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Healthcare worker immunizations

Suvaporn Anugulruengkitt, Thanyawee Puthanakit, Sompis Siengboon, Leilani Paitoonpong, Ekasit Kowitdamrong, Chitsanu Pancharoen, Yuwaree Pichitchok
This study aimed to determine the proportion of varicella non-immune pediatric healthcare workers (HCWs) of Pediatrics Department, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital and to determine cost effective strategies to identify non-immune personnel. A cross-sectional study, using a self-administered questionnaire to determine history of chickenpox or 2-dose varicella vaccination was conducted. From a total of 699 HCWs, 653 HCWs (93%) including 145 physicians (22%), 297 nurses (46%) and 211 administrative staff (32%) responded to questionnaires...
August 31, 2016: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Maryam Dafei, Shiv K Sarin, Anjur T Kannan, Kamal Agrawal, Suneela Garg, Kieert Agrawal, Ali Dehghani
BACKGROUND & AIM: Occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens, mainly human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV), poses a serious risk to healthcare workers (HCWs), especially in developing countries, due to the high prevalence of these pathogens and fewer safety precautions. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV infections and to measure the vaccination practices in HCWs at three tertiary care hospitals in Delhi, India...
2016: Global Journal of Health Science
Nourhan H AbdelAllah, Nourtan F Abdeltawab, Abeer A Boseila, Magdy A Amin
Hepatitis B viral (HBV) infections represent major public health problem and are an occupational hazard for healthcare workers. Current alum-adjuvanted HBV vaccine is the most effective measure to prevent HBV infection. However, the vaccine has some limitations including poor response in some vaccinee and being a frost-sensitive suspension. The goal of our study was to use an alternative natural adjuvant system strongly immunogenic allowing for a reduction in dose and cost. We tested HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) adjuvanted with chitosan (Ch) and sodium alginate (S), both natural adjuvants, either alone or combined with alum in mouse model...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Bronwyne Coetzee, Ashraf Kagee, Ruth Bland
For children younger than five years, caregivers are responsible for the measurement and administration of antiretroviral medication doses to children. Failure to adhere to the regimen as prescribed may lead to high viral loads (VLs), immune suppression and ultimately drug resistance. In the content of this study, adherence refers to adequate dosing of the medication by a caregiver. Acquired drug resistance to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is prevalent amongst children in South Africa, and poor adherence to the dosing regimen by caregivers may be associated with this problem...
March 2016: AIDS Care
Marco Bo, Carla Maria Zotti
National recommendations regarding the immunization of healthcare workers (HCWs) against tuberculosis differ throughout Europe. We searched multiple sources to identify legal acts, guidelines or papers addressing European national policies on BCG immunization for HCWs. For each policy, we reviewed the criteria used to recommend immunization, their level of evidence, the evidence supporting them and the actions required in cases of refusal. Four legal acts, 15 policies and six papers from 14 European countries met the inclusion criteria...
July 7, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Shireen A Samargandy, Lujain M Bukhari, Shaza A Samargandy, Rawiah S Bahlas, Eman K Aldigs, Maha A Alawi, Nabeela A Al-Abdullah, Tariq A Madani
OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiological characteristics, clinical impact, and adequacy of post-exposure management of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids (BBFs).  METHODS: Retrospective chart review of individuals reporting exposure to BBFs from 2007 to 2013 at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  RESULTS: The total number of exposures reported was 326 exposures, of which 302 (92.6%) exposures were percutaneous, 21 (6...
July 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
Zhengyi Zhang, Yuan Zhao, Lili Yang, Changhong Lu, Ying Meng, Xiaoli Guan, Hongjin An, Meizhong Zhang, Wenqin Guo, Bo Shang, Jing Yu
Measles is caused by measles virus belonging to genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Vaccination has played a critical role in controlling measles infection worldwide. However, in the recent years, outbreaks of measles infection still occur in many developing countries. Here, we report an outbreak of measles among healthcare workers and among the 60 measles infected patients 50 were healthcare workers including doctors, nurses, staff, and medics. Fifty-one patients (85%) tested positive for IgM antibodies against the measles virus and 50 patients (83...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Tsakani H Sondlane, Lesego Mawela, Lufuno L Razwiedani, Selokela G Selabe, Ramokone L Lebelo, J Nare Rakgole, M Jeffrey Mphahlele, Carine Dochez, Antoon De Schryver, Rosemary J Burnett
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B (HB) is a vaccine-preventable liver disease caused by infection with the blood-borne hepatitis B virus (HBV). South African healthcare workers (HCWs) may be at high risk of occupational exposure to HBV infection, since previous studies have found suboptimal levels of protection against HBV in HCWs. METHODS: A descriptive prevalence study based on self-administered questionnaires with data on demographics and HB vaccination status, and stored serum samples collected from 2009 to 2012, from 333 HCWs working or studying in Gauteng and Mpumalanga province hospitals or nursing colleges, was conducted...
