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Lisa M Ebert, Wenbo Yu, Tessa Gargett, Michael P Brown
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy has been clinically validated as a curative treatment for the difficult to treat malignancies of relapsed/refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and lymphoma. Here, the CAR-T cells are re-directed towards a single antigen, CD19, which is recognised as a virtually ideal CAR target antigen because it has strong, uniform expression on cancer cells, and is otherwise expressed only on healthy B cells, which are 'dispensable'. Notwithstanding the clinical success of CD19-CAR-T cell therapy, its single specificity has driven therapeutic resistance in 30% or more of cases with CD19-negative leukaemic relapses...
March 14, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
Leandro Ferreira Moreno, Vania Aparecida Vicente, Sybren de Hoog
Black yeasts (BY) comprise a group of polyextremotolerant fungi, mainly belonging to the order Chaetothyriales, which are capable of colonizing a wide range of extreme environments. The tolerance to hostile habitats can be explained by their intrinsic ability to survive under acidic, alkaline, and toxic conditions, high temperature, low nutrient availability, and osmotic and mechanical stress. Occasionally, some species can cause human chromoblastomycosis, a chronic subcutaneous infection, as well as disseminated or cerebral phaeohyphomycosis...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Sümeyra Tosun, Nafiseh Faghihi, Jyotsna Vaid
To explore lay conceptions of characteristics of an ideal sense of humor as embodied in a known individual, our study examined elicited written narratives by male and female participants from three different countries of origin: United States, Iran, and Turkey. As reported in an earlier previous study with United States-based participants (Crawford and Gressley, 1991), our study also found that the embodiment of an ideal sense of humor was predominantly a male figure. This effect was more pronounced for male than for female participants but did not differ by country...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Richard J Napier, Brendan J Gallagher, Darrin S Wilson
Background: The 1994 Northern Ireland ceasefire heralded a new beginning for the region after 30-years of violence. In the 20-years following the cessation of hostilities, paramilitary punishment attacks continue to occur in breach of the ceasefire. The aim of this study was to review trends in these attacks over the 20-years and their impact on orthopaedic services. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of patients admitted under orthopaedic services following paramilitary assault across Northern Ireland over the last 20-years...
May 2017: Ulster Medical Journal
Jenny M Cundiff, Karen A Matthews
In adults, greater social integration is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. Social integration earlier in life may be similarly associated with cardiovascular risk. Using a longitudinal sample of 267 Black and White men, we examined whether greater social integration with peers during childhood and adolescence, assessed by parent report, prospectively predicts lower blood pressure and body mass index two decades later in adulthood and whether these effects differ by race, given well-documented racial disparities in hypertension...
March 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Cristina Guerrero Rodríguez, Francisco Palmero Cantero, Consuelo Gómez-Íñiguez
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the importance of the combination of the hostility and defensiveness variables as psychosocial factors that predict the risk of cardiovascular dysfunction. We examined the impact of a stressful situation on blood pressure responses, using a continuous psychophysiological assessment approach. DESIGN: We measured the evolution of these responses over three experimental phases (adaptation, task and recovery), also considering a minute-by-minute analysis within each phase...
March 13, 2018: Psychology & Health
Divya Arora, Yogesh Chawla, Basanti Malakar, Archana Singh, Vinay Kumar Nandicoori
The cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a complex structure that protects the pathogen in hostile environments. Peptidoglycan (PG), which helps determine the morphology of the cell envelope, undergoes substantial remodeling under stress. This meshwork of linear chains of sugars, crosslinked through attached peptides, is generated through the sequential action of enzymes termed transglycosylases and transpeptidases. The Mtb genome encodes two classical transglycosylases and four transpeptidases, the functions of which are not fully elucidated...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Hillary L Smith, Kirsten H Dillon, Jesse R Cougle
Interpretation Bias Modification (IBM) is gaining attention in the literature as an intervention that alters cognitive biases and reduces associated symptoms. Forty, primarily college-aged, non-treatment-seeking adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) were randomly assigned to receive either IBM targeting hostile interpretation bias (IBM-H) or a healthy video control (HVC) condition. Compared to those in HVC, participants in IBM-H reported more benign interpretations and fewer hostile interpretations at posttreatment...
March 2018: Behavior Therapy
Johanna Hepp, Sean P Lane, Andrea M Wycoff, Ryan W Carpenter, Timothy J Trull
Affective instability and interpersonal stress are key features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). They were shown to covary in the daily lives of patients in a recent ambulatory assessment study (Hepp et al., 2017) that observed comparatively larger positive associations between interpersonal stressors and negative affect in individuals with BPD than those with depressive disorders. The present study sought to replicate these findings, collecting data on hostility, sadness, fear, and rejection or disagreement events from 56 BPD and 60 community control participants for 21 days, 6 times a day...
February 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Michele Cascardi, Megan Chesin, Molly Kammen
Perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) represent a heterogeneous group who engage in a variety of aggressive acts which often co-occur. However, few studies take this co-occurrence into consideration. Failure to consider overlapping forms of IPV confounds understanding of risk factors for physical IPV, which in turn undermines identification, prevention, and intervention efforts. Though rarely studied in emerging adults, personality variables have recently been identified as important correlates of IPV...
