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Md Nahid Pervez, Faizan Shafiq, Zahid Sarwar, Muhammad Munib Jilani, Yingjie Cai
In this study, the influence and optimization of the factors of a non-formaldehyde resin finishing process on cotton fabric using a Taguchi-based grey relational analysis were experimentally investigated. An L27 orthogonal array was selected for five parameters and three levels by applying Taguchi's design of experiments. The Taguchi technique was coupled with a grey relational analysis to obtain a grey relational grade for evaluating multiple responses, i.e., crease recovery angle (CRA), tearing strength (TE), and whiteness index (WI)...
March 15, 2018: Materials
Muhmmad Omar-Hmeadi, Nikhil Gandasi, Sebastian Barg
Phosphoinositides (PtdIns) play important roles in exocytosis and are thought to regulate secretory granule docking by co-clustering with the SNARE protein syntaxin to form a docking receptor in the plasma membrane. Here we tested this idea by high-resolution TIRF imaging of EGFP-labeled PtdIns markers or syntaxin-1 at secretory granule release sites in live insulin-secreting cells. In intact cells, PtdIns markers distributed evenly across the plasma membrane with no preference for granule docking sites. In contrast, syntaxin-1 was found clustered in the plasma membrane, mostly beneath docked granules...
March 14, 2018: Traffic
Yanle Guo, Min Zhang, Zhiguang Liu, Xiaofei Tian, Shugang Zhang, Chenhao Zhao, Hao Lu
Previous research into the synthesis of urea-formaldehyde fertilizers was mostly based on orthogonal experimental designs or single factor tests; this led to low precision for synthesis and relatively large ranges of parameters for these processes. To obtain mathematical response models for the synthesis of urea-formaldehyde fertilizers with different nitrogen release properties, a central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology was used in our research to examine the effects of different reaction times, temperatures, and molar ratios on nitrogen insoluble in either hot or cold water...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yi-Ting Lai, Kevin D Deem, Ferran Borràs-Castells, Nagraj Sambrani, Heike Rudolf, Kushal Suryamohan, Ezzat El-Sherif, Marc S Halfon, Daniel J McKay, Yoshinori Tomoyasu
Evolution of cis -regulatory elements (such as enhancers) plays an important role in the production of diverse morphology. However, a mechanistic understanding is often limited by the absence of methods to study enhancers in species outside of established model systems. Here, we sought to establish methods to identify and test enhancer activity in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum To identify possible enhancer regions, we first obtained genome-wide chromatin profiles from various tissues and stages of Tribolium via FAIRE (Formaldehyde Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements)-sequencing...
March 14, 2018: Development
Christian Schuster, Agnes Rodler, Rupert Tscheliessnig, Alois Jungbauer
Selective removal of nanometer-sized compounds such as proteins from fluids is an often challenging task in many scientific and industrial areas. Addressing such tasks with highly efficient and selective membranes is desirable since commonly used chromatographic approaches are expensive and difficult to scale up. Nanomembranes, molecularly thin separation layers, have been predicted and shown to possess outstanding properties but in spite ultra-fast diffusion times and high-resolution separation, to date they generally lack either of two crucial characteristics: compatibility with biological fluids and low-cost production...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Barbara Davis, Monique Williams, Prue Talbot
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate performance of the I quit original smoking (iQOS) heat-not-burn system as a function of cleaning and puffing topography, investigate the validity of manufacturer's claims that this device does not burn tobacco and determine if the polymer-film filter is potentially harmful. METHODS: iQOS performance was evaluated using five running conditions incorporating two different cleaning protocols. Heatsticks were visually and stereomicroscopically inspected preuse and postuse to determine the extent of tobacco plug charring (from pyrolysis) and polymer-film filter melting, and to elucidate the effects of cleaning on charring...
March 13, 2018: Tobacco Control
Xiaolu Jia, Tian Zhang, Jianying Wang, Haiying Tan, Yuandu Hu, Lianbin Zhang, Jintao Zhu
In this work, we present a fast and efficient strategy for the preparation of responsive photonic hydrogels for aldehyde sensing by combining the self-assembly of monodisperse carbon-encapsulated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) and in-situ photopolymerization of polyacrylamide (PAM) hydrogels. The responsive photonic hydrogels exhibit structural color variation after being treated with formaldehyde aqueous solution, which can be attributed to the chemical reaction between the amide groups in the hydrogels and the formaldehyde...
