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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938518/antimicrobial-peptides-amps-the-quintessential-offense-and-defense-molecules-are-more-than-antimicrobials
#1
REVIEW
Seema Patel, Nadeem Akhtar
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are cationic amphiphilic molecules with α-helix or β-sheet linear motifs and linear or cyclic configurations. For their role in 'defense and offense', they are present in all living organisms. AMPs are named so, as they inhibit a wide array of microbes by membrane pore formation and subsequent perturbation of mitochondrial membrane ionic balance. However, their functional repertoire is expanding with validated roles in cytotoxicity, wound healing, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and chemotaxis [1]...
September 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937321/enhancement-of-radiotherapy-efficacy-by-pleiotropic-liposomes-encapsulated-paclitaxel-and-perfluorotributylamine
#2
Xing Jiang, Baoli Zhang, Zaigang Zhou, Lingtong Meng, Zhiling Sun, Yun Xu, Qiuping Xu, Ahu Yuan, Lixia Yu, Hanqing Qian, Jinhui Wu, Yiqiao Hu, Baorui Liu
Paclitaxel (PTX) is widely used as a radiosensitizer in the clinical treatment of cancer. However, the efficacy of chemoradiotherapy is limited by the hostility of the tumor microenvironment such as hypoxia. To overcome this constraint, we designed pleiotropic radiotherapy sensitized liposomes containing perfluorotributylamine (PFTBA) and PTX. The results showed that liposomes significantly accumulated in the tumor site. PFTBA in liposomes dramatically reversed tumor hypoxia and improved the sensitivity of tumor radiotherapy...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936522/a-novel-hif-1%C3%AE-vmp1-autophagic-pathway-induces-resistance-to-photodynamic-therapy-in-colon-cancer-cells
#3
M E Rodríguez, C Catrinacio, A Ropolo, V A Rivarola, M I Vaccaro
Colon cancer is the third most frequent cancer and the fourth most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide and the standard therapy is surgical resection plus adjuvant chemotherapy. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been proposed as an adjuvant therapy because it can prevent the tumor recurrence after surgical excision in colon cancer patients. Hypoxia is a common feature in solid tumors and leads to chemo/radioresistance. Recently, it has been shown that in response to hypoxia, cells can induce HIF-1α-mediated autophagy to survive in this hostile microenvironment...
September 22, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934069/to-defend-or-to-affiliate-the-effects-of-categorical-similarity-cues-after-social-exclusion
#4
Jia-Sin Hong, Chien-Ru Sun
This article proposed that after social exclusion, individuals may react in a hostile or amiable manner, which depends on the type of categorical similarity cues that new groups possess. For excluded individuals, groups that resemble their excluder would provoke a defensive attitude. They also exhibit hospitality to groups that resemble themselves to gain inclusion. In experiment 1, social exclusion was manipulated by providing a scenario story regarding an individual who was excluded and subsequently wanted to join in new groups...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933243/drug-targets-in-dormant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-can-the-conquest-against-tuberculosis-become-a-reality
#5
Vivek Kumar Gupta, M Madhan Kumar, Dharmendra Singh, Deepa Bisht, Shweta Sharma
Targeting M. tuberculosis (Mtb) in latent form of infection is a major obstacle and big challenge in tuberculosis (TB) eradication by current chemotherapy. A better understanding of the physiology of Mtb and of the metabolic state of the bacillus during the dormancy, is a primary need in finding drug targets against non replicating persistent (NRP) form of the Mtb. Identification of potential drug targets against dormant state of Mtb is critically important to achieve the goal of complete eradication for shortening of anti-TB therapy...