March 12, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Helen A Thomason, Jodie M Lovett, Carla J Spina, Christian Stephenson, Andrew J McBain, Matthew J Hardman
Chronic wounds often exist in a heightened state of inflammation whereby excessive inflammatory cells release high levels of proteases and reactive oxygen species (ROS). While low levels of ROS play a fundamental role in the regulation of normal wound healing, their levels need to be tightly regulated to prevent a hostile wound environment resulting from excessive levels of ROS. Infection amplifies the inflammatory response, augmenting levels of ROS which creates additional tissue damage that supports microbial growth...
March 12, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
Stephanie M Merwin, Chelsey Barrios, Victoria C Smith, Edward P Lemay, Lea R Dougherty
This study examined the impact of parent-child attunement of morning cortisol on parenting and child outcomes in dyads with and without parental depression. Participants included 142 parent-child dyads (3-5 years-old) who provided morning cortisol samples at Wave 1, and 98 dyads returned for the 3-year follow-up at Wave 2. Results indicated that for parents with a history of depression and for female children, stronger attunement predicted increases in parental hostility from Wave 1 to Wave 2. For females only, stronger attunement was related to children's depressive symptoms at Wave 1 and Wave 2...
March 12, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Angelina R Sutin, Yannick Stephan, Antonio Terracciano
This research examines whether parental educational attainment and subjective childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with adult offspring well-being and self-beliefs (broadly defined). Participants from the Health and Retirement Study were included if they completed the leave-behind questionnaire in 2006 or 2008 ( N =10,827; M age =68.38; SD =9.81; range=50-101). Participants reported on their own and both parents educational attainment, subjective childhood financial situation, and financial difficulties in childhood at study entry and on well-being in 2006/2008...
July 1, 2018: Personality and Individual Differences
Katie A O'Brien, Ross D Pollock, Mike Stroud, Rob J Lambert, Alex Kumar, Robert A Atkinson, David A Green, Ana Anton-Solanas, Lindsay M Edwards, Steve D R Harridge
An insufficient supply of oxygen to the tissues (hypoxia), as is experienced upon high-altitude exposure, elicits physiological acclimatization mechanisms alongside metabolic remodeling. Details of the integrative adaptive processes in response to chronic hypobaric hypoxic exposure remain to be sufficiently investigated. In this small applied field study, subjects (n = 5, male, age 28-54 years) undertook a 40 week Antarctica expedition in the winter months, which included 24 weeks residing above 2500 m...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
B Cowie, L Baker, B Shoghi, M Worner, D Scott
Electrocardiogram (ECG) false alarms are common in electrically-hostile peri-operative environments. Newer integrated monitoring, with sophisticated hardware and software, has the potential to minimise artefacts. However, monitoring issues continue to occur, with the potential for critical incidents and unnecessary and harmful interventions. We describe the root cause analysis of a series of apparent ECG flatline asystolic events that appeared in the operating room shortly after the introduction of new intra-operative monitoring systems...
March 9, 2018: Anaesthesia
Sofia Persson, Katie Dhingra, Sarah Grogan
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: are to, on a sample of nurses and the general public, examine whether victim blame varies according to level of familiarly between victim and perpetrator. It also examines how Ambivalent Sexism (AS) and Rape Myth Acceptance (RMA) impacts on this. BACKGROUND: Around one in five women will be victims of sexual assault during their lifetime. The majority are acquaintance rapes, and these victims are generally attributed more blame than victims of stranger rape...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Kari N Duerksen, Karen L Lawson
OBJECTIVE: The present study explores the content of abortion provider stigma. BACKGROUND: Abortion stigma extends beyond women who have abortions to abortion providers. Previous analyses of anti-abortion bills and rhetoric have revealed stereotypes of abortion providers as dangerous and less trustworthy than other health professionals. METHODS: We present a thematic analysis of one-on-one interviews about attitudes toward abortion providers with Canadian individuals (N = 21) holding an anti-abortion stance...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Abhishek Mishra
Background: The genus Mycobacterium has an ability to persist in hostile environments for years before its reactivation in favorable conditions. The major bottleneck in decades of mycobacterial research is a poor understanding of molecular mechanism which assists bacteria to attain dormancy and reactivation later. Methods: In this study, hydroxyl radical was quantified in aerobically growing mycobacterial cells using 2-deoxy-D-ribose assay. Furthermore, extraneous addition of hydroxyl radical in Wayne's dormancy model induced reactivation of dormant cells...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Isaac P Thomsen, George Y Liu
The emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus during the past decade along with an impending shortage of effective antistaphylococcal antibiotics have fueled impressive advances in our understanding of how S. aureus overcomes the host environment to establish infection. Backed by recent technologic advances, studies have uncovered elaborate metabolic, nutritional, and virulence strategies deployed by S. aureus to survive the restrictive and hostile environment imposed by the host, leading to a plethora of promising antimicrobial approaches that have potential to remedy the antibiotic resistance crisis...
March 8, 2018: JCI Insight
F Owusu-Nimo, J Mantey, K B Nyarko, Eugene Appiah-Effah, A Aubynn
Recently, there have been efforts by stakeholders to monitor illegal mining ( galamsey) activities, foster their formalization and reclaim the many abandoned wastelands in Ghana. However, limited information exists on the locations, abundance, scope and scale of galamsey types, which hinders the development of effective policy response. This study attempts to map and analyze the distribution patterns, abundance, activity statuses and the extents of nine (9) galamsey types within eleven (11) Municipal and District Assemblies (MDAs) of Ghana's Western Region...
February 2018: Heliyon
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