March 13, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Qian Zhao, Qizhen Zhu, Jiawei Miao, Zhaoruxin Guan, Huan Liu, Renjie Chen, Yabin An, Feng Wu, Bin Xu
With the high energy density of 2600 Wh kg-1, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have been considered as one of the most promising energy storage systems. However, the serious capacity fading resulting from shuttle effect hinders its commercial application. Encapsulating small S2-4 molecules into the pores of ultra-microporous carbon (UMC) can eliminate the dissolved polysulfudes, thus completely inhibit the shuttle effect. Nevertheless, the sulfur loading of S2-4/UMC is usually not higher than 1 mg cm-2 due to the limited pore volume of UMC, which is a great challenge for small sulfur cathode...
March 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Roman A Motiyenko, Laurent Margules, Maria Luisa Senent, Jean-Claude Guillemin
Cyanoacetylene, HCC-CN is a ubiquitous molecule in the Universe. However, its interstellar chemistry is not well understood and its understanding requires laboratory data including rotational spectroscopy of possible products coming from a reaction with another compounds. In this study we present the first spectroscopic characterization of gauche conformation of 4-hydroxy-2-butynenitrile (HOCH2CCCN), a formal adduct of cyanoacetylene on formaldehyde, in the frequency range up to 500 GHz. The analysis of the rotational spectrum was complicated by internal rotation of OH group that connects two equivalent gauche configurations...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Andrezza Braga Soares da Silva, Clarisse Maria Barbosa Fonseca, Maria Michele Araújo de Sousa Cavalcante, Ingrid Macedo de Oliveira, Maíra Soares Ferraz, Felipe José Costa Viana, Rayssa Dourado Fontenele, Airton Mendes Conde Júnior
The pancreas comprises an important metabolic organ of endocrine and exocrine character that has embryonic origin of rudimentary buds that fuse to form the organ. The present work aims to describe the pancreatic histogenesis of hybrid chick embryos (Gallus gallus). The research was performed in the UFPI, previously approved by the CEUA with protocol no. 040/15. We used 120 fertilized eggs of hybrid chickens kept in an incubator with controlled temperature and humidity. Daily collections of embryos and fetuses were performed from 4 to 21 days of incubation through the anatomical dissection consecutive the euthanasia...
March 12, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Daniel C Anderson, Julie M Nicely, Glenn M Wolfe, Thomas F Hanisco, Ross J Salawitch, Timothy P Canty, Russell R Dickerson, Eric C Apel, Sunil Baidar, Thomas J Bannan, Nicola J Blake, Dexian Chen, Barbara Dix, Rafael P Fernandez, Samuel R Hall, Rebecca S Hornbrook, L Gregory Huey, Beatrice Josse, Patrick Jöckel, Douglas E Kinnison, Theodore K Koenig, Michael LeBreton, Virginie Marécal, Olaf Morgenstern, Luke D Oman, Laura L Pan, Carl Percival, David Plummer, Laura E Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Andrea Stenke, Kengo Sudo, Simone Tilmes, Kirk Ullmann, Rainer Volkamer, Andrew J Weinheimer, Guang Zeng
Formaldehyde (HCHO) directly affects the atmospheric oxidative capacity through its effects on HOx . In remote marine environments, such as the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), it is particularly important to understand the processes controlling the abundance of HCHO because model output from these regions is used to correct satellite retrievals of HCHO. Here, we have used observations from the CONTRAST field campaign, conducted during January and February 2014, to evaluate our understanding of the processes controlling the distribution of HCHO in the TWP as well as its representation in chemical transport/climate models...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
A Soto, B Ballesteros, E Jiménez, M Antiñolo, E Martínez, J Albaladejo
The relative-rate technique has been used to determine the rate coefficient for the reaction of Cx F2x+1 CHCH2 (x = 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6) with ozone at (298 ± 2) K and (720 ± 5) Torr of air by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) and by GC-MS/SPME (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy with Solid Phase Micro Extraction) in two different atmospheric simulation chambers. The following rate coefficients, in units of 10-19  cm3 molecule-1 s-1 , were obtained: (3.01 ± 0.10) for CF3 CHCH2 , (2...
