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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647643/cognitive-functioning-among-dutch-older-adults-do-neighborhood-socioeconomic-status-and-urbanity-matter
#1
Jonathan Wörn, Lea Ellwardt, Marja Aartsen, Martijn Huisman
Positive associations of neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and older adults' cognitive functioning have been demonstrated in previous studies, but overall results have been mixed and evidence from European countries and particularly the Netherlands is scarce. We investigated the effects of socioeconomic status (SES) and urbanity of neighborhoods on four domains of cognitive functioning in a sample of 985 Dutch older adults aged 65-88 years from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Besides cross-sectional level differences in general cognitive functioning, processing speed, problem solving and memory, we examined cognitive decline over a period of six years...
June 3, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647580/one-carbon-metabolism-biomarkers-and-cognitive-decline-in-the-very-old-the-newcastle-85-study
#2
Nuno Mendonça, Antoneta Granic, John C Mathers, Carmen Martin-Ruiz, Keith A Wesnes, Chris J Seal, Carol Jagger, Tom R Hill
OBJECTIVES: Although the biological rationale for the association between folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine with cognitive function seems plausible, conflicting results have been reported. This study aimed to determine the associations between 1-carbon (1-C) metabolism biomarkers (folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine), and cognitive impairment at baseline and the rate of cognitive decline over 5 years in the very old. DESIGN: The Newcastle 85+ Study was a prospective longitudinal study of people 85 years old and followed over 5 years in Northeast England...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647555/normalizing-the-gene-dosage-of-dyrk1a-in-a-mouse-model-of-down-syndrome-rescues-several-alzheimer-s-disease-phenotypes
#3
Susana García-Cerro, Noemí Rueda, Verónica Vidal, Sara Lantigua, Carmen Martínez-Cué
The intellectual disability that characterizes Down syndrome (DS) is primarily caused by prenatal changes in central nervous system growth and differentiation. However, in later life stages, the cognitive abilities of DS individuals progressively decline due to accelerated aging and the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology. The AD neuropathology in DS has been related to the overexpression of several genes encoded by Hsa21 including DYRK1A (dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A), which encodes a protein kinase that performs crucial functions in the regulation of multiple signaling pathways that contribute to normal brain development and adult brain physiology...
June 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646794/dexibuprofen-prevents-neurodegeneration-and-cognitive-decline-in-appswe-ps1de9-through-multiple-signaling-pathways
#4
Miren Ettcheto, Elena Sánchez-López, Laura Pons, Oriol Busquets, Jordi Olloquequi, Carlos Beas-Zarate, Merce Pallas, Maria Luisa García, Carme Auladell, Jaume Folch, Antoni Camins
The aim of the present study is to elucidate the neuronal pathways associated to NSAIDs causing a reduction of the risk and progression of Alzheimer's disease. The research was developed administering the active enantiomer of ibuprofen, dexibuprofen (DXI), in order to reduce associated gastric toxicity. DXI was administered from three to six-month-old female APPswe/PS1dE9 mice as a model of familial Alzheimer's disease. DXI treatment reduced the activation of glial cells and the cytokine release involved in the neurodegenerative process, especially TNFα...
June 15, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646687/cortical-amyloid-accumulation-is-associated-with-alterations-of-structural-integrity-in-older-people-with-subjective-memory-complaints
#5
Stefan J Teipel, Enrica Cavedo, Sarah Weschke, Michel J Grothe, Katrine Rojkova, Gaëlle Fontaine, Luce Dauphinot, Gabriel Gonzalez-Escamilla, Marie-Claude Potier, Hugo Bertin, Marie-Odile Habert, Bruno Dubois, Harald Hampel
We determined the effect of cortical amyloid load using (18)F-florbetapir PET on cognitive performance and gray matter structural integrity derived from MRI in 318 cognitively normally performing older people with subjective memory impairment from the INSIGHT-preAD cohort using multivariate partial least squares regression. Amyloid uptake was associated with reduced gray matter structural integrity in hippocampus, entorhinal and cingulate cortex, middle temporal gyrus, prefrontal cortex, and lentiform nucleus (p < 0...
May 31, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646686/eeg-spectral-analysis-as-a-putative-early-prognostic-biomarker-in-nondemented-amyloid-positive-subjects
#6
Alida A Gouw, Astrid M Alsema, Betty M Tijms, Andreas Borta, Philip Scheltens, Cornelis J Stam, Wiesje M van der Flier
We studied whether electroencephalography (EEG)-derived measures of brain oscillatory activity are related to clinical progression in nondemented, amyloid positive subjects. We included 205 nondemented amyloid positive subjects (63 subjective cognitive decline [SCD]; 142 mild cognitive impairment [MCI]) with a baseline resting-state EEG data and ≥1-year follow-up. Peak frequency and relative power of 4 frequency bands were calculated. Relationships between normalized EEG measures and time to clinical progression (conversion from SCD to MCI/dementia or from MCI to dementia) were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard models...
