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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220123/human-tumor-infiltrating-myeloid-cells-phenotypic-and-functional-diversity
#1
REVIEW
Louise A Elliott, Glen A Doherty, Kieran Sheahan, Elizabeth J Ryan
Our current understanding of human tumor-resident myeloid cells is, for the most part, based on a large body of work in murine models or studies enumerating myeloid cells in patient tumor samples using immunohistochemistry (IHC). This has led to the establishment of the theory that, by and large, tumor-resident myeloid cells are either "protumor" M2 macrophages or myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). This concept has accelerated our understanding of myeloid cells in tumor progression and enabled the elucidation of many key regulatory mechanisms involved in cell recruitment, polarization, and activation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220084/interactive-family-dynamics-and-non-suicidal-self-injury-in-psychiatric-adolescent-patients-a-single-case-study
#2
Michela Gatta, Marina Miscioscia, Marta Sisti, Ilaria Comis, Pier Antonio Battistella
Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) is a common, multifaceted phenomenon among adolescents. Recent researchers have shown that a number of psychological and psychiatric correlates are implicated in the onset/repetition of NSSI, but those previous studies did not directly observe the family interaction patterns of this clinical population. In this paper, the quality of family interactions was observed using the Lausanne Trilogue Play procedure to deepen the specific interactive dimensions associated with NSSI in adolescents...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218405/electricity-generation-by-pyrococcus-furiosus-in-microbial-fuel-cells-operated-at-90-%C3%A2-c
#3
Narendran Sekar, Chang-Hao Wu, Michael W W Adams, Ramaraja P Ramasamy
Hyperthermophiles are microorganisms that thrive in extremely hot environments with temperatures near and even above 100 (°) C. They are the most deeply rooted microorganisms on phylogenetic trees suggesting they may have evolved to survive in the early hostile earth. The simple respiratory systems of some of these hyperthermophiles made them potential candidates to develop microbial fuel cells (MFC) that can generate power at temperatures approaching the boiling point. We explored extracellular electron transfer ability of a hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus (Pf) by studying its ability to generate electricity in a two-chamber MFC...
February 20, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215899/-18-f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-cortical-metabolic-activity-associated-with-distinct-agitation-behaviors-in-alzheimer-disease
#4
Gali H Weissberger, Rebecca J Melrose, Theresa A Narvaez, Dylan Harwood, Mark A Mandelkern, David L Sultzer
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the neurobiologic correlates of two distinct clusters of agitation symptoms to identify the unique biologic substrates underlying agitated behaviors. METHODS: Eighty-eight outpatients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) were recruited from the VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System Geropsychiatry Outpatient Program. A cross-sectional investigation was conducted of the relationship between cerebral glucose metabolism measured via (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and agitated symptoms from the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) in patients with AD...
January 31, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212481/-workplace-bullying-during-specialty-training-in-a-pediatric-hospital-in-mexico-a-little-noticed-phenomenon
#5
Ana Carolina Sepúlveda-Vildósola, Alma Rebeca Mota-Nova, Germán Enrique Fajardo-Dolci, L Isabel Reyes-Lagunes
BACKGROUND: Workplace bullying (WB) is a hostile or intimidating behavior that is practiced against workers and has a negative impact on health, job performance, and the learning process. The objective was to research WB magnitude and its associated factors in Mexico. METHODS: Mixed method study. A survey was designed and administered to all the residents in a pediatric hospital in Mexico who agreed to participate. The survey was divided in two sections: a) resident self-reported events of workplace bullying and associated factors, b) situations and factors of abuse were interrogated in a targeted manner...
2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206844/the-effect-of-personality-on-occupational-stress-in-veterinary-surgeons
#6
Briony F Y Dawson, Neill J Thompson
Statistics show that veterinary surgeons are in one of the professions with the highest suicide rates. This indicates the sector has significant well-being issues, with high levels of occupational stress and burnout. Previous research has focused on environmental factors in isolation, overlooking the influence of personality. This study aimed to establish that personality is a better predictor of occupational stress than environment. UK veterinary surgeons (n=311) completed an online survey composed of three questionnaires; the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and the Job Stress Survey...
2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206729/gut-microbiota-and-gastric-disease
#7
Dolores Sgambato, Agnese Miranda, Lorenzo Romano, Marco Romano
The gut microbiota may be considered a crucial "organ" of human body because of its role in the maintenance of the balance between health as well as disease. It is mainly located in the small bowel and colon, while, the stomach was long thought to be sterile in particular for its high acid production. In particular, stomach was considered "an hostile place" for bacterial growth until the identification of Helicobacter pylori (HP). Now, the stomach and its microbiota can be considered as two different "organs" that share the same place and they have an impact on each other...
15, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199892/a-prognostic-index-pi-as-a-moderator-of-outcomes-in-the-treatment-of-depression-a-proof-of-concept-combining-multiple-variables-to-inform-risk-stratified-stepped-care-models
#8
Lorenzo Lorenzo-Luaces, Robert J DeRubeis, Annemieke van Straten, Bea Tiemens
BACKGROUND: Prognostic indices (PIs) combining variables to predict future depression risk may help guide the selection of treatments that differ in intensity. We develop a PI and show its promise in guiding treatment decisions between treatment as usual (TAU), treatment starting with a low-intensity treatment (brief therapy (BT)), or treatment starting with a high-intensity treatment intervention (cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)). METHODS: We utilized data from depressed patients (N=622) who participated in a randomized comparison of TAU, BT, and CBT in which no statistically significant differences in the primary outcomes emerged between the three treatments...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199146/morphological-change-and-decreasing-transfer-rate-of-biofilm-featured-listeria-monocytogenes-egde
#9
Yuejia Lee, Chinling Wang
Listeria monocytogenes , a lethal foodborne pathogen, has the ability to resist the hostile food processing environment and thus frequently contaminates ready-to-eat foods during processing. It is commonly accepted that the tendency of L. monocytogenes ' to generate biofilms on various surfaces enhances its resistance to the harshness of the food processing environment. However, the role of biofilm formation in the transferability of L. monocytogenes EGDe remains controversial. We examined the growth of Listeria biofilms on stainless steel surfaces and their effect on the transferability of L...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198751/the-role-of-agonistic-striving-in-the-association-between-cortisol-and-high-blood-pressure
#10
Craig K Ewart, Gavin J Elder, Randall S Jorgensen, Sheila T Fitzgerald
OBJECTIVES: A social action theory of chronic stress proposes that agonistic striving (seeking to influence or control others) impairs cardiovascular health by magnifying the impact of high adversity-induced cortisol levels on blood pressure. We tested three predictions of social action theory: (1) the social action theory taxonomy of regulatory strivings characterizes young adults from high-adversity neighborhoods; (2) high cortisol levels predict high blood pressure more reliably in the subgroup with the agonistic striving profile than in subgroups with other profiles; (3) the association of higher cortisol and higher blood pressure with agonistic striving is not explained by negative affect (depressive symptoms/dysphoria, anger, hostility)...
November 3, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194642/are-optimism-and-cynical-hostility-associated-with-smoking-cessation-in-older-women
#11
Ana M Progovac, Yue-Fang Chang, Chung-Chou H Chang, Karen A Matthews, Julie M Donohue, Michael F Scheier, Elizabeth B Habermann, Lewis H Kuller, Joseph S Goveas, Benjamin P Chapman, Paul R Duberstein, Catherine R Messina, Kathryn E Weaver, Nazmus Saquib, Robert B Wallace, Robert C Kaplan, Darren Calhoun, J Carson Smith, Hilary A Tindle
BACKGROUND: Optimism and cynical hostility independently predict morbidity and mortality in Women's Health Initiative (WHI) participants and are associated with current smoking. However, their association with smoking cessation in older women is unknown. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to test whether optimism (positive future expectations) or cynical hostility (mistrust of others) predicts smoking cessation in older women. METHODS: Self-reported smoking status was assessed at years 1, 3, and 6 after study entry for WHI baseline smokers who were not missing optimism or cynical hostility scores (n = 10,242)...
February 13, 2017: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191653/generalized-hostile-interpretation-bias-regarding-facial-expressions-characteristic-of-pathological-aggressive-behavior
#12
Danique Smeijers, Mike Rinck, Erik Bulten, Thom van den Heuvel, Robbert-Jan Verkes
Individuals with aggression regulation disorders tend to attribute hostility to others in socially ambiguous situations. Previous research suggests that this "hostile attribution bias" is a powerful cause of aggression. Facial expressions form important cues in the appreciation of others' intentions. Furthermore, accurate processing of facial expressions is fundamental to normal socialization. However, research on interpretation biases in facial affect is limited. It is asserted that a hostile interpretation bias (HIB) is likely to be displayed by individuals with an antisocial (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) and probably also with an intermittent explosive disorder (IED)...
February 12, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190937/belonging-and-unbelonging-jewish-refugee-and-survivor-women-in-1950s-britain
#13
Angela Davis
This article analyses the life stories of female Jewish refugees and survivors in 1950s Britain in order to explore their relationship with the existing Jewish community and wider society. The paper is based on an analysis of twenty-one oral history testimonies from the Jewish survivors of the Holocaust collection held at the British library. Around 50,000 Jewish refugees from Central Europe came to Britain in the 1930s after fleeing from Hitler. In addition, a relatively small number of camp survivors and former hidden children settled in the country after the war; the Board of Deputies of British Jews Demographic Unit estimates the figure at 2000...
