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Shichao Yue, Junling Wu, Qiang Zhang, Ke Zhang, Michael D Weir, Satoshi Imazato, Yuxing Bai, Hockin H K Xu
OBJECTIVES: Secondary caries at the tooth-restoration margins is a primary reason for restoration failure. Cracks at the margins lead to leakage which can trap bacteria, producing acids to cause caries. To date, there has been no report on developing an adhesive resin that has self-healing, antibacterial and remineralizing capabilities. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop the first self-healing adhesive with antimicrobial and remineralizing capabilities, and (2) investigate the effects of incorporating microcapsules, dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) for the first time...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
Shin Hye Kim, Ji-Woong Choi, Myung-Whan Suh, Jun Ho Lee, Seung-Ha Oh, Jae-Jun Song, Moo Kyun Park
Formaldehyde (FA) is a familiar indoor air pollutant found in everything from cosmetics to clothing, but its impact on the middle ear is unknown. This study investigated whether FA causes cytotoxicity, inflammation, or induction of apoptosis in human middle ear epithelial cells (HMEECs). Cell viability was investigated using the trypan blue assay and a cell counting kit (CCK-8) in HMEECs treated with FA for 4 or 24 h. The expression of genes encoding the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α ) and mucin (MUC5AC) was analyzed using RT-PCR...
2018: BioMed Research International
Elizabeth M Lane, Nilay Hazari, Wesley H Bernskoetter
Substituted ureas have numerous applications but their synthesis typically requires the use of highly toxic starting materials. Herein we describe the first base-metal catalyst for the selective synthesis of symmetric ureas via the dehydrogenative coupling of methanol with primary amines. Using a pincer supported iron catalyst, a range of ureas was generated with isolated yields of up to 80% (corresponding to a catalytic turnover of up to 160) and with H2 as the sole byproduct. Mechanistic studies indicate a stepwise pathway beginning with methanol dehydrogenation to give formaldehyde, which is trapped by amine to afford a formamide...
April 28, 2018: Chemical Science
Liang Yuan, Meng Li, Tinglian Yuan, Yimin Fang, Wei Wang
We employ a surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) technique to monitor the in operando process of formaldehyde (HCHO) production during methanol oxidation with high spatial and temporal resolutions. While common wisdom suggests HCHO is generated as an intermediate during continuous electron transfer towards CO2 , we find that the majority of HCHO is produced via self-catalyzed chemical and electrochemical reactions under open-circuit conditions, which lead to an unprecedented HCHO burst immediately after withdrawal of external potential...
April 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Wouter S Lamme, Jovana Zečević, Krijn P de Jong
The effects of the metal deposition and activation methods on metal particle size and distribution were investigated for carbon nanotube supported Pd catalysts. The Pd precursor was loaded by incipient wetness impregnation, ion adsorption, and deposition precipitation and was activated by thermal treatment under a nitrogen atmosphere or in the liquid phase by reduction by formaldehyde or sodium borohydride. Regardless of the metal precursor loading method, activation under a N2 atmosphere at 500 °C led to homogeneously distributed 4 nm Pd particles...
April 9, 2018: ChemCatChem
Violeta Kaunelienė, Marija Meišutovič-Akhtarieva, Dainius Martuzevičius
With the introduction of novel and potentially less polluting nicotine containing products to the market, the impacts of their usage to indoor air quality as opposed to conventional pollution sources must be reviewed and considered. This review study aimed to comparatively analyse changes in indoor air quality as the consequence of tobacco heating system (THS) generated pollution against general indoor air quality in various micro-environments, especially with combustion-based pollution sources present. Indoor concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, toluene, nicotine and PM2...
