions...
March 2016: PsyCh Journal
Ian Q Whishaw, Jenni M Karl, Nicholas K Humphrey
Dual visuomotor channel theory proposes that reaching depends on two neural pathways that extend from visual cortex (V1) to motor cortex via the parietal lobe. The Reach pathway directs the hand to the target's location and the Grasp pathway shapes the hand and digits for purchase. Sighted human participants integrate the Reach and the Grasp, but without vision they dissociate the movements to capitalize on tactile cues. They use a Reach with a relatively open hand to locate the target and then they use touch cues to shape the fingers to Grasp...
August 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Olivier Martinaud, Nicolas Mirlink, Sandrine Bioux, Evangéline Bliaux, Cécile Champmartin, Dorothée Pouliquen, Yohann Cruypeninck, Didier Hannequin, Emmanuel Gérardin
Agnosia for mirrored stimuli is a rare clinical deficit. Only eight patients have been reported in the literature so far and little is known about the neural substrates of this agnosia. Using a previously developed experimental test designed to assess this agnosia, namely the Mirror and Orientation Agnosia Test (MOAT), as well as voxel-lesion symptom mapping (VLSM), we tested the hypothesis that focal brain-injured patients with right parietal damage would be impaired in the discrimination between the canonical view of a visual object and its mirrored and rotated images...
May 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Teresa Lopez-Soto, Amparo Postigo-Madueno, Pedro Nunez-Abades
In centrally related hearing loss, there is no apparent damage in the auditory system, but the patient is unable to hear sounds. In patients with cortical hearing loss (and in the absence of communication deficit, either total or partial, as in agnosia or aphasia), some attention-related or language-based disorders may lead to a wrong diagnosis of hearing impairment. The authors present two patients (8 and 11 years old) with no anatomical damage to the ear, the absence of neurological damage or trauma, but immature cortical auditory evoked potentials...
March 2016: Oxford Medical Case Reports
Roy H Hamilton
Although recent years have seen a rapid increase in the diversity of patient populations and of society in general, individuals who belong to historically disadvantaged groups continue to struggle to achieve fuller representation and success in academic medicine. This is particularly true in academic neurology, where faculty from racial and ethnic minority groups are grossly underrepresented. Raising awareness of this problem in the field is an important first step to developing coordinated, strategic approaches to enhancing diversity in neurology...
March 11, 2016: Annals of Neurology
A Petersen, S Vangkilde, C Fabricius, Hk Iversen, T S Delfi, R Starrfelt
Impaired visual attention is common following strokes in the territory of the middle cerebral artery, particularly in the right hemisphere, while attentional effects of more posterior lesions are less clear. Commonly, such deficits are investigated in relation to specific syndromes like visual agnosia or pure alexia. The aim of this study was to characterize visual processing speed and apprehension span following posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke. In addition, the relationship between these attentional parameters and single word reading is investigated, as previous studies have suggested that reduced visual speed and span may explain pure alexia...
March 9, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Mitsouko van Assche, Valeria Kebets, Ursula Lopez, Arnaud Saj, Rachel Goldstein, Françoise Bernasconi, Patrik Vuilleumier, Frédéric Assal
The parahippocampal cortex (PHC) participates in both perception and memory. However, the way perceptual and memory processes cooperate when we navigate in our everyday life environment remains poorly understood. We studied a stroke patient presenting a brain lesion in the right PHC, which resulted in a mild and quantifiable topographic agnosia, and allowed us to investigate the role of this structure in overt place recognition. Photographs of personally familiar and unfamiliar places were displayed during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
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