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Southeast Asia

Tristan Pascart, Frédéric Lioté
This review article summarizes the relevant English literature on gout from 2010 through April 2017. It emphasizes that the current epidemiology of gout indicates a rising prevalence worldwide, not only in Western countries but also in Southeast Asia, in close relationship with the obesity and metabolic syndrome epidemics. New pathogenic mechanisms of chronic hyperuricaemia focus on the gut (microbiota, ABCG2 expression) after the kidney. Cardiovascular and renal comorbidities are the key points to consider in terms of management...
March 13, 2018: Rheumatology
M Chandran, D Tay, X F Huang, Y Hao
Hospital care and mortality of diabetic and non-diabetic osteoporotic Asian patients undergoing hip fracture surgery were explored with no difference in length of hospitalization, incidence of post-operative complications, or mortality between diabetics and non-diabetics seen. Time to operation correlated with post-operative complications occurrence and therefore surgery should be expeditiously done. INTRODUCTION: Whether burden of inpatient care, problems after admission, and mortality rates differ between diabetics and non-diabetics undergoing surgery for osteoporotic hip fractures has not been explored in Asian populations...
March 15, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
Junxiang Wang, Guifang Lin, Khadija Batool, Shuaiqi Zhang, Mingfeng Chen, Jin Xu, Juan Wu, Liang Jin, Ivan Gelbic, Lei Xu, Lingling Zhang, Xiong Guan
Ectropis oblique Prout (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is one of the main pests that damages the tea crop in Southeast Asia. To understand the molecular mechanisms of its feeding biology, transcriptomes of the alimentary tract (AT) and of the body minus the AT of E. oblique were successfully sequenced and analyzed in this study. A total of 36,950 unigenes from de novo sequences were assembled. After analysis using six annotation databases (e.g., Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome, and NCBI nr), a series of putative genes were found for this insect species that were related to digestion, detoxification, the immune system, and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) receptors...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Dengwei Jue, Xuelian Sang, Liqin Liu, Bo Shu, Yicheng Wang, Jianghui Xie, Chengming Liu, Shengyou Shi
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s or UBC enzymes) play vital roles in plant development and combat various biotic and abiotic stresses. Longan ( Dimocarpus longan Lour.) is an important fruit tree in the subtropical region of Southeast Asia and Australia; however the characteristics of the UBC gene family in longan remain unknown. In this study, 40 D. longan UBC genes ( DlUBCs ), which were classified into 15 groups, were identified in the longan genome. An RNA-seq based analysis showed that DlUBCs showed distinct expression in nine longan tissues...
March 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Michele J Upvall, Jeanne M Leffers
OBJECTIVES: Models to guide global health partnerships are rare in the nursing literature. The Conceptual Model for Partnership and Sustainability in Global Health while significant was based on Western perspectives. The purpose of this study was to revise the model to include the voice of nurses from low- and middle-resource countries. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: Grounded theory was used to maintain fidelity with the design in the original model. A purposive sample of 15 participants from a variety of countries in Africa, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia and having extensive experience in global health partnerships were interviewed...
March 15, 2018: Public Health Nursing
Brian Custer, Shimian Zou, Simone A Glynn, Julie Makani, Claude Tayou Tagny, Magdy El Ekiaby, Ester C Sabino, Nabajyoti Choudhury, Diana Teo, Kenrad Nelson, Emmanuel Peprah, LeShawndra Price, Michael M Engelgau
In April 2017, a workshop sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Division of Blood Diseases and Resources, and the Center for Translation Research and Implementation Science was held to discuss blood availability and transfusion safety in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The purpose of the workshop was to identify research opportunities for implementation science (IS) to improve the availability of safe blood and blood components and transfusion practices in LMICs. IS describes the late stages of the translational research spectrum and studies optimal and sustainable strategies to deliver proven-effective interventions...
March 14, 2018: Transfusion
Isatou K Jallow, John Britton, Tessa Langley
BACKGROUND: Annually, 600 000 deaths are attributed to exposure of non-smokers to secondhand smoke (SHS). These include 165 000 among children, about 60% of which occur in Africa and Southeast Asia. As of 2017, only seven countries in the African region had comprehensive smoke-free legislation covering all public places. Given the increasing prevalence of smoking in many low-income countries, preventing exposure to SHS is an urgent public health priority, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Frances Rocamora, Lei Zhu, Kek Yee Liong, Arjen Dondorp, Olivo Miotto, Sachel Mok, Zbynek Bozdech
Due to their remarkable parasitocidal activity, artemisinins represent the key components of first-line therapies against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, the decline in efficacy of artemisinin-based drugs jeopardizes global efforts to control and ultimately eradicate the disease. To better understand the resistance phenotype, artemisinin-resistant parasite lines were derived from two clones of the 3D7 strain of P. falciparum using a selection regimen that mimics how parasites interact with the drug within patients...