September 21, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931038/hostile-and-energetic-anger-is-predicted-by-low-agreeableness-and-high-energetic-arousal
#6
Marcin Zajenkowski
A hypothesis that anger is related to high energetic arousal (EA), but only at a low level of agreeableness was tested. In the first two studies, the association between trait anger, agreeableness, and EA was explored. In the next two studies, the interactions of agreeableness with constructs conceptually and empirically close to EA, in predicting anger were tested. Study 3 revealed that anger was predicted by a low level of agreeableness and a high level of positive affect. In study 4 task engagement (construct containing an energetic component) was included in the context of cognitive performance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930527/microalgae-as-a-source-of-high-value-bioactive-compounds
#7
Mohammed Hussen Bule, Ishtiaq Ahmed, Faheem Maqbool, Muhammad Bilal, Hafiz M N Iqbal
Microalgae are one of the oldest microorganisms, that grow in various hostile environments, ranging from deserts to Antarctica. The microalgae sustain life in such harsh environments through generation of secondary metabolites. Microalgae biosynthesize a large number of diverse bioactive metabolites with activities on cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and infectious diseases. Here, we highlight the bioactive compounds that are isolated from microalgae for the purpose of using them as food, and as chemicals in pharmaceutical industry as new agents with therapeutic benefits...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925986/association-between-emotional-symptoms-and-job-demands-in-an-asian-electronics-factory
#8
Wei-Lieh Huang, Yue Leon Guo, Pau-Chung Chen, Jui Wang, Po-Ching Chu
Various work-related issues including mental health have been described for the electronic industry. Although East Asian countries play important roles in the electronics industry, the association between job demands and emotional symptoms has been rarely examined. The present study recruited 603 workers from either office or clean room environments in an electronics factory in Taiwan. Their personal factors, work-related factors, and emotional symptoms were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. The symptoms of depression and hostility were reported in 24...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925329/reflective-functioning-maternal-attachment-mind-mindedness-and-emotional-availability-in-adolescent-and-adult-mothers-at-infant-3-months
#9
Cristina Riva Crugnola, Elena Ierardi, Maria Paola Canevini
The study evaluated reflective functioning (RF), maternal attachment, mind-mindedness, and emotional availability among 44 adolescent mother-infant dyads and 41 adult mother-infant dyads. At infant age 3 months, mother-infant interaction was coded with the mind-mindedness coding system and Emotional Availability Scales; mother attachment and RF were evaluated with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Adolescent mothers (vs. adult mothers) were more insecure and had lower RF; they were also less sensitive, more intrusive and hostile, and less structuring of their infant's activity; they used fewer attuned mind-related comments and fewer mind-related comments appropriate to infant development...
September 19, 2017: Attachment & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924031/cytoplasmic-copper-detoxification-in-salmonella-can-contribute-to-sodc-metalation-but-is-dispensable-during-systemic-infection
#10
Luke A Fenlon, James M Slauch
Salmonella Typhimurium is a leading cause of foodborne disease worldwide. Severe infections result from the ability of S. Typhimurium to survive within host immune cells, despite being exposed to various host antimicrobial factors. SodCI, a copper-zinc cofactored superoxide dismutase, is required to defend against phagocytic superoxide. SodCII, an additional periplasmic superoxide dismutase, although produced during infection, does not function in the host. Previous studies suggested that CueP, a periplasmic copper binding protein, facilitates acquisition of copper by SodCII...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920514/foe-or-friend-janus-faces-of-the-neurovascular-unit-in-the-formation-of-brain-metastases
#11
Imola Wilhelm, Csilla Fazakas, Kinga Molnár, Attila G Végh, János Haskó, István A Krizbai
Despite the potential obstacle represented by the blood-brain barrier for extravasating malignant cells, metastases are more frequent than primary tumors in the central nervous system. Not only tightly interconnected endothelial cells can hinder metastasis formation, other cells of the brain microenvironment (like astrocytes and microglia) can also be very hostile, destroying the large majority of metastatic cells. However, malignant cells that are able to overcome these harmful mechanisms may benefit from the shielding and even support provided by cerebral endothelial cells, astrocytes and microglia, rendering the brain a sanctuary site against anti-tumor strategies...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919635/aspergillus-fumigatus-morphology-and-dynamic-host-interactions
#12
REVIEW
Frank L van de Veerdonk, Mark S Gresnigt, Luigina Romani, Mihai G Netea, Jean-Paul Latgé
Aspergillus fumigatus is an environmental filamentous fungus that can cause life-threatening disease in immunocompromised individuals. The interactions between A. fumigatus and the host environment are dynamic and complex. The host immune system needs to recognize the distinct morphological forms of A. fumigatus to control fungal growth and prevent tissue invasion, whereas the fungus requires nutrients and needs to adapt to the hostile environment by escaping immune recognition and counteracting host responses...
September 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918699/effects-of-weapons-on-aggressive-thoughts-angry-feelings-hostile-appraisals-and-aggressive-behavior-a-meta-analytic-review-of-the-weapons-effect-literature
#13
Arlin J Benjamin, Sven Kepes, Brad J Bushman
Guns are associated with aggression. A landmark 1967 study showed that simply seeing a gun can increase aggression-called the "weapons effect." This meta-analysis integrates the findings of weapons effect studies conducted from 1967 to 2017. It includes 162 effect-size estimates from 78 independent studies involving 7,668 participants. The theoretical framework used to explain the weapons effect was the General Aggression Model (GAM), which proposes three routes to aggression-cognitive, affective, and arousal...
September 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914095/depressed-multiple-suicide-attempters-a-high-risk-phenotype
#14
Leo Sher, Michael F Grunebaum, Ainsley K Burke, Sadia Chaudhury, J John Mann, Maria A Oquendo
BACKGROUND: There is compelling evidence that suicide attempts are among the strongest predictors of suicide and future suicide attempts. AIM: This study aimed to examine psychopathology in multiple-suicide attempters. METHOD: We compared the demographic and clinical features of three groups: depressed patients without a history of suicide attempts (non-attempters), depressed patients with a history of one to three suicide attempts (attempters), and depressed patients with a history of four or more suicide attempts (multiple attempters)...