May 8, 2018: Chemosphere
Ming Liu, Yan Wang, Yiqiang Wu, Hui Wan
Urea formaldehyde (UF) resin residues generate many poisonous chemicals during traditional disposal technologies for organic hazardous wastes. In this study, hydrothermal hydrolysis was developed to decompose, remove, and recycle cured UF resin. Under 140 °C and 2 h of hydrothermal process, 20 mL of either 2 M HCl or 30 w.t. % of formaldehyde solutions can decompose as much as 1.7 g of cured UF resin. In addition, from the attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GCMS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses, it confirmed that the hydrothermal hydrolysis could hydrolyze cured UF resin...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Florencia Gracia Martinez, Lumila Fuchs, Rosana Ramirez, Javier Breccia, Jorge Oyhenart
Vaccines against Tritrichomonas foetus have been shown to reduce the time of infection after natural or experimental exposure. The object of this study was to assess the protection against T. foetus infection conferred by a single vaginal instillation of formaldehyde fixed T. foetus cells. Aberdeen Angus virgin heifers were randomly allocated to 3 groups of 12 individuals to receive placebo or formaldehyde fixed T. foetus cells prepared following one of two procedures (formalin or freshly prepared solution) and six weeks later they were challenged with 106 T...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Yong Feng, Hailong Li, Deli Wu, Changzhong Liao, Yiang Fan, Po-Heng Lee, Kaimin Shih
Supported metallic palladium (Pd) acts as a real catalyst for peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation to produce highly oxidizing species. However, the species produced are surface-bound in nature, and their use for pollutant degradation requires an inert supporting material to minimize the surface scavenging effect. In this study, we synthesized Pd nanoparticles (NPs) on different supporting materials (Al2 O3 , TiO2 , SiO2 , g-C3 N4 , C, and TiC), and compared their reactivity toward PMS activation for the first time...
May 9, 2018: Chemosphere
De-Shan Bin, Xi-Jie Lin, Yong-Gang Sun, Yan-Song Xu, Ke Zhang, An-Min Cao, Lijun Wan
K-ion batteries (KIBs) are now drawing increasing research interest as an inexpensive alternative to Li-ion batteries (LIBs). However, due to the large size of K+, stable electrode materials capable of sustaining the repeated K+ in-tercalation/deintercalation cycles are extremely deficient especially if a satisfactory reversible capacity is expected. Herein, we demonstrated that the structural engineering of carbon into a hollow interconnected architecture, a shape similar to the neuron-cell network, promised high conceptual and technological potential for a high-performance KIBs anode...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
S Shishodia, D Zhang, A H El-Sagheer, T Brown, T D W Claridge, C J Schofield, R J Hopkinson
Formaldehyde is produced in cells by enzyme-catalysed demethylation reactions, including those occurring on N-methylated nucleic acids. Formaldehyde reacts with nucleobases to form N-hydroxymethylated adducts that may contribute to its toxicity/carcinogenicity when added exogenously, but the chemistry of these reactions has been incompletely defined. We report NMR studies on the reactions of formaldehyde with canonical/modified nucleobases. The results reveal that hydroxymethyl hemiaminals on endocyclic nitrogens, as observed with thymidine and uridine monophosphates, are faster to form than equivalent hemiaminals on exocyclic nitrogens; however, the exocyclic adducts, as formed with adenine, guanine and cytosine, are more stable in solution...
May 16, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Xiaodi Ji, Yue Dong, Tat Thang Nguyen, Xueqi Chen, Minghui Guo
With the growing depletion of wood-based materials and concerns over emissions of formaldehyde from traditional wood fibre composites, there is a desire for environment-friendly binders. Herein, we report a green wood fibre composite with specific bonding strength and water resistance that is superior to a commercial system by using wood fibres and chitosan-based adhesives. When the mass ratio of solid content in the adhesive and absolute dry wood fibres was 3%, the bonding strength and water resistance of the wood fibre composite reached the optimal level, which was significantly improved over that of wood fibre composites without adhesive and completely met the requirements of the Chinese national standard GB/T 11718-2009...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
James C Salamanca, Jiries Meehan-Atrash, Shawna Vreeke, Jorge O Escobedo, David H Peyton, Robert M Strongin
E-cigarette aerosol emission studies typically focus on benchmarking toxicant levels versus those of cigarettes. However, such studies do not fully account for the distinct chemical makeup of e-liquids and their unique properties. These approaches often conclude that there are fewer and lower levels of toxins produced by e-cigarettes than by cigarettes. In 2015, we reported the discovery of new hemiacetals derived from the reaction of formaldehyde and the e-liquid solvents. The main finding was that they constituted a significant proportion of potentially undetected formaldehyde...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jared D Weidman, Ryan T Allen, Kevin B Moore, Henry F Schaefer
Numerous processes in atmospheric and combustion chemistry produce the vinoxy radical (• CH2 CHO). To understand the fate of this radical and to provide reliable energies needed for kinetic modeling of such processes, we have examined its reaction with O2 using highly reliable theoretical methods. Utilizing the focal point approach, the energetics of this reaction and subsequent reactions were obtained using coupled-cluster theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)] extrapolated to the complete basis set limit...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Jun Kang, Jiufei Duan, Jing Song, Chen Luo, Hong Liu, Baizhan Li, Xu Yang, Wei Yu, Mingqing Chen
Several epidemiological and experimental studies indicate a positive association between exposure to formaldehyde or phthalates and allergic asthma. However, nothing is yet known about the effects of exposure to formaldehyde and phthalates together, nor the role of each on allergic asthma. Here, we investigated the effects of a combined exposure to formaldehyde and diisononyl phthalate (DINP) on asthma-like pathology in mice, and determined the underlying mechanisms implicated in NF-κB and ROS. Mice were exposed to formaldehyde and/or DINP and sensitization with OVA...