March 14, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Jennifer A Sheridan, Bryan L Stuart
Accurately delimiting species and their geographic ranges is imperative for conservation, especially in areas experiencing rapid habitat loss. Southeast Asia currently has one of the highest rates of deforestation in the world, is home to multiple biodiversity hotspots, and the majority of its countries have developing economies with limited resources for biodiversity conservation. Thus, accurately delimiting species and their ranges is particularly important in this region. We examined genetic and morphological variation in the widespread frog species Sylvirana nigrovittata (and its long-treated junior synonym S...
2018: PloS One
Alyssa T Pyke, Peter R Moore, Jamie McMahon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
V Isoni, D Kumbang, P N Sharratt, H H Khoo
Aligned with Singapore's commitment to sustainable development and investment in renewable resources, cleaner energy and technology (Sustainable Singapore Blueprint), we report a techno-economic analysis of the biorefinery process in Southeast Asia. The considerations in this study provide an overview of the current and future challenges in the biomass-to-chemical processes with life-cycle thinking, linking the land used for agriculture and biomass to the levulinic acid production. 7-8 kg of lignocellulosic feedstock (glucan content 30-35 wt%) from agriculture residues empty fruit bunches (EFB) or rice straw (RS) can be processed to yield 1 kg of levulinic acid...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Sokly Siev, Heejun Yang, Ty Sok, Sovannara Uk, Layheang Song, Dilini Kodikara, Chantha Oeurng, Seingheng Hul, Chihiro Yoshimura
Most of studies on sediment dynamics in stable shallow lakes focused on the resuspension process as it is the dominant process. However, understanding of sediment dynamics in a shallow lake influenced by flood pulse is unclear. We tested a hypothesis that floodplain vegetation plays as a significant role in lessening the intensity of resuspension process in a shallow lake characterized by the flood pulse system. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate sediment dynamics in this type of shallow lake. The target was Tonle Sap Lake (TSL), which is a large shallow lake influenced by a flood pulse system of Mekong River located in Southeast Asia...
March 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
William Sledge, Julia Rozanova, Julianne Dorset
OBJECTIVE: To provide a follow up of a 1976 study of the impact of captivity on U.S. Air Force (USAF) POWs and USAF Controls matched for time in Southeast Asia, military rank and aircraft crew position. METHOD: Qualitative study of replies to open ended questions of positive and negative changes due to their captivity/combat experiences made by participants (POWs and Controls) who replied in both 1976 and in 2003. RESULTS: Both groups acknowledged positive and negative effects of the experiences in 1976...
March 13, 2018: Psychiatry
Suparak Para, Punchalee Mungkalasut, Makamas Chanda, Issarang Nuchprayoon, Srivicha Krudsood, Chalisa Louicharoen Cheepsunthorn
Background: The protective effect of α-thalassemia, a common hematological disorder in Southeast Asia, against Plasmodium falciparum malaria has been well established. However, there is much less understanding of the effect of α-thalassemia against P. vivax . Here, we aimed to investigate the proportion of α-thalassemia including the impact of α-thalassemia and HbE on the parasitemia of P. vivax in Southeast Asian malaria patients in Thailand. Methods: A total of 210 malaria patients, admitted to the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Thailand during 2011-2012, consisting of 159 Myanmeses, 13 Karens, 26 Thais, 3 Mons, 3 Laotians, and 6 Cambodians were recruited...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
Laurent Dembele, Devendra Kumar Gupta, Michelle Yi-Xiu Lim, Xiaoman Ang, Jeremy J Selva, Kesinee Chotivanich, Chea Nguon, Arjen M Dondorp, Ghislain M C Bonamy, Thierry T Diagana, Pablo Bifani