July 19, 2016: Vaccine
A Banaszkiewicz, E Talarek, J Śliwka, F Kazubski, I Małecka, J Stryczyńska-Kazubska, W Dziubak, E Kuchar
In Poland, influenza vaccination coverage among both the general population and healthcare workers is low. The aim of the study was to evaluate attitudes towards influenza vaccination among final-year medical students compared with first-year students at medical schools in Poland. Students were asked about the last season's influenza vaccination and what the reasons were for having, or not having, the vaccination. The knowledge of influenza was assessed using a 10-point visual analog scale. The study group consisted of 712 medical students, 404 in the first year and 308 in the final year (35 % and 31 % of all students in those years, respectively)...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Xiupeng Wang, Xia Li, Kazuko Yoshiyuki, Yohei Watanabe, Yu Sogo, Tadao Ohno, Noriko M Tsuji, Atsuo Ito
A plain mesoporous silica (MS) nanoparticle without any immunomodulatory molecules enhances anti-cancer immunity in vivo. On page 1169, X.P. Wang, N. M. Tsuji, A. Ito and co-workers show that a plain MS nanoparticle promotes both Th1 and Th2 immune responses, and enhances the effector memory of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell populations in the three most important immune organs (bone marrow, lymph node and spleen) of mice.
May 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Alba María Ropero-Álvarez, Nathalie El Omeiri, Hannah Jane Kurtis, M Carolina Danovaro-Holliday, Cuauhtémoc Ruiz-Matus
BACKGROUND: There has been considerable uptake of seasonal influenza vaccines in the Americas compared to other regions. We describe the current influenza vaccination target groups, recent progress in vaccine uptake and in generating evidence on influenza seasonality and vaccine effectiveness for immunization programs. We also discuss persistent challenges, 5 years after the A(H1N1) 2009 influenza pandemic. METHODS: We compiled and summarized data annually reported by countries to the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) through the WHO/UNICEF joint report form on immunization, information obtained through PAHO's Revolving Fund for Vaccine Procurement and communications with managers of national Expanded Programs on Immunization (EPI)...
May 19, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Sayed F Abdelwahab
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) causes chronic infection and represents a global health burden. To date, there is no licensed vaccine for HCV. The high viral replication rate and the existence of several HCV genotypes and quasispecies hamper the development of an effective universal vaccine. In this regard, the current HCV vaccine candidates show genotype-specific protection or narrow cross reactivity against other genotypes. Importantly, HCV spontaneous clearance occurs in 15-50 % of infected subjects, indicating that natural resistance to chronic infection exists...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Paul Loubet, Pierre Loulergue, Florence Galtier, Odile Launay
INTRODUCTION: Adults at a high risk of severe influenza, because of their age and/or underlying health disorders, should receive seasonal influenza vaccination in order to reduce the incidence of severe illness and premature death. However, because current influenza vaccines are perceived to have suboptimal efficacy, vaccine coverage is below the recommended level in this population. AREAS COVERED: This review examines, for each high-risk group, available data on influenza infection, vaccine efficacy and safety, and vaccine coverage...
May 27, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
Farahnaz Joukar, Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei, Mohammad-Reza Naghipour, Mehrnaz Asgharnezhad
BACKGROUND: Recommendations to immunize healthcare workers (HCWs) against hepatitis B are well known. However, a proportion of individuals do not respond to the primary standard three-dose HB vaccination schedule. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to evaluate whether a double-dose HB booster vaccine could induce better protective anti-HB titers than a single-dose booster in non-protected HCWs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a randomized clinical trial...
