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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679609/cannabis-sativa-marijuana-alters-blood-chemistry-and-the-cytoarchitecture-of-some-organs-in-sprague-dawley-rat-models
#1
Nosarieme Omoregie Abey
There is evidence that Cannabis whose active ingredient is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most commonly abused neuroactive substance, among young adults. This work investigated the effects of Cannabis sativa on the cytoarchitecture of some key organs and the blood chemistry of rat models. Twenty-one (21) male Sprague Dawley rats were fed different percentage of cannabis chow (0%, 5% and 10%) for a period of seven (7) weeks. Rats were subjected to intermittent cognitive function test and sacrificed after the seventh week, collecting the blood, brain and other important tissues for analysis which include; brain total protein and nitric oxide concentration, blood chemistry and histopathology...
April 18, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679204/efficacy-of-curcumin-for-age-associated-cognitive-decline-a-narrative-review-of-preclinical-and-clinical-studies
#2
REVIEW
Marjana Rahman Sarker, Susan F Franks
Processes such as aberrant redox signaling and chronic low-grade systemic inflammation have been reported to modulate age-associated pathologies such as cognitive impairment. Curcumin, the primary therapeutic component of the Indian spice, Turmeric (Curcuma longa), has long been known for its strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity attributable to its unique molecular structure. Recently, an interest in this polyphenol as a cognitive therapeutic for the elderly has emerged. The purpose of this paper is to critically review preclinical and clinical studies that have evaluated the efficacy of curcumin in ameliorating and preventing age-associated cognitive decline and address the translational progress of preclinical to clinical efficacy...
April 21, 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678986/detecting-risk-of-postural-hypotension-drop-derivation-and-validation-of-a-prediction-score-for-primary-care
#3
Christopher Elles Clark, Daniel Thomas, Fiona C Warren, David J Llewellyn, Luigi Ferrucci, John L Campbell
OBJECTIVES: Falls are a common problem in older people. Postural hypotension contributes to falls but is often asymptomatic. In the absence of symptoms, postural hypotension is only infrequently checked for in clinical practice. We undertook this study to derive, validate and explore the prospective associations of a prediction tool to identify people likely to have unrecognised postural hypotension. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional and prospective multivariable cohort analysis...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678773/microrna-132-is-associated-with-the-cognition-improvement-following-voluntary-exercise-in-samp8-mice
#4
Jingde Dong, Yi Liu, Zhen Zhan, Xiaoshan Wang
The senescence-accelerated SAMP8 mouse is characterized by progressive cognitive decline and is considered to be a specific model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A growing body of evidence indicates that physical exercise suppresses age-related cognitive decline. In the current study, we investigated the influence of voluntary wheel running on cognitive function in SAMP8 mice. We found that voluntary physical exercise ameliorated cognition decline and suppressed hippocampal neurodegeneration in SAMP8 mice. MicroRNA-132 (miR-132) is a short non-coding RNA which is enriched in the brain and is implicated in the regulation of neuronal activity and cognitive function...
April 17, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678666/biochemical-deficits-and-cognitive-decline-in-brain-aging-intervention-by-dietary-supplements
#5
REVIEW
Jit Poddar, Munmun Pradhan, Gargi Ganguly, Sasanka Chakrabarti
The aging of brain in the absence of neurodegenerative diseases, usually called non-pathological brain aging or normal cognitive aging, is characterized by an impairment of memory and cognitive functions. The underlying cellular and molecular changes in the aging brain that include oxidative damage, mitochondrial impairment, changes in glucose-energy metabolism and neuroinflammation have been reported widely from animal experiments and human studies. The cognitive deficit of non-pathological brain aging is the resultant of such inter-dependent and reinforcing molecular pathologies which have striking similarities with those operating in Alzheimer's disease which causes progressive, irreversible and a devastating form of dementia and cognitive decline in the elderly people...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678606/ketogenic-diet-high-intensity-interval-training-hiit-and-memory-training-in-the-treatment-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-case-study
#6
Kaitlyn Dahlgren, Kelly J Gibas
Alzheimer's disease (AD) deaths have increased by 89% since 2000. This alarming trajectory of neurological disease highlights the failure of current best practice. Deteriorating brain fuel supply is the nemesis of intact neurological health. Cerebral hypo-metabolism associated with AD occurs years before onset. Both the ketogenic diet and calorie restriction (fasting) lead to a compensatory rise in ketones to improve energy deficits in the brain derived from cerebral insulin resistance. Two forms of ketone bodies, β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, fuel the brain during starvation, fasting and strenuous exercise...