Artemisinin (ART) resistance has spread through Southeast Asia, posing serious threat to the control and elimination of malaria. ART resistance has been associated with mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum kelch-13 ( Pfk13 ) propeller domain. Phenotypically, ART resistance is defined as delayed parasite clearance in patients' due to the reduced susceptibility of early ring-stage parasites to the active metabolite of ART dihydroartemisinin (DHA). Early rings can enter a state of quiescence upon DHA exposure and resume growth in its absence...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Jin-Min Chen, Nikolay A Poyarkov, Chatmongkon Suwannapoom, Amy Lathrop, Yun-He Wu, Wei-Wei Zhou, Zhi-Yong Yuan, Jie-Qiong Jin, Hong-Man Chen, He-Qun Liu, Truong Quang Nguyen, Sang Ngoc Nguyen, Tang Van Duong, Koshiro Eto, Kanto Nishikawa, Masafumi Matsui, Nikolai L Orlov, Bryan L Stuart, Rafe M Brown, Jodi J L Rowley, Robert W Murphy, Ying-Yong Wang, Jing Che
Southeast Asia and southern China (SEA-SC) harbor a highly diverse and endemic flora and fauna that is under increasing threat. An understanding of the biogeographical history and drivers of this diversity is lacking, especially in some of the most diverse and threatened groups. The Asian leaf-litter frog genus Leptolalax Dubois 1980 is a forest-dependent genus distributed throughout SEA-SC, making it an ideal study group to examine specific biogeographic hypotheses. In addition, the diversity of this genus remains poorly understood, and the phylogenetic relationships among species of Leptolalax and closely related Leptobrachella Smith 1928 remain unclear...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Mathieu Gendrot, Francis Tsombeng Foguim, Marie Gladys Robert, Rémy Amalvict, Joel Mosnier, Nicolas Benoit, Marylin Madamet, Bruno Pradines
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy has emerged and spread in Southeast Asia. In areas where artemisinin resistance is emerging, the efficacy of combination is now based on partner drugs. In this context, the identification of novel markers of resistance is essential to monitor the emergence and spread of resistance to these partner drugs. The ubiquitylation pathway could be a possible target for anti-malarial compounds and might be involved in resistance...
March 12, 2018: Malaria Journal
Masahiko Mori, Nuanjun Wichukchinda, Reiko Miyahara, Archawin Rojanawiwat, Panita Pathipvanich, Toshiyuki Miura, Michio Yasunami, Koya Ariyoshi, Pathom Sawanpanyalert
BACKGROUND: Class I HLA molecules contribute to HIV control through antigen presentation to both cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and NK cells. Contribution of CTLs to HIV clinical outcome by HLA alleles has been well studied. However, reports about the role of NK cells in HIV clinical outcome, particularly, about the effect of HLA-KIR pairs, remain incomplete. METHODS: The effects of HLA allele-KIR pairs on HIV clinical outcome were statistically analyzed in a Thai cohort of treatment-naïve chronically infected (n=209)...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Rupam Tripura, Thomas J Peto, Chea Nguon, Chan Davoeung, Mavuto Mukaka, Pasathorn Sirithiranont, Mehul Dhorda, Cholrawee Promnarate, Mallika Imwong, Lorenz von Seidlein, Jureeporn Duanguppama, Krittaya Patumrat, Huy Rekol, Martin P Grobusch, Nicholas P J Day, Nicholas J White, Arjen M Dondorp
Background: The increase in multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Southeast Asia suggests a need for acceleration of malaria elimination. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of mass drug administrations (MDA) to interrupt malaria transmission. Methods: Four malaria-endemic villages in western Cambodia were randomized to three rounds of MDA (a three-day course of dihydroartemisinin with piperaquine-phosphate), administered in either early or at the end of the study-period...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Chee Wei Yew, Mohd Zahirul Hoque, Jacqueline Pugh-Kitingan, Alexander Minsong, Christopher Lok Yung Voo, Julian Ransangan, Sophia Tiek Ying Lau, Xu Wang, Woei Yuh Saw, Rick Twee-Hee Ong, Yik-Ying Teo, Shuhua Xu, Boon-Peng Hoh, Maude E Phipps, S Vijay Kumar
The region of northern Borneo is home to the current state of Sabah, Malaysia. It is located closest to the southern Philippine islands and may have served as a viaduct for ancient human migration onto or off of Borneo Island. In this study, five indigenous ethnic groups from Sabah were subjected to genome-wide SNP genotyping. These individuals represent the "North Borneo"-speaking group of the great Austronesian family. They have traditionally resided in the inland region of Sabah. The dataset was merged with public datasets, and the genetic relatedness of these groups to neighboring populations from the islands of Southeast Asia, mainland Southeast Asia and southern China was inferred...
March 9, 2018: Annals of Human Genetics
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