February 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
Susanna Esposito, Paolo Bonanni, Stefania Maggi, Litjan Tan, Filippo Ansaldi, Pier Luigi Lopalco, Ron Dagan, Jean-Pierre Michel, Pierre van Damme, Jacques Gaillat, Roman Prymula, Timo Vesikari, Cristina Mussini, Uwe Frank, Albert Osterhaus, Lucia Pastore Celentano, Marta Rossi, Valentina Guercio, Gaetan Gavazzi
Rapid population aging has become a major challenge in the industrialized world and progressive aging is a key reason for making improvement in vaccination a cornerstone of public health strategy. An increase in age-related disorders and conditions is likely to be seen in the near future, and these are risk factors for the occurrence of a number of vaccine-preventable diseases. An improvement in infectious diseases prevention specifically aimed at adults and the elderly can therefore also decrease the burden of these chronic conditions by reducing morbidity, disability, hospital admissions, health costs, mortality rates and, perhaps most importantly, by improving the quality of life...
July 2, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Arne von Delft, Angela Dramowski, Zolelwa Sifumba, Thato Mosidi, Tiong Xun Ting, Dalene von Delft, Alimuddin Zumla
"Occupational MDR-TB"  …  "XDR-TB"  …  "Treatment-induced hearing loss": 3 life-changing messages imparted over the phone. Three personal accounts are shared highlighting the false belief held by many healthcare workers (HCWs) and students in low-resource settings-that they are immune to tuberculosis despite high levels of occupational tuberculosis exposure. This misconception reflects a lack of awareness of tuberculosis transmission and disease risk, compounded by the absence of accurate occupational tuberculosis estimates...
May 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Milena Suska, Sławomir Lewicki, Anna Kiepura, Izabela Winnicka, Paweł Leszczyński, Agata Bielawska-Drózd, Piotr Cieślik, Leszek Kubiak, Daria Depczyńska, Aleksandra Brewczyńska, Ewa Skopińska-Różewska, Janusz Kocik
The aim of the present study was the assessment of the putative influence of yeast and filamentous fungi in healthcare and control (office) workplaces (10 of each kind) on immune system competence measured by NK (natural killer), CD4(+), and NKT (natural killer T lymphocyte) cell levels in the blood of the personnel employed at these workplaces. Imprints from floors and walls were collected in winter. The blood was taken in spring the following year, from 40 men, 26 to 53 years old, healthcare workers of hospital emergency departments (HED), who had been working for at least five years in their current positions, and from 36 corresponding controls, working in control offices...
2016: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Pamela K Strohfus, Sharon R Brown, Paige Potratz
AIM: The SHOT LINE Telephone Assistance Resource provides consistent and timely education to healthcare providers ensuring safe delivery of immunizations. BACKGROUND: A local health district created and implemented an advice line to assist healthcare personnel with immunization storage or administration questions. Healthcare workers with varying levels of education call with requests for information including vaccine administration, storage and handling, scheduling, contraindications, and timing...
September 2016: International Journal of Evidence-based Healthcare
Zohreh Borzooy, Adrian Streinu-Cercel, Abbass Mirshafiey, Azam Khamseh, Masoud Karkhaneh Mahmoudie, Shadi Sadat Navabi, Marjan Nosrati, Zahra Najafi, Mostafa Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Jazayeri
BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers constitute a population at high risk for HBV infection. Efficient vaccination options are available; however, the individual response to HBV vaccination may vary widely between subjects, potentially due to cytokine profiles and genetic variations. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between IL-17 and IL-22 gene polymorphisms versus non- and low-responsiveness to HBV vaccination in healthcare workers. METHODS: We selected the following IL-17 and IL-22 polymorphisms: rs4711998 (A/G) from IL-17 and rs2227501 (A/T), rs2227503 (A/G), rs1026786 (A/G) from IL-22 sequences genes...
March 2016: Germs
P A C Maple, J Haedicke, M Quinlivan, S P Steinberg, A A Gershon, K E Brown, J Breuer
Healthcare workers (HCWs) reporting no history of varicella frequently receive varicella vaccination (vOka) if they test varicella-zoster virus (VZV) immunoglobulin G (IgG) negative. In this study, the utilities of VZV-IgG time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (VZV-TRFIA) and a commercial VZV-IgG purified glycoprotein enzyme immunoassay (gpEIA) currently used in England for confirming VZV immunity have been compared to the fluorescent-antibody-to-membrane-antigen assay (FAMA). A total of 110 HCWs received two doses of vOka vaccine spaced 6 weeks apart and sera collected pre-vaccination (n = 100), at 6 weeks post-completion of vaccination (n = 86) and at 12-18 months follow-up (n = 73) were analysed...
August 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
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