June 1, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645294/3-5-4-trihydroxy-6-7-3-trimethoxyflavone-protects-against-beta-amyloid-induced-neurotoxicity-through-antioxidative-activity-and-interference-with-cell-signaling
#7
Alona Telerman, Rivka Ofir, Yoel Kashman, Anat Elmann
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease, characterized by progressive decline in memory and cognitive functions, that results from loss of neurons in the brain. Amyloid beta (Aβ) protein and oxidative stress are major contributors to Alzheimer's disease, therefore, protecting neuronal cells against Aβ-induced toxicity and oxidative stress might form an effective approach for treatment of this disease. 3,5,4'-trihydroxy-6,7,3'-trimethoxyflavone (TTF) is a flavonoid we have purified from the plant Achillea fragrantissima; and the present study examined, for the first time, the effects of this compound on Aβ-toxicity to neuronal cells...
June 23, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645223/decline-in-literacy-and-incident-ad-dementia-among-community-dwelling-older-persons
#8
Lei Yu, Robert S Wilson, S Duke Han, Sue Leurgans, David A Bennett, Patricia A Boyle
OBJECTIVE: To quantify longitudinal change in financial and health literacy and examine the associations of declining literacy with incident Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHOD: Data came from 799 participants of an ongoing cohort study. Literacy was measured using a battery of 32 questions. Clinical diagnoses were made annually following uniform structured procedures. The associations of declining literacy with incident AD dementia and MCI were tested using a joint model for longitudinal and time-to-event data...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Aging and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645156/rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-and-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Natalia Jozwiak, Ronald B Postuma, Jacques Montplaisir, Véronique Latreille, Michel Panisset, Sylvain Chouinard, Pierre-Alexandre Bourgouin, Jean-François Gagnon
Study Objectives: REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia affecting 33 to 46% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The existence of a unique and specific impaired cognitive profile in PD patients with RBD is still controversial. We extensively assessed cognitive functions to identify whether RBD is associated with more severe cognitive deficits in nondemented patients with PD. Methods: One hundred and sixty-two participants, including 53 PD patients with RBD, 40 PD patients without RBD, and 69 healthy subjects, underwent polysomnography, a neurological assessment, and an extensive neuropsychological exam to assess attention, executive functions, episodic learning and memory, visuospatial abilities, and language...
June 22, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644902/sirt6-alters-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#10
Eitan Okun, Daniel Marton, Daniel Cohen, Kathleen Griffioen, Yariv Kanfi, Tomer Illouz, Ravit Madar, Haim Y Cohen
Sirtuins are pleiotropic NAD+ dependent histone deacetylases involved in metabolism, DNA damage repair, inflammation and stress resistance. SIRT6, a member of the sirtuin family, regulates the process of normal aging and increases the lifespan of male mice over-expressing Sirt6 by 15%. Neurogenesis, the formation of new neurons within the hippocampus of adult mammals, involves several complex stages including stem cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and network integration. During aging, the number of newly generated neurons continuously declines, and this is correlated with a decline in neuronal plasticity and cognitive behavior...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643811/-from-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-dementia-what-is-the-role-of-public-health
#11
Nicola Vanacore, Alessandra Di Pucchio, Eleonora Lacorte, Ilaria Bacigalupo, Flavia Mayer, Giulia Grande, Matteo Cesari, Marco Canevelli
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a nosological entity proposed by Petersen in 1999 with the objective of identifying an early stage of dementia. The new diagnostic criteria for dementia, both those promoted by the International Working Group (IWG) and those defined by the National Institute of Aging (NIA), subsequently introduced a new model that starts with a preclinical phase, then proceeds with a prodromal phase, and ends with a phase of dementia. The condition known as subjective cognitive disorder (SCD) is included between the preclinic and the prodromal phases...
May 2017: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643806/dementia-persistent-pain-might-be-a-harbinger-of-cognitive-decline-in-older-people
#12
Heather Wood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643388/a-longitudinal-item-response-theory-model-to-characterize-cognition-over-time-in-elderly-subjects
#13
Marc Vandemeulebroecke, Björn Bornkamp, Tillmann Krahnke, Johanna Mielke, Andreas Monsch, Peter Quarg
For drug development in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, it is important to understand which cognitive domains carry most information on earliest signs of cognitive decline, and which subject characteristics are associated with a faster decline. A longitudinal Item Response Theory (IRT) model was developed for the Basel Study of the Elderly, in which the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease - Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (with additions) and the California Verbal Learning Test were measured on 1750 elderly subjects for up to 13...
