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Behjatolah Monzavi-Karbassi, Fariba Jousheghany, Thomas Kieber-Emmons
Development of cancer vaccines targeting tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) is an alternative approach to chemotherapy with sustained anti-tumor effects. The success of active immunotherapy has been hampered by tumor-induced immune suppressors. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a population of immune suppressors with a proven role in regulating anti-tumor immune responses. Removing or subduing Tregs activity leads to more robust anti-tumor immune responses. Here, we used a cell-based vaccination strategy in the 4T1 murine mammary model to examine whether bulk removal of certain TAAs, using their glycan profile, can affect the immunogenicity of the vaccine...
October 19, 2016: Immunological Investigations
Sheryl A Kingsberg, Leonard Derogatis, James A Simon, Ginger D Constantine, Shelli Graham, Brian Bernick, Gina Gasper, Sebastian Mirkin
INTRODUCTION: TX-004HR is an investigational, applicator-free, vaginal soft gel capsule containing low-dose solubilized 17β-estradiol. The phase 3, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, multicenter REJOICE trial has shown TX-004HR to be safe and effective for the treatment of moderate to severe dyspareunia in postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA). AIM: To evaluate the effect of TX-004HR on female sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women with VVA...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Zaki Hakami, Satoshi Wakisaka
The development of submucosal glands of rat nasopharynx was studied with respect to their morphological maturation and glycoprotein alterations during the postnatal period. This study examined the histological morphology with hematoxylin-eosin and the binding pattern of lectins, soybean agglutinin (SBA), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I), peanut agglutinin (PNA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and succinylated WGA (sucWGA) on frozen sections from newborn into adulthood...
September 23, 2016: Acta Histochemica
Tiziana Pagano, Pasquale De Rosa, Roberta Vallone, Francesco Schettini, Grazia Arpino, Sabino De Placido, Giovanni Nazzaro, Mariavittoria Locci, Giuseppe De Placido
OBJECTIVES: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Hormonal treatment and chemotherapy induce a transient or permanent menopause status. Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) is a frequent debilitating symptom of menopause that is best treated with local or systemic estrogen formulations. Because estrogens drive the growth of the majority of breast cancers, most effective VVA therapies are precluded. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fractional microablative CO2 laser on sexual function and in relieving symptoms in women with breast cancer and VVA induced or exacerbated by iatrogenic menopause...
October 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Rossella E Nappi, Santiago Palacios, Martire Particco, Nick Panay
OBJECTIVES: To achieve a better comprehension of the variability of perceptions, experiences and needs in terms of sexual and vaginal health in postmenopausal women (PMW) from four different European countries. METHODS: An internet-based survey was conducted in Italy, Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom with a total surveyed population of 3768 PMW aged between 45 and 75 years. RESULTS: The UK sample was significantly older, with almost a quarter of participants over 65 years of age, and had the highest proportion of women experiencing recent vulvar and vaginal atrophy (52...
September 2016: Maturitas
Rossella E Nappi, Martire Particco, Nicoletta Biglia, Angelo Cagnacci, Costantino Di Carlo, Stefano Luisi, Anna Maria Paoletti
OBJECTIVES: To achieve a deeper understanding of the attitudes and perceptions of Italian post-menopausal women (PMW) regarding vulvo-vaginal atrophy (VVA). STUDY DESIGN: As part of the EU REVIVE study, an online survey was conducted in four European countries; the Italian arm comprised 1000 participants from representative regions of Italy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The perceptions, experiences and needs of Italian PMW in relation to sexual and vaginal health...
September 2016: Maturitas
A Perino, G Cucinella, G Gugliotta, S Saitta, S Polito, B Adile, R Marci, G Calagna
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of vaginal fractional CO2 laser treatment in the relief of Overactive Bladder (OAB) symptoms in post-menopausal women. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Post-menopausal women who complained of one or more symptoms related to vulvo-vaginal atrophy (VVA), who experienced symptoms of OAB and who underwent vaginal treatment with fractional CO2 laser were enrolled in the study. At baseline (T0) and 30 days post-treatment T1), vaginal status (using Vaginal Health Index - VHI), subjective intensity of VVA symptoms (using a visual analog scale - VAS) and micturition diary were evaluated...