September 15, 2017: Crisis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912742/perception-action-and-cognition-of-football-referees-in-extreme-temperatures-impact-on-decision-performance
#15
Nadia Gaoua, Rita F de Oliveira, Steve Hunter
Different professional domains require high levels of physical performance alongside fast and accurate decision-making. Construction workers, police officers, firefighters, elite sports men and women, the military and emergency medical professionals are often exposed to hostile environments with limited options for behavioral coping strategies. In this (mini) review we use football refereeing as an example to discuss the combined effect of intense physical activity and extreme temperatures on decision-making and suggest an explicative model...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904951/diabetic-foot-ulcers-and-epidermal-growth-factor-revisiting-the-local-delivery-route-for-a-successful-outcome
#16
REVIEW
Jorge Berlanga-Acosta, José Fernández-Montequín, Calixto Valdés-Pérez, William Savigne-Gutiérrez, Yssel Mendoza-Marí, Ariana García-Ojalvo, Viviana Falcón-Cama, Diana García Del Barco-Herrera, Maday Fernández-Mayola, Héctor Pérez-Saad, Eulogio Pimentel-Vázquez, Aleida Urquiza-Rodríguez, Moshe Kulikovsky, Gerardo Guillén-Nieto
Soon after epidermal growth factor (EGF) discovery, some in vivo models appeared demonstrating its property to enhance cutaneous wound healing. EGF was the first growth factor (GF) introduced in the clinical arena as a healing enhancer, exerting its mitogenic effects on epithelial, fibroblastoid, and endothelial cells via a tyrosine kinase membrane receptor. Compelling evidences from the 90s documented that, for EGF, locally prolonged bioavailability and hourly interaction with the receptor were necessary for a successful tissue response...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903663/the-shadows-of-the-past-effects-of-historical-group-trauma-on-current-intergroup-conflicts
#17
Noa Schori-Eyal, Yechiel Klar, Sonia Roccas, Andrew McNeill
We examined associations between two orientations based on historical group trauma, a form of enduring group victimhood (Perpetual Ingroup Victimhood Orientation [PIVO]) and the belief that one's group might itself become a victimizer (Fear of Victimizing [FOV]), and attitudes, cognitions, and emotions related to intergroup conflicts. PIVO was positively and FOV was negatively related to aggressive attitudes and emotions toward the outgroup (Studies 1a-1c, Israeli-Palestinian conflict), and to the attribution of responsibility for a series of hostilities to the outgroup (Study 3, Israeli-Palestinian conflict)...
April 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903649/backlash-the-politics-and-real-world-consequences-of-minority-group-dehumanization
#18
Nour Kteily, Emile Bruneau
Research suggests that members of advantaged groups who feel dehumanized by other groups respond aggressively. But little is known about how meta-dehumanization affects disadvantaged minority group members, historically the primary targets of dehumanization. We examine this important question in the context of the 2016 U.S. Republican Primaries, which have witnessed the widespread derogation and dehumanization of Mexican immigrants and Muslims. Two initial studies document that Americans blatantly dehumanize Mexican immigrants and Muslims; this dehumanization uniquely predicts support for aggressive policies proposed by Republican nominees, and dehumanization is highly associated with supporting Republican candidates (especially Donald Trump)...
January 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903639/when-silence-is-not-golden-why-acknowledgment-matters-even-when-being-excluded
#19
Selma C Rudert, Andrew H Hales, Rainer Greifeneder, Kipling D Williams
Following ostracism, individuals are highly sensitive to social cues. Here we investigate whether and when minimal acknowledgment can improve need satisfaction following an ostracism experience. In four studies, participants were either ostracized during Cyberball (Studies 1 and 2) or through a novel apartment-application paradigm (Studies 3 and 4). To signal acknowledgment following ostracism, participants were either thrown a ball a few times at the end of the Cyberball game, or received a message that was either friendly, neutral, or hostile in the apartment-application paradigm...
May 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902489/oral-sirna-delivery-to-treat-colorectal-liver-metastases
#20
Sung Hun Kang, Vishnu Revuri, Sang-Joon Lee, Sungpil Cho, In-Kyu Park, Kwang Jae Cho, Woo Kyun Bae, Yong-Kyu Lee
Convenient multiple dosing makes oral administration an ideal route for delivery of therapeutic siRNA. However, hostile GI environments and non-specific biological trafficking prevent from achieving appropriate bioavailability of siRNA. Here, an orally administered AuNP-siRNA-glycol chitosan-taurocholic acid nanoparticle (AR-GT NPs), was developed to selectively deliver Akt2 siRNA and treat colorectal liver metastases (CLM). AR-GT NPs are dual padlocked non-viral vectors in which the initially formed AuNP-siRNA (AR) conjugates are further encompassed by bifunctional glycol chitosan-taurocholic acid (GT) conjugates...
September 13, 2017: ACS Nano
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