January 2, 2017: Women's History Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187289/tumorigenic-and-immunosuppressive-effects-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Juan R Cubillos-Ruiz, Sarah E Bettigole, Laurie H Glimcher
Malignant cells utilize diverse strategies that enable them to thrive under adverse conditions while simultaneously inhibiting the development of anti-tumor immune responses. Hostile microenvironmental conditions within tumor masses, such as nutrient deprivation, oxygen limitation, high metabolic demand, and oxidative stress, disturb the protein-folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), thereby provoking a cellular state of "ER stress." Sustained activation of ER stress sensors endows malignant cells with greater tumorigenic, metastatic, and drug-resistant capacity...
February 9, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182965/simultaneous-use-of-alcohol-with-methamphetamine-but-not-ecstasy-linked-with-aggression-among-young-adult-stimulant-users
#15
Ellen M Leslie, Andrew Smirnov, Adrian Cherney, Helene Wells, Margot Legosz, Robert Kemp, Jake M Najman
INTRODUCTION: Illicit stimulants are often combined with alcohol in nightlife entertainment districts, an environment where aggressive behaviour commonly occurs. While alcohol and methamphetamine use are each associated with aggressive behaviour, relatively little is known about the impact of the combined use of alcohol and amphetamine-type stimulants (i.e., ecstasy [MDMA] and methamphetamine) on aggression. METHOD: Analysis of longitudinal data from a population-based sample of Australian young adult amphetamine-type stimulant users (n=248) to examine: (a) prevalence and timing of simultaneous alcohol and amphetamine-type stimulant use and (b) predictors of ecstasy- and methamphetamine-related aggression and hostility...
February 2, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181256/psychological-processes-in-young-bullies-versus-bully-victims
#16
Anouk van Dijk, Astrid M G Poorthuis, Tina Malti
Some children who bully others are also victimized themselves ("bully-victims") whereas others are not victimized themselves ("bullies"). These subgroups have been shown to differ in their social functioning as early as in kindergarten. What is less clear are the motives that underlie the bullying behavior of young bullies and bully-victims. The present study examined whether bullies have proactive motives for aggression and anticipate to feel happy after victimizing others, whereas bully-victims have reactive motives for aggression, poor theory of mind skills, and attribute hostile intent to others...
February 8, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179534/impaired-sting-pathway-in-the-human-osteosarcoma-u2os-cells-contributes-to-the-growth-of-icp0-null-mutant-herpes-simplex-virus
#17
Thibaut Deschamps, Maria Kalamvoki
Human herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is a wide spread pathogen with 80% of the population being latently infected. To successfully evade the host the virus has evolved strategies to counteract antiviral responses, including the gene silencing and innate immunity machineries. The immediately early protein of the virus, Infected Cell Protein 0 (ICP0) plays central role in these processes. ICP0 blocks innate immunity and one mechanism is by degrading hostile factors with its intrinsic E3 ligase activity. ICP0 functions also as a promiscuous transactivator and it blocks repressor complexes to enable viral gene transcription...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176177/trauma-and-aggression-investigating-the-mediating-role-of-mentalizing-in-female-and-male-inpatient-adolescents
#18
Anna Abate, Kaisa Marshall, Carla Sharp, Amanda Venta
High rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and elevated levels of aggression are common among youth in inpatient psychiatric settings. Several models link trauma exposure to aggression through anomalous mental state reasoning. Some theoretical frameworks linking trauma to aggression specify that the over-attribution of hostile mental states contributes to the development of aggressive behavior whereas other theories suggest that an inhibition of mental state reasoning leads to aggressive behavior...
February 7, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170185/magnetic-nanoparticle-based-upregulation-of-b-cell-lymphoma-2-enhances-bone-regeneration
#19
Elizabeth Brett, Elizabeth R Zielins, Anna Luan, Chin Chun Ooi, Siny Shailendra, David Atashroo, Siddarth Menon, Charles Blackshear, John Flacco, Natalina Quarto, Shan X Wang, Michael T Longaker, Derrick C Wan
Clinical translation of cell-based strategies for tissue regeneration remains challenging because survival of implanted cells within hostile, hypoxic wound environments is uncertain. Overexpression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) has been shown to inhibit apoptosis in implanted cells. The present study describes an "off the shelf" prefabricated scaffold integrated with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) used to upregulate Bcl-2 expression in implanted adipose-derived stromal cells for bone regeneration. Iron oxide cores were sequentially coated with branched polyethyleneimine, minicircle plasmid encoding green fluorescent protein and Bcl-2, and poly-β-amino ester...
January 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165258/can-reflecting-on-personal-values-online-increase-positive-beliefs-about-counseling
#20
Daniel G Lannin, David L Vogel, Patrick J Heath
This research developed and tested an online values-affirmation exercise to attenuate threat and enhance positive beliefs about counseling among individuals struggling with mental health concerns. There is evidence that reflecting on personal values (values-affirmation) is an effective approach to eliciting self-affirmation-a psychological process that temporarily bolsters self-worth in order to forestall maladaptive, self-protective responses to counseling information. The present study utilized a randomized 2-group between-subjects design to test the effectiveness of a values-affirmation exercise with an online sample (N = 186) of adults who reported struggling with a mental health concern...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Counseling Psychology
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