June 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Carmen Mesas Burgos, Erik G Pearson, Marcus Davey, John Riley, Huimin Jia, Pablo Laje, Alan W Flake, William H Peranteau
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypoplasia and hypertension is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). The etiologic insult occurs early in gestation highlighting the potential of prenatal interventions. We evaluated prenatal pharmacologic therapies in the nitrofen CDH model. METHODS: Olive oil or nitrofen were administered alone or with dexamethasone (DM), sildenafil, or DM+sildenafil to pregnant rats. Newborn pups were assessed for lung function, structure and pulmonary artery (PA) flow and resistance...
October 2016: Pediatric Research
Nicole L Werner, Megan Coughlin, Elaine Cooley, Jonathan W Haft, Ronald B Hirschl, Robert H Bartlett, George B Mychaliska
The veno-venoarterial (VVA) mode of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is defined by having both venous and arterial reinfusion cannulas. It is purposed to improve upper body oxygenation as the venous reinfusion cannula is typically placed in the upper body. We performed a single-center retrospective review to better characterize the patients placed on this mode. Adults (n = 23) were 40.4 ± 14.7 years old and were supported with ECMO for a median of 141 (97, 253) hours, with VVA support 110 (63, 179) hours...
September 2016: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Ganglong Yang, Luyu Huang, Jiaxu Zhang, Hanjie Yu, Zheng Li, Feng Guan
Compartmentalization of cellular components and their associated biological processes is crucial for cellular function. Protein glycosylation provides a basis for diversity of protein functions. Diversity of glycan composition in animal cells remains poorly understood. We used differential centrifugation techniques to isolate four subcellular protein fractions from homogenate of metastatic bladder YTS1 cells, low grade nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer KK47 cells and normal bladder epithelia HCV29 cells: microsomal (Mic), mitochondrial (Mito), nuclear (Nuc), and cytosolic (Cyto)...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Brian J McMorran, Francis E McCarthy, Elizabeth M Gibbs, Mabel Pang, Jamie L Marshall, Alison V Nairn, Kelley W Moremen, Rachelle H Crosbie-Watson, Linda G Baum
The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is enriched with glycoproteins modified with N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) residues, and four nominally GalNAc-specific plant lectins have historically been used to identify the NMJ and the utrophin-glycoprotein complex (UGC). However, little is known about the specific glycan epitopes on skeletal muscle that are bound by these lectins, the glycoproteins that bear these epitopes, or how creation of these glycan epitopes is regulated. Here we profile changes in cell surface glycosylation during muscle cell differentiation, and identify distinct differences in the binding preferences of GalNAc specific lectins, Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA), Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA), soybean agglutinin (SBA), and Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA)...
May 28, 2016: Glycobiology
Joanie Mercier, Mélanie Morin, Marie-Claude Lemieux, Barbara Reichetzer, Samir Khalifé, Chantale Dumoulin
OBJECTIVE: Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA), caused by decreased levels of estrogen, is a common problem in aging women. Main symptoms of VVA are vaginal dryness and dyspareunia. First-line treatment consists of the application of local estrogen therapy (ET) or vaginal moisturizer. In some cases however, symptoms and signs persist despite those interventions. This case study describes a 77-year-old woman with severe VVA symptoms despite use of local ET and the addition of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) training to her treatment...
July 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Franco Vicariotto, Mauro Raichi
BACKGROUND: This paper was a spontaneous, non-sponsored exploratory study to investigate the safety and efficacy of two schedules of thermal treatment with a new low-energy dynamic quadripolar radiofrequency (DQRF) device in: A) premenopausal women referring perception of vaginal introital laxity and related symptoms, with special reference to dysuria and urinary incontinence and unsatisfactory sexual activity (vaginal laxity arm of the study); B) postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy and dryness and other vulvo-vaginal atrophy and genitourinary syndrome of menopause (VVA/GSM) related symptoms (VVA/GSM arm of the study)...
