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Jinglan Liu, Matthew P Keisling, Ayman Samkari, Gregory Halligan, Judy M Pascasio, Christos D Katsetos
Central nervous system (CNS) tumors exhibiting dual features of malignant glioma (MG) and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) are rare and diagnostically challenging. Previous studies have shown that MG-PNET carry MYCN or MYC gene amplifications within the PNET component concomitant with glioma-associated alterations, most commonly 10q loss, in both components [9]. Here we confirm and extend the profile of molecular genetic findings in a MG-PNET involving the left frontal lobe of a 12-year-old male. Histologically, the PNET-like component showed morphological features akin to anaplastic medulloblastoma highlighted by widespread immunoreactivity for βIII-tubulin (TUBB3) and nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein, and to a lesser degree, Neu-N, synaptophysin, and CD99, whereas the gliomatous component was demarcated by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) labeling...
October 26, 2016: Clinical Neuropathology
Richard D Scheffe, Madeleine Strum, James Thurman, Sharon B Phillips, Alison Eyth, Steve Fudge, Mark Morris, Ted Palma, Richard Cook
A hybrid air quality model has been developed and applied to estimate annual concentrations of 40 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) across the continental United States (CONUS) to support the 2011 calendar year National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA). By combining a chemical transport model (CTM) with a Gaussian dispersion model, both reactive and non-reactive HAPs are accommodated across local to regional spatial scales, through a multiplicative technique designed to improve mass conservation relative to previous additive methods...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Joel G DeKoven, Erin M Warshaw, Donald V Belsito, Denis Sasseville, Howard I Maibach, James S Taylor, James G Marks, Joseph F Fowler, C G Toby Mathias, Vince A DeLeo, Melanie D Pratt, Matthew J Zirwas, Kathryn A Zug
BACKGROUND: Patch testing is the most important diagnostic tool for the assessment of allergic contact dermatitis. OBJECTIVE: This study documents the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) patch testing results from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2014. METHODS: At 13 centers in North America, patients were tested in a standardized manner with a screening series of 70 allergens. Data were manually verified and entered into a central database...
October 21, 2016: Dermatitis
Madhavi G Patel, Kilambi Pundarikakshudu
In India, Vatari Guggulu has been traditionally used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The current study was undertaken to evaluate anti-arthritic activity of alcoholic extract of Vatari Guggulu in rats. Arthritis was induced by administration of formaldehyde (2%v/v) or Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) into the sub-plantar surface of left hind paw of the animals. The extract was administered to the rats by oral gavages in different doses. Joint swelling was measured in formaldehyde induced arthritis...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Cynthia Van Landingham, Kenneth A Mundt, Bruce C Allen, P Robinan Gentry
Reproducibility and transparency in scientific reporting is paramount to advancing science and providing the foundation required for sound regulation. Recent examples demonstrate that pivotal scientific findings cannot be replicated, due to poor documentation or methodological bias, sparking debate across scientific and regulatory communities. However, there is general agreement that improvements in communicating and documenting research and risk assessment methods are needed. In the case of formaldehyde, the peer-review conducted by a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee questioned the approaches used by the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) in developing draft unit risk values...
October 19, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Jiankun Cao, Hongyuan Yan, Shigang Shen, Ligai Bai, Haiyan Liu, Fengxia Qiao
New hydrophilic molecularly imprinted melamine-urea-formaldehyde monolithic resin (MIMR) is synthesized using dopamine hydrochloride as a dummy template via in-situ polymerization directly within pipette tips and it presents special molecular recognition to plant growth regulators in aqueous matrices. Hydrophilic groups (such as hydroxyl groups, imino groups, and amino groups) can be introduced into MIMR by melamine- urea-formaldehyde resin, which make MIMR materials compatible with aqueous media and show their specific molecular recognition in aqueous sample solutions...
November 2, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Philippe Hermand, Annick Vandercammen, Emmanuel Mertens, Emmanuel Di Paolo, Vincent Verlant, Philippe Denoël, Fabrice Godfroid
The use of protein antigens able to protect against the majority of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes is envisaged as stand-alone and/or complement to the current capsular polysaccharide-based pneumococcal vaccines. Pneumolysin (Ply) is a key virulence factor that is highly conserved in amino acid sequence across pneumococcal serotypes, and therefore may be considered as a vaccine target. However, native Ply cannot be used in vaccines due to its intrinsic cytolytic activity. In the present work a completely, irreversibly detoxified pneumolysin (dPly) has been generated using an optimized formaldehyde treatment...
