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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915255/scrambled-eggs-a-highly-sensitive-molecular-diagnostic-workflow-for-fasciola-species-specific-detection-from-faecal-samples
#1
Nichola Eliza Davies Calvani, Peter Andrew Windsor, Russell David Bush, Jan Šlapeta
BACKGROUND: Fasciolosis, due to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, is a re-emerging zoonotic parasitic disease of worldwide importance. Human and animal infections are commonly diagnosed by the traditional sedimentation and faecal egg-counting technique. However, this technique is time-consuming and prone to sensitivity errors when a large number of samples must be processed or if the operator lacks sufficient experience. Additionally, diagnosis can only be made once the 12-week pre-patent period has passed...
September 15, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914184/elements-of-effective-community-engagement-lessons-from-a-targeted-malaria-elimination-study-in-lao-pdr-laos
#2
Bipin Adhikari, Christopher Pell, Koukeo Phommasone, Xayaphone Soundala, Palingnaphone Kommarasy, Tiengkham Pongvongsa, Gisela Henriques, Nicholas P J Day, Mayfong Mayxay, Phaik Yeong Cheah
BACKGROUND: Mass drug (antimalarial) administration (MDA) is currently under study in Southeast Asia as part of a package of interventions referred to as targeted malaria elimination (TME). This intervention relies on effective community engagement that promotes uptake and adherence in target communities (above 80%). OBJECTIVE: Based on the experienced of designing and implementing the community engagement for TME in Laos, in this article we aim to present the elements of effective community engagement for mass antimalarial administration...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912555/new-taxa-of-freshwater-mussels-unionidae-from-a-species-rich-but-overlooked-evolutionary-hotspot-in-southeast-asia
#3
Ivan N Bolotov, Ilya V Vikhrev, Alexander V Kondakov, Ekaterina S Konopleva, Mikhail Yu Gofarov, Olga V Aksenova, Sakboworn Tumpeesuwan
Southeast Asia harbors a unique and diverse freshwater fauna of Mesozoic origin, which is under severe threat of extinction because of rapid economic development and urbanization. The largest freshwater basins of the region are certainly the primary evolutionary hotspots and they attract the most attention as key biodiversity areas for conservation. In contrast, medium-sized rivers are considered low-importance areas with secondary biodiversity, whose faunas originated via founder events from larger basins during the Pleistocene, although such a scenario has never been tested by using a phylogenetic approach...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903577/a-2-4-amino-acid-deletion-in-the-v5-region-of-hiv-1-env-gp120-confers-viral-resistance-to-the-broadly-neutralizing-human-monoclonal-antibody-vrc01
#4
Shingo Tachibana, Maho Sasaki, Takako Tanaka, Mari Inoue, Youdiil Ophinni, Tomohiro Kotaki, Masanori Kameoka
The envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) plays a critical role in viral entry into host cells. The broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibody VRC01, which recognizes the CD4 binding site on gp120, neutralizes more than 90% of HIV-1 isolates. However, some of the CRF01_AE viruses prevalent in Southeast Asia are resistant to VRC01-mediated neutralization. We previously reported that 3 amino acid residues at positions 185, 186, and 197 of gp120 played an important role in the VRC01 resistance of CRF01_AE Env (AE-Env) clones isolated from HIV-infected Thai individuals...
September 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902844/melioidosis-in-lower-provincial-cambodia-a-case-series-from-a-prospective-study-of-sepsis-in-takeo-province
#5
Kevin L Schully, Catherine M Berjohn, Angela M Prouty, Amitha Fitkariwala, Tin Som, Darith Sieng, Michael J Gregory, Andrew Vaughn, Sim Kheng, Vantha Te, Christopher A Duplessis, James V Lawler, Danielle V Clark
Melioidosis is a severe infectious disease caused by the gram-negative soil bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Melioidosis is well known to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Southeast Asia, particularly in Thailand. However, melioidosis remains underreported in surrounding areas such as Cambodia. We report a case series of melioidosis in seven patients from Takeo Province, Cambodia. The patients, aged 24-65 years, were enrolled from May 2014 to May 2015 during a one year prospective study of sepsis at Takeo Provincial Hospital...