June 2016: Minerva Ginecologica
Rossella E Nappi, Nicoletta Biglia, Angelo Cagnacci, Costantino Di Carlo, Stefano Luisi, Anna Maria Paoletti
Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) is a chronic disorder that commonly occurs in postmenopausal women, whose symptoms are recognized among the most frequent and bothersome symptoms associated with menopause. The principal therapeutic goal in managing VVA is to relieve symptoms as well as to restore the vaginal environment to a healthy state. However, despite its high prevalence and negative impact on quality of life, VVA is underreported by women, underrecognized by gynecologists, and therefore, undertreated. In the light of the new development of treatment options for VVA, we here provide an updated expert opinion on the management of VVA...
May 17, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Annalisa Pieralli, Maria Grazia Fallani, Angelamaria Becorpi, Claudia Bianchi, Serena Corioni, Manuela Longinotti, Zelinda Tredici, Secondo Guaschino
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of fractional CO2 laser therapy in breast cancer survivors as a therapeutic method for vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) dyspareunia. METHODS: 50 patients (mean age 53.3 years) underwent fractional microablative CO2 laser treatment for dyspareunia in oncological menopause (mean time of menopause 6.6 years). The Gloria Bachmann's Vaginal Health Index (VHI) score was chosen as system to evaluate the presence of VVA and its improvement after the treatment...
October 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Jaeyoun Kang, Changnam Park, Yeounghwan Jang, Meejung Ahn, Taekyun Shin
The localization of carbohydrate terminals in Kudoa septempunctata ST3-infected muscle of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was investigated using lectin histochemistry to determine the types of carbohydrate sugar residues expressed in Kudoa spores. Twenty-one lectins were examined, i.e., N-acetylglucosamine (s-WGA, WGA, DSL-II, DSL, LEL, STL), mannose (Con A, LCA, PSA), galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (RCA12, BSL-I, VVA, DBA, SBA, SJA, Jacalin, PNA, ECL), complex type N-glycans (PHA-E and PHA-L), and fucose (UEA-I)...
2016: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
R E Nappi, M L Krychman
Vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA) is a common complaint in postmenopausal women and consists of a variety of symptoms and strong repercussions that negatively affect comfort during sexual activity and ultimately impact quality of life. The EU and US REVIVE surveys have detected significant barriers in health-care professional management and educational programs that prevent correct diagnosis and effective treatment. This was common in both Europe and the US, but differential behaviors and patterns could be detected after reviewing the published results...
June 2016: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
Céline Martel, Fernand Labrie, David F Archer, Yuyong Ke, Renaud Gonthier, Jean-Nicolas Simard, Lyne Lavoie, Mario Vaillancourt, Marlene Montesino, John Balser, Érick Moyneur
This study integrates all data obtained in women aged 40-80years enrolled with moderate to severe symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) who received daily intravaginal administration of 0.50% (6.5mg) dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA; prasterone) for 12weeks (n=723; ITT-S population) as compared with placebo (n=266; ITT-S population). To this end, serum steroid levels (DHEA, DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S), androst-5-ene-3β, 17β-diol (5-diol), testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androstenedione (4-dione), estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estrone sulfate (E1-S), androsterone glucuronide (ADT-G), and androstane-3α, 17β-diol 17-glucuronide (3α-diol-17G)) were measured at Day 1 and Week 12 by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) following validation performed according to the FDA guidelines [1-6]...
May 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Nanette Santoro, Roisin Worsley, Karen K Miller, Sharon J Parish, Susan R Davis
INTRODUCTION: Sex steroids are important in female sexual function and dysfunction. AIM: To review the role of estrogens in the physiology and pathophysiology of female sexual functioning and the evidence for efficacy of estrogen therapy for female sexual dysfunction to update the previously published International Society of Sexual Medicine Consensus on this topic. METHODS: Panel members reviewed the published literature using online databases for studies pertaining to estrogen in female sexual function and dysfunction...
March 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
James H Pickar, Julia M Amadio, John M Hill, Brian A Bernick, Sebastian Mirkin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of vaginal estradiol (E2) softgel capsules for moderate-to-severe symptoms of vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA). Previous phase 1 studies showed lower systemic estrogen concentrations with this softgel capsule compared with an approved low-dose vaginal E2 tablet. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 study, 50 postmenopausal women (aged 40-75 y) with at least1 moderate-to-severe VVA symptom received 10 μg vaginal E2 softgel capsules or placebo daily for 14 days...
May 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
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