October 21, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Simon Felz, Salah Al-Zuhairy, Olav Andreas Aarstad, Mark C M van Loosdrecht, Yue Mei Lin
To evaluate and develop methodologies for the extraction of gel-forming extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), EPS from aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was extracted using six different methods (centrifugation, sonication, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), formamide with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), formaldehyde with NaOH and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) with heat and constant mixing). AGS was collected from a pilot wastewater treatment reactor. The ionic gel-forming property of the extracted EPS of the six different extraction methods was tested with calcium ions (Ca(2+))...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Zhi-Long Yu, Sen Xin, Ya You, Le Yu, Yue Lin, Da-Wei Xu, Chan Qiao, Zhi-Hong Huang, Ning Yang, Shu-Hong Yu, John B Goodenough
Hard carbons attract myriad interests as anode materials for high-energy rechargeable batteries due to their low costs and high theoretical capacities; practically they deliver unsatisfied performance due to their intrinsically disordered microarchitecture. Here we report a facile ion-catalyzed synthesis of phenol-formaldehyde resin-based hard carbon aerogel by taking advantages of the chelation effect of phenol and Fe3+, which consists of a three-dimensionally interconnected carbon network embedded with hydrogen-rich, ordered microstructures of expanded nanographites and carbon micropores...
October 21, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Ilhem Guesmi-Mzoughi, Antonio Archidona-Yuste, Carolina Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Hajer Regaieg, Najet Horrigue-Raouani, Juan E Palomares-Rius, Pablo Castillo
Spiral nematode species of the genus Rotylenchus have been reported on olive (Olea europaea L.) in several Mediterranean countries (Castillo et al., 2010; Ali et al., 2014). Nematological surveys for plant-parasitic nematodes on olive trees were carried out in Tunisia between 2013 and 2014, and two nematode species of Rotylenchus were collected from the rhizosphere of olive cv. Chemlali in several localities of Tunisia (Tables 1,2 [Table: see text] [Table: see text] ). Twenty-two soil samples of 3 to 4 kg were collected with a shovel from the upper 50 cm of soil from arbitrarily chosen olive trees...
September 2016: Journal of Nematology
Sampada Chitale, Joshua S Derasp, Bashir Hussain, Kashif Tanveer, André M Beauchemin
Directed hydration of α-amino nitriles was achieved under mild conditions using simple carbohydrates as catalysts exploiting temporary intramolecularity. A broadly applicable procedure using both formaldehyde and NaOH as catalysts efficiently hydrated a variety of primary and secondary susbtrates, and allowed the hydration of enantiopure substrates to proceed without racemization. This work also provides a rare comparison of the catalytic activity of carbohydrates, and shows that the simple aldehydes at the basis of chemical evolution are efficient organocatalysts mimicking the function of hydratase enzymes...
October 20, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Khoa D Nguyen, Daniel Herkommer, Michael J Krische
The first catalytic enantioselective C-C couplings of methanol (>30 × 10(6) tons/year) are reported. Insertion of 2-substituted dienes into the methanol C-H bond occurs in a regioselective manner to form all-carbon quaternary centers with excellent levels of enantioselectivity using an iridium-PhanePhos catalyst. Mechanistic studies corroborate a Curtin-Hammett scenario in which methanol dehydrogenation triggers rapid, reversible diene hydrometalation en route to regioisomeric allyliridium-formaldehyde pairs, yet single constitutional isomers are formed...
October 20, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Yong Cui, Huiming Li, Sihui Wu, Runzhen Zhao, Deyi Du, Yan Ding, Hongguang Nie, Hong-Long Ji
Unsaturated oxidative formaldehyde is a noxious aldehyde in cigarette smoke that causes edematous acute lung injury. However, the mechanistic effects of formaldehyde on lung fluid transport are still poorly understood. We examined how formaldehyde regulates human epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) in H441 and expressed in Xenopus oocytes and exposed mice in vivo. Our results showed that formaldehyde reduced mouse transalveolar fluid clearance in vivo. Formaldehyde caused a dose-dependent inhibition of amiloride-sensitive short-circuit Na(+) currents in H441 monolayers and of αβγ-ENaC channel activity in oocytes...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Y G Chen, S F Chen, Y J Yang, A A Long, X Q Liu
Objective: To investigate the expression of microRNA 210 (miR-210) in the epididymis of rats with varicocele and changes in miR-210 expression following high spermatic vein ligation, so as to explore the significance of the surgery in treating varicocele. Methods: A total of 21 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats aged 7 weeks were randomly divided into control group (n=7), experimental group (n=7), and surgical group (n=7). Varicocele model was established in both the experimental and surgical groups, while only vein isolation was performed in the control group...