June 23, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643101/cognitive-performance-correlates-with-the-degree-of-dopaminergic-degeneration-in-the-associative-part-of-the-striatum-in-non-demented-parkinson-s-patients
#14
Dorothee Kübler, Henning Schroll, Ralph Buchert, Andrea A Kühn
Parkinson's disease (PD) patients show cognitive deficits that are relevant in terms of prognosis and quality of life. Degeneration of striatal dopaminergic afferents proceeds from dorsal/caudal to anterior/ventral and is discussed to account for some of these symptoms. Treatment with dopamine (DA) has differential effects on cognitive dysfunctions, improving some and worsening others. We hypothesized that cognitive performance during the dopaminergic OFF state correlates with DAT availability in the associative striatum...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642251/physical-activity-cognitive-decline-and-risk-of-dementia-28-year-follow-up-of-whitehall-ii-cohort-study
#15
Séverine Sabia, Aline Dugravot, Jean-François Dartigues, Jessica Abell, Alexis Elbaz, Mika Kivimäki, Archana Singh-Manoux
Objective To test the hypotheses that physical activity in midlife is not associated with a reduced risk of dementia and that the preclinical phase of dementia is characterised by a decline in physical activity.Design Prospective cohort study with a mean follow-up of 27 years.Setting Civil service departments in London (Whitehall II study).Participants 10 308 participants aged 35-55 years at study inception (1985-88). Exposures included time spent in mild, moderate to vigorous, and total physical activity assessed seven times between 1985 and 2013 and categorised as "recommended" if duration of moderate to vigorous physical activity was 2...
June 22, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641678/cognitive-deterioration-in-moderate-and-severe-hypobaric-hypoxia-conditions
#16
Jeremy M A Beer, Barry S Shender, Daren Chauvin, Todd S Dart, Joseph Fischer
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia continues to present risks in military aviation. Hypoxia symptoms include sensory and cognitive effects; of these, it is important to identify which components of operator performance are most vulnerable to hypoxia-induced decline in order to determine which sensory modality is most effective for alerting an impaired aviator of an imminent hypoxic episode. METHODS: A study was performed in a hypobaric chamber to characterize deterioration of cognitive performance under moderate (MH) and severe (SH) hypoxia conditions, culminating in subjects' inability to perform tasks...
July 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641332/executive-dysfunctions-predict-self-restricted-driving-habits-in-elderly-people-with-or-without-alzheimer-s-dementia
#17
Ilsemarie Kurzthaler, Georg Kemmler, Michaela Defrancesco, Bernadette Moser, Wolfgang W Fleischhacker, Elisabeth M Weiss
Introduction The purpose of this study was to elucidate the impact of specific cognitive functions on self-restricted driving habits in healthy elderly drivers and patients suffering from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Method Our study population included 35 cognitively healthy controls, 10 MCI patients, and 16 patients with AD. All participants completed a neuropsychological examination and a self-reported questionnaire assessing driving habits and patterns. Results In challenging driving conditions, patients with MCI or AD showed significantly more driving self-restriction than healthy subjects (effect size d=1...
June 22, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640487/a-qualitative-study-exploring-the-difficulties-influencing-decision-making-at-the-end-of-life-for-people-with-dementia
#18
Kethakie Lamahewa, Rammya Mathew, Steve Iliffe, Jane Wilcock, Jill Manthorpe, Elizabeth L Sampson, Nathan Davies
BACKGROUND: Dementia is a progressive neurodegenerative condition characterized by declining functional and cognitive abilities. The quality of end of life care for people with dementia in the UK can be poor. Several difficult decisions may arise at the end of life, relating to the care of the person with dementia, for example management of comorbidities. OBJECTIVE: To explore difficulties in decision making for practitioners and family carers at the end of life for people with dementia...
June 22, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640434/catechol-o-methyltransferase-genotype-and-gait-speed-changes-over-10-years-in-older-adults
#19
Andrea L Metti, Caterina Rosano, Robert Boudreau, Robyn Massa, Kristine Yaffe, Suzanne Satterfield, Tamara Harris, Andrea L Rosso
OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype and 6-m walk time and to determine whether these associations are quadratic in nature, similar to previously reported U-shaped associations between dopamine and gait and cognition. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. PARTICIPANTS: Black (n = 850) and white (n = 1,352) men and women with a mean age of 73...
June 22, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639877/mild-cognitive-impairment-and-changes-in-everyday-function-over-time-the-importance-of-evaluating-both-speed-and-accuracy
#20
Caroline L Lassen-Greene, Kayla Steward, Ozioma Okonkwo, Ellen Porter, Michael Crowe, David E Vance, H Randall Griffith, Karlene Ball, Daniel C Marson, Virginia G Wadley
OBJECTIVES: Research estimates that a significant percentage of individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) experience functional difficulties. In addition to reduced accuracy on measures of everyday function, cross-sectional research has demonstrated that speed of performing instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) is slowed in individuals with MCI. The present study investigated whether baseline and longitudinal changes in speed and accuracy of IADL performance differed between persons with MCI and cognitively normal peers...
July 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
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