March 1, 2018: Chemosphere
Jessica B Lee, Albert J Keung
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is an invaluable method to characterize interactions between proteins and genomic DNA, such as the genomic localization of transcription factors and posttranslational modification of histones. DNA and proteins are reversibly and covalently crosslinked using formaldehyde. Then the cells are lysed to release the chromatin. The chromatin is fragmented into smaller sizes either by micrococcal nuclease (MNase) or sonication and then purified from other cellular components. The protein-DNA complexes are enriched by immunoprecipitation (IP) with antibodies that target the epitope of interest...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Aditya K Gupta, Sarah G Versteeg
Because of the ubiquitous nature of dermatophytes and a lack of an adaptive immune response in the nail plate, recurrence and relapse rates associated with superficial fungal infections are high (10%-53%). Cured or improved dermatophytosis patients could become reinfected if exposed to fungal reservoirs, such as an infected shoe, sock, or textile. To prevent this, footwear, sock, and textile sanitization methods can be used. To provide insight into effective sanitization options, the focus of this article is to review footwear, sock, and textile sanitization studies conducted throughout history (1920-2016)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Min-Hee Lee, Jan E Szulejko, Ki-Hyun Kim
In this study, we report a 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatization HPLC/UV method to quantify carbonyl compounds (CCs) either in electronic cigarette (EC) refill solutions or in vaped aerosols. Vaped aerosol samples were entrained in a 1 L atm min-1 ambient lab air stream and pulled through an impinger containing a DNPH solution for derivatization. The mass change tracking (MCT) approach was used to check mass balance. Refill solution samples were diluted (2, 4, and 10 times) in a DNPH/acetonitrile solution for derivatization...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Yuriy Kvach, Markéta Ondračková, Michal Janáč, Pavel Jurajda
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of preservation method on the results of parasite community studies. Two host species, European perch Perca fluviatilis and European bitterling Rhodeus amarus, were examined for parasites after having been subjected to 4 different storage treatments: freezing, preservation in 4% formaldehyde or 70% ethanol and transportation of live (fresh) fish as a control. Preservation prior to dissection resulted in a loss of information, leading to incomplete quantitative data (all preservation treatments), qualitative data (ethanol and formaldehyde preservation) and a lowered ability to determine parasites to species level based on morphology compared to dissecting fresh fish...
March 5, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Chang Yu, Qiao-Feng Wu, Yong Tang, Shu-Guang Yu
Moxibustion is an effective therapy for treatment of a lot of clinical problems, but the ignited moxa-induced smoke containing harmful substances may bring about indoor air pollution to affect both patients' and medical workers' health. However, there is no standards about controlling indoor air quality (IAQ) for moxibustion rooms in China. In the present study, the authors reviewed newly-published articles about some substances released from moxa smoke as inhalable particles (PM 10 and PM 2.5), formaldehyde, benzene, methylbenzene, xylene, bene[α]pyrene, total volatile organic compounds, CO, CO2 , NO, SO2 , NH3 , O3 , etc...
February 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Clara B García-Calderón, José Antonio Bejarano-García, Isabel Tinoco-Gago, María José Castro, Paula Moreno-Gordillo, José I Piruat, Teresa Caballero-Velázquez, José A Pérez-Simón, Iván V Rosado
Metabolically reactive formaldehyde is a genotoxin and a carcinogen. Mice lacking the main formaldehyde-detoxifying gene Adh5 combined with the loss of the Fanconi anemia (FA) DNA repair pathway rapidly succumbed to bone marrow failure (BMF) primarily due to the extensive ablation of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) pool. However, the mechanism by which formaldehyde mediates these toxic effects is still unknown. We uncover a detrimental role of tetrahydrofolic acid (THF) in cells lacking Adh5 or the FA repair pathway...
March 6, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Xiaodong Zhu, Yu Liu, Zhao Li, Weicong Wang
In this paper, thermochromic microcapsules were synthesized in situ polymerization with urea formaldehyde as shell material and thermochromic compounds as core material. The effects of emulsifying agent and conditions on surface morphology and particle size of microcapsules were studied. It was found that the size and surface morphology of microcapsules were strongly depending on stirring rate and the ratio of core to shell. The stable and small size spherical microcapsules with excellent transparency can be obtained at an emulsifying agent to core to shell ratio as 1:5:7...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fan Wang, Zheng Fangfang, Xiangmeng Guo, Wanguang Chen, Weiyun Yao, Haifang Liu, Chengcai Lyu, Yaowen Zhang, Chaojie Fan
In this study, we investigated the effect of inhaled mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbon monoxide (CO) on neuroethology. Fifty 6-week-old male Kunming mice were exposed in five similar static chambers; zero (control) and four different doses of VOC and CO mixtures (G1-G4) for 10 consecutive days and 2 h/day. The compounds and concentrations were as follows: formaldehyde, benzene, toluene, xylene, and CO as 0.10 + 0.11 + 0.20 + 0.20 + 10.00 mg/m3 , 0.20 + 0.22 + 0.40 + 0.40 + 20.00 mg/m3 , 1...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
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