September 27, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
M C Burg, P Lunkenheimer, P Niederer, C Brune, K Redmann, M Smerup, U Spiegel, F Becker, D Maintz, W Heindel, R H Anderson
Purpose: There are ongoing arguments as to how cardiomyocytes are aggregated together within the ventricular walls. We used pneumatic distension through the coronary arteries to exaggerate the gaps between the aggregated cardiomyocytes, analyzing the pattern revealed using computed tomography, and validating our findings by histology. Methods: We distended 10 porcine hearts, arresting 4 in diastole by infusion of cardioplegic solutions, and 4 in systole by injection of barium chloride. Mural architecture was revealed by computed tomography, measuring also the angulations of the long chains of cardiomyocytes...
November 2016: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
Elisabetta Alberico, Alastair J J Lennox, Lydia K Vogt, Haijun Jiao, Wolfgang Baumann, Hans-Joachim Drexler, Martin Nielsen, Anke Spannenberg, Marek P Checinski, Henrik Junge, Matthias Beller
Ruthenium PNP complex 1a (RuH(CO)Cl(HN(C2H4Pi-Pr2)2)) represents a state-of-the-art catalyst for low-temperature (<100 °C) aqueous methanol dehydrogenation to H2 and CO2. Herein, we describe an investigation that combines experiment, spectroscopy and theory to provide a mechanistic rationale for this process. During catalysis, the presence of two anionic resting states was revealed, Ru-dihydride (3-) and Ru-monohydride (4-) that are deprotonated at nitrogen in the pincer ligand backbone. DFT calculations showed that O- and CH- coordination modes of methoxide to ruthenium compete, and form complexes 4- and 3-, respectively...
October 19, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Claudia Baumung, Jürgen Rehm, Heike Franke, Dirk W Lachenmeier
Nicotine was not included in previous efforts to identify the most important toxicants of tobacco smoke. A health risk assessment of nicotine for smokers of cigarettes was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach and results were compared to literature MOEs of various other tobacco toxicants. The MOE is defined as ratio between toxicological threshold (benchmark dose) and estimated human intake. Dose-response modelling of human and animal data was used to derive the benchmark dose. The MOE was calculated using probabilistic Monte Carlo simulations for daily cigarette smokers...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kilambi Pundarikakshudu, Deepak H Shah, Aashish H Panchal, Gordhanbhai C Bhavsar
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present work was to study the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of petroleum ether extract of fenugreek seeds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fenugreek seed powder was extracted in petroleum ether by cold maceration. This fenugreek seed petroleum ether extract (FSPEE) was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and tested on rats against carrageenan and formaldehyde-induced paw edema, complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis and cotton pellet-induced granuloma...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Pengfei Niu, Laura Asturias-Arribas, Martí Gich, César Fernández-Sánchez, Anna Roig
Thin carbon films deposited on technologically relevant substrates, such as silicon wafers, can be easily implemented in miniaturized electrochemical devices and used for sensing applications. However, a major issue in most carbon films is the weak film/substrate adhesion that shortens the working device lifetime. This paper describes the facile preparation of robust thin carbon films on silicon/silicon oxide substrates by one-pot sol-gel synthesis. The improved adherence of these carbon films is based on the incorporation of silica through the controlled synthesis of a resorcinol/formaldehyde gel modified with aminopropyltriethoxysilane...
October 18, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Fu Liang Ng, Ebbe Boedtkjer, Shu Ye, Mark Caulfield
OBJECTIVE: Chromosome 3p24.1 containing the SLC4A7 gene has been identified by genome-wide association studies as one of the genomic loci that influence blood pressure. SLC4A7 encodes electroneutral Na/HCO3 co-transporter (NBCn1) which regulates intracellular pH (pHi) in various tissues including vascular smooth muscle and endothelium, with knockout models demonstrating an altered blood pressure phenotype. We conducted a functional study of blood pressure-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms at the SLC4A7 locus in primary cultures of human vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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