April 11, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678514/effect-of-neoadjuvant-therapy-and-rectal-surgery-on-health-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-rectal-cancer-during-the-first-2-years-after-diagnosis
#7
Alice M Couwenberg, Johannes P M Burbach, Wilhelmina M U van Grevenstein, Anke B Smits, Esther C J Consten, Anandi H W Schiphorst, Niels A T Wijffels, Joost T Heikens, Martijn P W Intven, Helena M Verkooijen
INTRODUCTION: Rectal cancer surgery with neoadjuvant therapy is associated with substantial morbidity. The present study describes the course of quality of life (QOL) in rectal cancer patients in the first 2 years after the start of treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective study within a colorectal cancer cohort including rectal cancer patients who were referred for neoadjuvant chemoradiation or short-course radiotherapy and underwent rectal surgery...
March 21, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677246/review-in-adults-with-normal-cognition-or-mci-drugs-do-not-prevent-or-delay-cognitive-decline
#8
Calvin Hirsch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674241/protective-effect-of-betulinic-acid-against-intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin-induced-cognitive-impairment-and-neuronal-damage-in-rats-possible-neurotransmitters-and-neuroinflammatory-mechanism
#9
Madhu Kaundal, Rahul Deshmukh, Mohd Akhtar
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to explore the therapeutic potential of Betulinic acid (BA) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced memory damage in experimental rats. METHODS: STZ (3 mg/kg bilaterally) as intracerebroventrical (icv) route was administered on day 1 and 3 in rats. Donepezil (5 mg/kg/day po), used as standard, and BA (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg/day po) were administered after 1 h of 1st STZ infusion up to 21 days. Object recognition task (ORT) for non-spatial, Morris water maze (MWM) for spatial and locomotor activity were performed to evaluate behavioral changes in rats...
December 6, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673549/tau-and-neuroinflammation-what-impact-for-alzheimer-s-disease-and-tauopathies
#10
REVIEW
Cyril Laurent, Luc Buée, David Blum
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder and the most common type of dementia (60-80% of cases). In 2016, nearly 44 million people were affected by AD or related dementia. AD is characterized by progressive neuronal damages leading to subtle and latter obvious decline in cognitive functions including symptoms such as memory loss or confusion, which ultimately require full-time medical care. Its neuropathology is defined by the extracellular accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into amyloid plaques, and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) consisting of aggregated hyper- and abnormal phosphorylation of tau protein...
February 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672680/cognitive-correlates-of-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-mild-alzheimer-s-dementia
#11
Osama Sabri, Philipp M Meyer, Susanne Gräf, Swen Hesse, Stephan Wilke, Georg-Alexander Becker, Michael Rullmann, Marianne Patt, Julia Luthardt, Gudrun Wagenknecht, Alexander Hoepping, Rene Smits, Annegret Franke, Bernhard Sattler, Solveig Tiepolt, Steffen Fischer, Winnie Deuther-Conrad, Ulrich Hegerl, Henryk Barthel, Peter Schönknecht, Peter Brust
In early Alzheimer's dementia, there is a need for PET biomarkers of disease progression with close associations to cognitive dysfunction that may aid to predict further cognitive decline and neurodegeneration. Amyloid biomarkers are not suitable for that purpose. The α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α4β2-nAChRs) are widely abundant in the human brain. As neuromodulators they play an important role in cognitive functions such as attention, learning and memory. Post-mortem studies reported lower expression of α4β2-nAChRs in more advanced Alzheimer's dementia...
April 17, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672668/distinct-effects-of-apathy-and-dopamine-on-effort-based-decision-making-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Campbell Le Heron, Olivia Plant, Sanjay Manohar, Yuen-Siang Ang, Matthew Jackson, Graham Lennox, Michele T Hu, Masud Husain
Effort-based decision-making is a cognitive process crucial to normal motivated behaviour. Apathy is a common and disabling complication of Parkinson's disease, but its aetiology remains unclear. Intriguingly, the neural substrates associated with apathy also subserve effort-based decision-making in animal models and humans. Furthermore, the dopaminergic system plays a core role in motivating effortful behaviour for reward, and its dysfunction has been proposed to play a crucial role in the aetiology of apathy in Parkinson's disease...
April 17, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672553/memory-deficits-for-facial-identity-in-patients-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-mci
#13
Egemen Savaskan, Daniel Summermatter, Clemens Schroeder, Hartmut Schächinger
Faces are among the most relevant social stimuli revealing an encounter's identity and actual emotional state. Deficits in facial recognition may be an early sign of cognitive decline leading to social deficits. The main objective of the present study is to investigate if individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment show recognition deficits in facial identity. Thirty-seven individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, multiple-domain (15 female; age: 75±8 yrs.) and forty-one healthy volunteers (24 female; age 71±6 yrs...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671334/alzheimer-disease-non-pharmacological-and-pharmacological-management-of-cognition-and-neuropsychiatric-symptoms
#14
Samantha M Loi, Dhamidhu Eratne, Wendy Kelso, Dennis Velakoulis, Jeffrey Cl Looi
OBJECTIVES: This clinical update review focuses on the management of cognition and the neuropsychiatric features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and highlights current issues regarding pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment, putative therapeutics and recent relevant research findings in this area. CONCLUSIONS: AD is a neurodegenerative progressive condition characterised by cognitive impairment and functional decline. Most people with AD will demonstrate neuropsychiatric features, better known as behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD)...