September 13, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902267/-public-production-as-a-key-factor-for-access-to-antivenoms-in-the-region-of-the-americas
#6
Guillermo Temprano, Patricia Aprea, José Christian Dokmetjian
Injuries caused by venomous animals affect vast areas of Latin America, Southern Asia, Southeast Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and Oceania, and pose a serious problem for global public health. Based on an analysis of the current panorama of global production of ophidian and arachnid antivenoms, it is concluded that they are semi-orphaned products. This is a favorable scenario in which to strengthen public laboratory production. Governments should make a political decision in this regard in the interest of equity in population health...
August 21, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898582/spatio-temporal-distribution-and-alpine-behavior-of-short-chain-chlorinated-paraffins-in-air-at-shergyla-mountain-and-lhasa-on-the-tibetan-plateau-of-china
#7
Jing Wu, Wei Gao, Yong Liang, Jianjie Fu, Yan Gao, Yawei Wang, Guibin Jiang
Pristine high-altitude mountains are ideal areas for studying the potential mechanism behind the long-range transport and environmental behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in remote areas. Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are the most complex halogenated contaminants in the environment, and have attracted extensive worldwide interest in recent years. In this study, the spatio-temporal concentrations and distributions of SCCPs in air collected from Shergyla Mountain (located in the southeast of the Tibetan Plateau) and Lhasa were investigated during 2012-2015...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895080/population-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-modeling-of-artemisinin-resistance-in-southeast-asia
#8
Jesmin Lohy Das, Arjen M Dondorp, Francois Nosten, Aung Pyae Phyo, Warunee Hanpithakpong, Pascal Ringwald, Pharath Lim, Nicholas J White, Mats O Karlsson, Martin Bergstrand, Joel Tarning
Orally administered artemisinin-based combination therapy is the first-line treatment against uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria worldwide. However, the increasing prevalence of artemisinin resistance is threatening efforts to treat and eliminate malaria in Southeast Asia. This study aimed to characterize the exposure-response relationship of artesunate in patients with artemisinin sensitive and resistant malaria infections. Patients were recruited in Pailin, Cambodia (n = 39), and Wang Pha, Thailand (n = 40), and received either 2 mg/kg/day of artesunate mono-therapy for 7 consecutive days or 4 mg/kg/day of artesunate monotherapy for 3 consecutive days followed by mefloquine 15 and 10 mg/kg for 2 consecutive days...
September 11, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894847/community-engagement-for-the-rapid-elimination-of-malaria-the-case-of-kayin-state-myanmar
#9
Ladda Kajeechiwa, May Myo Thwin, Suphak Nosten, Saw Win Tun, Daniel Parker, Lorenz von Seidlein, Decha Tangseefa, François Nosten, Phaik Yeong Cheah
BACKGROUND:  Currently, malaria elimination efforts are ongoing in several locations across Southeast Asia,  including in Kayin State (also known as Karen State), Myanmar . This paper describes the community engagement efforts for a pilot malaria elimination project, the challenges encountered and lessons learnt. METHODS:  Between May 2013 and June 2015, a study on targeted malaria elimination (TME) that included mass drug administration was conducted in four villages (TPN, TOT, KNH, and HKT) of Kayin State...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894118/persistence-of-zika-virus-in-conjunctival-fluid-of-convalescence-patients
#10
Jeslin J L Tan, Praveen K Balne, Yee-Sin Leo, Louis Tong, Lisa F P Ng, Rupesh Agrawal
A widespread epidemic of Zika fever, caused by Zika virus (ZIKAV) has spread throughout the Pacific islands, the Americas and Southeast Asia. The increased incidences of ocular anomalies observed in ZIKAV-infected infants and adults may be associated with the rapid spread of ZIKAV. The objective of this study was to check if ZIKAV could be detected in human tears after the first week of infection. Twenty-nine patients with PCR confirmed ZIKAV infection during the Singapore August 2016 ZIKAV outbreak were enrolled for the study...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892964/dengue-haemorrhagic-encephalitis-rare-case-report-with-review-of-literature
#11
Aditya Singh Kutiyal, Chetanya Malik, Gitika Hyanki