May 11, 2018: Toxicology
Mengqi Wang, Yimei Tian, Xin Zhao, Xiang Li
High color concentrations in inflows at reclaimed water treatment plants are typically considered as emergency situations, which must be solved using an appropriate decolorizing process. Using the decoloration mechanism of a modified dicyandiamide-formaldehyde polymer (DFP), a urea-formaldehyde polymer and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer (MFP) were prepared with ammonium chloride and ammonium sulfate as the modifiers. An orthogonal experiment indicated that a modified urea-formaldehyde polymer had no effect on decolorization; however, the MFP modified by ammonium chloride in number 16 (MMFP-C16), the DFP modified by ammonium chloride in number 9 (MDFP-C9) and modified by ammonium sulfate in number 6 (MDFP-S6) were successful...
May 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Hai He, Christian Edlich Muth, Steffen N Lindner, Arren Bar-Even
The ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) cycle is a highly efficient route for the assimilation of reduced one-carbon compounds. Despite considerable research, the RuMP cycle has not been fully implemented in model biotechnological organisms such as Escherichia coli, mainly since the heterologous establishment of the pathway requires addressing multiple challenges: sufficient formaldehyde production, efficient formaldehyde assimilation, and sufficient regeneration of the formaldehyde acceptor - ribulose 5-phosphate...
May 14, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
K C Ajithkumar, K Pramod
Doxorubicin is a broad spectrum anticancer antibiotic that possesses toxic effects such as cardiomyopathy, that even lead to congestive heart failure. Thus, the development of a new bio-inspired system is required, that retain the advantageous effect of doxorubicin while retarding the side effects. Hence, a system was developed that we describe 'doxorubicin-DNA adduct entrenched artificial virus encased in polypeptide complex'. The drug-DNA adduct (DDA) was prepared by a formaldehyde mediated reaction. A simple chloroform extraction method for the separation of DDA was developed...
August 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Agnieszka Kolodziejczyk, Aleksandra Jakubowska, Magdalena Kucinska, Tomasz Wasiak, Piotr Komorowski, Krzysztof Makowski, Bogdan Walkowiak
Endothelial cells, due to their location, are interesting objects for atomic force spectroscopy study. They constitute a barrier between blood and vessel tissues located deeper, and therefore they are the first line of contact with various substances present in blood, eg, drugs or nanoparticles. This work intends to verify whether the mechanical response of immortalized human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EA.hy926), when exposed to silver nanoparticles, as measured using force spectroscopy, could be effectively used as a bio-indicator of the physiological state of the cells...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
Jingyan Jiang, Hui Fan, Bingkun Pang, Jingsha Zhang, Zhilin Li, Shanshan Jiang, Jie Wu
The reactive nitrogen (Nr) pollution is a serious environmental problem. A wise application of nitrogen fertilizer is important for mitigating Nr loss. Field experiments were undertaken during the direct-seeded rice and winter-wheat growing seasons from 2014 to 2015 in Nanjing, one of the typical rice-wheat rotation regions in China, to evaluate the potential of different nitrogen fertilizers for mitigating Nr (N2 O, NH3 emissions, and NO3 - leaching) losses. Seven different fertilizer treatments were included in this study: a no fertilizer treatment (NF), conventional fertilizer (CF), urea-ammonium mixed nitrogen fertilizer (UA), stabilized urea (UHD; urea + hydroquinone + dicyandiamide), sulfur-coated urea (SCU), urea formaldehyde (UF) and organic fertilizer (OF)...
May 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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