March 1, 2018: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671225/effectiveness-of-early-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-preventing-neurocognitive-decline-in-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-ii-a-case-series
#15
A Selvanathan, C Ellaway, C Wilson, P Owens, P J Shaw, K Bhattacharya
The early progressive form of the X-linked disorder, Hunter syndrome or mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) (OMIM #309900), is characterized by cognitive decline, and pulmonary and cardiac complications that often cause death before 20 years of age. Deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme, iduronate-2-sulfatase (EC 3.1.6.13) results in deposition of the glycosaminoglycans, dermatan, and heparan sulfate in various tissues. In recent years, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has become the mainstay of treatment, but is expensive and ineffective in arresting cognitive decline...
April 19, 2018: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671021/protective-effect-of-vinpocetine-against-neurotoxicity-of-manganese-in-adult-male-rats
#16
Rania I Nadeem, Hebatalla I Ahmed, Bahia M El-Sayeh
Manganese (Mn) is required for many essential biological processes as well as in the development and functioning of the brain. Extensive accumulation of Mn in the brain may cause central nervous system dysfunction known as manganism, a motor disorder associated with cognitive and neuropsychiatric deficits similar to parkinsonism. Vinpocetine, a synthetic derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, is used to improve the cognitive function in cerebrovascular diseases. It possesses antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties...
April 18, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670545/effect-of-the-nu-age-diet-on-cognitive-functioning-in-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Anna Marseglia, Weili Xu, Laura Fratiglioni, Cristina Fabbri, Agnes A M Berendsen, Agata Bialecka-Debek, Amy Jennings, Rachel Gillings, Nathalie Meunier, Elodie Caumon, Susan Fairweather-Tait, Barbara Pietruszka, Lisette C P G M De Groot, Aurelia Santoro, Claudio Franceschi
Background: Findings from animal and epidemiological research support the potential neuroprotective benefits from healthy diets. However, to establish diet-neuroprotective causal relations, evidence from dietary intervention studies is needed. NU-AGE is the first multicenter intervention assessing whether a diet targeting health in aging can counteract the age-related physiological changes in different organs, including the brain. In this study, we specifically investigated the effects of NU-AGE's dietary intervention on age-related cognitive decline...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670520/two-behavioral-tests-allow-a-better-correlation-between-cognitive-function-and-expression-of-synaptic-proteins
#18
Marta Balietti, Giorgia Fattorini, Arianna Pugliese, Daniele Marcotulli, Luca Bragina, Fiorenzo Conti
The molecular substrate of age-associated cognitive decline (AACD) is still elusive. Evidence indicates that AACD is related to synaptic impairment in hippocampus, but different hippocampal regions play different roles, with the dorsal hippocampus (DH) associated to spatial learning, and the ventral hippocampus (VH) crucial for emotionality. If changes in hippocampal function contributes to AACD, this contribution may be reflected in alterations of synaptic protein levels. A commonly used approach to investigate this issue is western blotting...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670465/emerging-roles-of-immune-cells-in-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction
#19
REVIEW
Yue Liu, Yiqing Yin
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), a long-lasting cognitive decline after surgery, is currently a major clinical problem with no clear pathophysiological mechanism or effective therapy. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuroinflammation plays a critical role in POCD. After surgery, alarmins are leaked from the injury sites and proinflammatory cytokines are increased in the peripheral circulation. Neurons in the hippocampus, which is responsible for learning and memory, can be damaged by cytokines transmitted to the brain parenchyma...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669582/galantamine-improves-cognition-hippocampal-inflammation-and-synaptic-plasticity-impairments-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-in-mice
#20
Yi Liu, Yuyun Zhang, Xian Zheng, Tongyong Fang, Xia Yang, Xuan Luo, Anlei Guo, Kelly A Newell, Xu-Feng Huang, Yinghua Yu
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) levels are higher in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients and are associated with neuroinflammation and cognitive decline, while neural cholinergic signaling controls inflammation. This study aimed to examine the efficacy of galantamine, a clinically approved cholinergic agent, in alleviating LPS-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive decline as well as the associated mechanism...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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