Dengue is an endemic arboviral infection prevalent especially in tropical countries including Southern and Southeast Asia. Central Nervous System (CNS) involvement in dengue infection is uncommon. Haemorrhagic encephalitis is a rare presentation in dengue. This is a case of a 58-year-old male who presented with fever, petechial rash and altered sensorium. Dengue serology IgM was reactive and MRI brain was suggestive of haemorrhagic encephalitis. Patient was managed in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) but eventually succumbed to his illness...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892959/prevalence-of-conventional-risk-factors-and-evaluation-of-baseline-indices-among-young-and-elderly-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#12
Arsalan Majeed Adam, Aiman Rehan, Nageen Waseem, Unzela Iqbal, Hira Saleem, Muhammad Armughan Ali, Ali Tariq Shaikh, Ansab Godil
INTRODUCTION: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, manifesting in a variety of clinical spectrums such as an asymptomatic disease or acute coronary syndrome. It has become highly prevalent in Southeast Asia, including Pakistan. There has been little work done on the prevalence of traditional risk factors in different age groups and genders and there is a dire need to gauge the importance of baseline indices in CAD patients. AIM: To determine the prevalence of conventional risk factors and evaluate the variations in lipid profiles, electrolyte levels and haematological indices among patients with CAD in different age groups and gender...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890503/spatial-clustering-of-severe-hand-foot-mouth-disease-cases-in-hainan-island-china
#13
Shao-Ming Chen, Li Qiu, Zhong-Hua Du, Yu-Ming Jin, Jian-Wei Du, Yan Chen, Chiho Watanabe, Masahiro Umezaki
  The incidence of severe Hand-Foot-Mouth disease (HFMD) in Southeast/East Asia has recently increased. This study explored spatial clusters of the incidence and proportion of severe HFMD cases in Hainan Island, Where the prevalence and mortality of HFMD were the highest in China in 2011. A spatial autocorrelation statistic (Anselin's Local Moran I) was calculated for the Empirical Bayesian (EB) smoothed dataset of severe HFMD cases. Significantly spatial clusters were detected for both incidence and the proportion of severe HFMD cases...
September 11, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885917/preface-guidelines-for-the-treatment-of-travelers-diarrhea-in-deployed-military-personnel
#14
Mark S Riddle, David Tribble
Diarrheal disease frequently affects military personnel deployed to developing countries, resulting in decreased job performance and potential negative impacts on military operational readiness. Travelers' diarrhea is a self-limiting illness; however, antibiotic treatment (with and without use of adjunct loperamide therapy) has been shown to significantly reduce clinical presentation of symptoms and duration of illness. Nonetheless, the choice of first-line antibiotics must be carefully considered as increasing resistance of enteric pathogens in endemic regions has rendered many first-line antibiotics ineffective (e...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883983/antibiotic-resistance-in-campylobacter-and-other-diarrheal-pathogens-isolated-from-us-military-personnel-deployed-to-thailand-in-2002-2004-a-case-control-study
#15
Carl J Mason, Siriporn Sornsakrin, Jessica C Seidman, Apichai Srijan, Oralak Serichantalergs, Nucharee Thongsen, Michael W Ellis, Viseth Ngauy, Brett E Swierczewski, Ladaporn Bodhidatta
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter continues to be an important cause of diarrheal disease worldwide and a leading cause in Southeast Asia. Studies of US soldiers and marines deployed to Thailand for a 2 to 3 week field exercise provide a unique population in which to study traveler's diarrhea. METHODS: A case-control study of 217 deployed military personnel was conducted from 2002 through 2004. Of these, 155 subjects who presented to a field medical unit with acute diarrhea were enrolled as cases...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882517/diagnosis-and-genetic-analysis-of-the-worldwide-distributed-rattus-borne-trypanosoma-herpetosoma-lewisi-and-its-allied-species-in-blood-and-fleas-of-rodents
#16
Paola A Ortiz, Herakles A Garcia, Luciana Lima, Flávia Maia da Silva, Marta Campaner, Carlos L Pereira, Sathaporn Jittapalapong, Luis Neves, Marc Desquesnes, Erney P Camargo, Marta M G Teixeira
Trypanosoma (Herpetosoma) lewisi is a cosmopolitan parasite of rodents strongly linked to the human dispersal of Rattus spp. from Asia to the rest of the world. This species is highly phylogenetically related to trypanosomes from other rodents (T. lewisi-like), and sporadically infects other mammals. T. lewisi may opportunistically infect humans, and has been considered an emergent rat-borne zoonosis associated to poverty. We developed the THeCATL-PCR based on Cathepsin L (CATL) sequences to specifically detect T...
