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miller fisher syndrome and myasthenia gravis

Junliang Yuan, Juan Zhang, Bingwei Zhang, Wenli Hu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate all the coincidence cases of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and myasthenia gravis (MG). METHODS: We performed web-based research of the overlapping incidence of GBS and MG in studies occurring from 1982 to 2016 and restricted to the English language. RESULTS: Among 15 cases, an elevated CSF protein level without pleocytosis was found in 10 cases (66.7%); reduced nerve conduction was found in 13 cases (86.6%); a positive repetitive nerve stimulation test occurred in 11 cases (73...
January 2018: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
Yuji Tanaka, Kazuo Satomi
In this case report, we describe a patient with myasthenia gravis (MG) and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) overlap. A 69-year-old woman presented with acute bilateral ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, ataxic gait, and areflexia. The MFS diagnosis was confirmed with by a positive anti-GQ1b IgG antibody test result. MG was diagnosed from electrophysiological, edrophonium, and serological test results. Although intravenous immunoglobulin therapy is effective for both diseases, two courses of the therapy did not improve the patient's symptoms...
2016: Internal Medicine
Ana V Nikolić, Dragana V Lavrnić, Ivana Z Basta, Dimitrije M Nikolić, Slobodan A Apostolski
INTRODUCTION: Childhood onset myasthenia gravis associated with anti-muscle-specific tyrosine kinase antibodies is very rare and atypical in presentation. CASE REPORT: As a baby, the pre- sented patient was choking and sleeping with open eyes. She had weak cry and breathing difficulties. In childhood, there were fre- quent falls and fluctuating swallowing difficulties. At the age of 19 she was misdiagnosed with Miller Fisher syndrome due to the presence of diplopia, ataxia and hyporeflexia with spontaneous recovery...
July 2015: Vojnosanitetski Pregled. Military-medical and Pharmaceutical Review
Christian Ritter, Ilja Bobylev, Helmar C Lehmann
BACKGROUND: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is an effective treatment in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). In most patients, the optimal IVIg dose and regime is unknown. Polyvalent immunoglobulin (Ig) G form idiotypic/anti-idiotypic antibody pairs in serum and IVIg preparations. We determined IgG dimer levels before and after IVIg treatment in CIDP patients with the aim to explore their utility to serve as a surrogate marker for treatment response. METHODS: IgG was purified from serum of five controls without treatment, as well as from serum of 16 CIDP patients, two patients with Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS), and one patient with myasthenia gravis before and after treatment with IVIg...
August 14, 2015: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Benjamin R Wakerley, Nobuhiro Yuki
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and its variant, Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) have several subtypes, together forming a continuous spectrum of discrete and overlapping syndromes. Such is the heterogeneity within this spectrum that many physicians may be surprised to learn that these disorders are related pathophysiologically, and therefore share certain clinical features. These include history of antecedent infection, monophasic disease course and symmetrical cranial or limb weakness. The presence of cerebrospinal fluid albuminocytological dissociation (raised protein, normal cell count), antiganglioside antibodies and neurophysiological evidence of axonal or demyelinating neuropathy also support a diagnosis in many cases, but should not be relied upon...
April 2015: Practical Neurology
Daniel John Hall, Talal Bazaraa
We describe the case of an 85-year-old gentleman admitted with bilateral ptosis and complete bilateral ocular paralysis. Initial differential diagnoses included myasthenia gravis, diabetic cranial neuropathy, an ischaemic event and possible occult neoplasm. Investigations did not support any of the differentials and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) was considered. Anti-GQ1b IgG antibody was positive, supporting the possibility of anti-ganglioside syndrome. This gentleman was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and made a full recovery...
January 2014: Age and Ageing
Renata Piusińska-Macoch
Medications with TNF-alpha inhibitors family are successfully applicable in rheumatology, gastroenterology, dermatology and neurology. Still, the ongoing research on the safety assessment of their application, also due to neurological complications. The vast majority of these complications is associated with an increased risk of serious virus (Herpes simplex--JC) and bacterial (Listeria monocytogenes) neuroinfections. They can cause the occurrence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy--PML with a severe clinical course and poor prognosis or herpes simplex encephalitis--HSE...
May 2013: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Scott A Anthony, Matthew J Thurtell, R John Leigh
PURPOSE.: Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) is a rare immune-mediated neuropathy that commonly presents with diplopia after the acute onset of complete bilateral external ophthalmoplegia. Ophthalmoplegia is often accompanied by other neurological deficits such as ataxia and areflexia that characterize MFS. Although MFS is a clinical diagnosis, serological confirmation is possible by identifying the anti-GQ1b antibody found in most of the affected patients. We report a patient with MFS who presented with clinical signs suggestive of ocular myasthenia gravis but in whom the correct diagnosis was made on the basis of serological testing for the anti-GQ1b antibody...
December 2012: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
H S Patwa, V Chaudhry, H Katzberg, A D Rae-Grant, Y T So
OBJECTIVE: To assess the evidence for the efficacy of IV immunoglobulin (IVIg) to treat neuromuscular disorders. METHODS: The MEDLINE, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases were searched (1966-2009). Selected articles were rated according to the American Academy of Neurology's therapeutic classification of evidence scheme; recommendations were based on the evidence level. RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: IVIg is as efficacious as plasmapheresis and should be offered for treating Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in adults (Level A)...
March 27, 2012: Neurology
Manoj Kumar Mittal, Richard J Barohn, Mamatha Pasnoor, April McVey, Laura Herbelin, Thomas Whittaker, Mazen Dimachkie
OBJECTIVE: The frequency of ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG) in patients referred to an academic neuro-ophthalmology clinic for suspected myasthenia gravis is not known. Our objective was to determine the frequency of ocular OMG in patients referred to an academic neuro-ophthalmologist and determine alternate diagnoses and response to therapy. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients presenting to the University of Kansas Neuro-Ophthalmology Clinic with suspected OMG over 9 years...