September 4, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882172/meta-analyses-of-the-proportion-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus-infection-in-vectors-and-vertebrate-hosts
#17
Ana R S Oliveira, Lee W Cohnstaedt, Erin Strathe, Luciana Etcheverry Hernández, D Scott McVey, José Piaggio, Natalia Cernicchiaro
BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a zoonosis in Southeast Asia vectored by mosquitoes infected with the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Japanese encephalitis is considered an emerging exotic infectious disease with potential for introduction in currently JEV-free countries. Pigs and ardeid birds are reservoir hosts and play a major role on the transmission dynamics of the disease. The objective of the study was to quantitatively summarize the proportion of JEV infection in vectors and vertebrate hosts from data pertaining to observational studies obtained in a systematic review of the literature on vector and host competence for JEV, using meta-analyses...
September 7, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877525/development-of-a-thai-parkinson-s-disease-screening-tool-and-the-prevalence-of-parkinsonism-and-parkinson-s-disease-based-on-a-community-survey-in-bangkok
#18
Weerasak Muangpaisan, Pitiporn Siritipakorn, Prasert Assantachai
INTRODUCTION: Few epidemiological data of parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease (PD) exist in Southeast Asia. We aimed to develop and validate a screening tool, and investigate the prevalence of parkinsonism and PD via a community survey. METHODS: A PD-screening tool comprising 11 "yes/no" items was developed in a clinical setting and validated in the community. The prevalence of PD and parkinsonism was investigated in a survey that included PD screening tools, face-to-face interviews, and physical examinations...
September 7, 2017: Neuroepidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874768/a-new-red-cell-index-and-portable-rbc-analyzer-for-screening-of-iron-deficiency-and-thalassemia-minor-in-a-chinese-population
#19
Lieshu Tong, Josef Kauer, Sebastian Wachsmann-Hogiu, Kaiqin Chu, Hu Dou, Zachary J Smith
Anemia is a widespread public health problem with 1/4 ~1/3 of the world's population being affected. In Southeast Asia, Thalassemia trait (TT) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are the two most common anemia types and can have a serious impact on quality of life. IDA patients can be treated with iron supplementation, yet TT patients have diminished capacity to process iron. Therefore, distinguishing between types of anemia is essential for effective diagnosis and treatment. Here, we present two advances towards low-cost screening for anemia...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874226/an-updated-review-of-avian-origin-tembusu-virus-a-newly-emerging-avian-flavivirus
#20
Wei Zhang, Shun Chen, Suresh Mahalingam, Mingshu Wang, Anchun Cheng
Tembusu virus (TMUV, genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) was first isolated in 1955 from Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In April 2010, duck TMUV was first identified as the causative agent of egg-drop syndrome, characterized by a substantial decrease in egg laying and depression, growth retardation and neurological signs or death in infected egg-laying and breeder ducks, in the People's Republic of China. Since 2010, duck TMUV has spread to most of the duck-producing regions in China, including many of the coastal provinces, neighbouring regions and certain Southeast Asia areas (i...
September 6, 2017: Journal of General Virology
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