September 2011: Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease
Maria Elena Farrugia, Angela Vincent
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the recent advances on pathogenesis of antibody-mediated disorders of the neuromuscular junction, and results of studies on clinical assessment and treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of myasthenia gravis, particularly in patients older than 50 years, is rising, and this is not solely due to improved disease recognition. It is uncertain how muscle specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) antibody positive myasthenia gravis results in neuromuscular transmission failure since MuSK antibodies alter neuromuscular junction morphology without altering acetylcholine receptor numbers or turnover...
October 2010: Current Opinion in Neurology
Kwok Kwong Lau, Khean Jin Goh, Han Chih Hencher Lee, Yuk Tat Eric Chan, Chong Tin Tan
The co-occurrence of myasthenia gravis (MG) and Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS) is uncommon with a few reported cases in the literature. There is only one reported case of MG and Miller Fisher variant of GBS. We described an 84 year old Chinese woman with underlying seropositive myasthenia gravis (MG) who presented with ophthalmoplegia, areflexia and acute neuromuscular weakness. She was proved to have co-occurrence of MG and GBS/Miller Fisher overlap syndrome with positive anti-GQ1b antibody. The unusual finding in this patient raises an interesting question on their pathogenesis with the possibility that prior activation of the immune system may predispose the development of autoantibodies against other antigens within the same set of muscles...
January 15, 2009: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
M P Silverstein, S Zimnowodzki, J C Rucker
The Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) is a variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome with the clinical triad of areflexia, ataxia, and ophthalmoparesis. The classic pathologic mechanism of disease is considered to be peripheral nerve demyelination. We present a patient with binocular diplopia and a diagnosis of myasthenia gravis from 15 years prior. Electrophysiologic studies revealed a decremental response on repetitive nerve stimulation, suggesting recurrent myasthenia. However, pupillary light-near dissociation and areflexia were present and positive anti-GQ1b antibodies confirmed MFS...
May 2008: Seminars in Ophthalmology
W Mak, K H Chan, S L Ho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2005: Hospital Medicine
Keiko Tanaka
Significance of autoantibodies in neurological diseases is roughly grouped into three, as 1) disease process is thought to be directly caused by the antibodies because the antibody can reproduce the disease process, like anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody in myasthenia gravis, anti-P/Q type voltage-gated calcium channel antibody in Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, etc., 2) antibodies are thought to be closely related to the disease because plasma exchange ameliorate the disease promptly, however without success of transfer experiments, like Guillain-Barré syndrome/Miller Fisher syndrome and anti-ganglioside antibodies and 3) antibodies are very specific and become the useful markers for the diagnosis, however without direct evidence of disease transfer, like paraneoplastic neurological syndromes and anti-Yo or Hu antibodies...
November 2004: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Rahman Pourmand
Recent advances in neuroimmunology have led to improvements in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of many neuromuscular disorders. The value of autoantibody testing is increasing steadily in neurologic practice. Not all antibodies have a high yield in diagnosis. In some disorders, such as generalized adult onset of myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome,Miller Fisher syndrome, and multifocal motor neuropathy,autoantibody tests provide accurate diagnosis and can be considered biologic markers of these disorders...
August 2004: Neurologic Clinics
Yoshiyuki Kuroiwa, Hiroyuki Toda
This paper reviews a variety of abnormal eye movements which include abnormal ocular positions, restricted eye motions, impairment of conjugated eye movements, abnormal smooth pursuit, abnormal saccade, gaze-evoked nystagmus, down-beat nystagmus, internuclear ophthalmoplegia, supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, square wave jerks, roving eye movement, ocular bobbing, ocular dipping, reverse ocular bobbing, and ping-pong gaze. Abnormal eye movements occur from stroke, spinocerebellar degeneration, Parkinson disease, multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple sclerosis, Miller Fisher syndrome, myasthenia gravis, opsoclonus-polymyoclonia syndrome, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease...
November 2003: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Matthias Wittstock, Reiner Benecke, Uwe K Zettl
Therapy with intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) is thought to be a safe treatment for a number of immune-mediated neurological diseases. Published data about prevalence of adverse effects range from 11 to 81%. The purpose of our study was to present a representative view on adverse effects by analysis of a large cohort of patients treated by IVIG. In a prospective study, we analysed 117 patients (age 17-79 years) who were treated with IVIG for various neurological diseases including chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, diabetic amyotrophy, inclusion body myositis, multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Miller-Fisher syndrome, multifocal motor neuropathy, myasthenia gravis and polymyositis...
2003: European Neurology
H Goto, H Matsuo, S Nakane, H Izumoto, T Fukudome, C Kambara, N Shibuya
Plasmapheresis not only removes humoral factors, but may also modulate cellular immunity. We investigated whether plasmapheresis influenced T helper type-1/T helper type-2 (Th1/Th2) cytokine-producing-cell balance in 3 patients with neuroimmunological disease. The production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and IL-4 in the culture supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated by anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 was assayed. In 2 of 3 patients, plasmapheresis (immunoadsorption or plasma exchange) reduced Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio...
December 2001: Therapeutic Apheresis
H R Jones
An acute flaccid paraparesis or ascending quadriparesis in an infant or child constitutes a very important pediatric neurology emergency. The Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is the most frequent cause. This is primarily an autoimmune, post-infectious, demyelinating, peripheral nervous system process. A small percentage of children develop a primary axonal process not unlike that identified more commonly in China. Because of the potential for acute respiratory compromise, any child suspected of having GBS needs immediate hospitalization...
June 2000: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
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