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Alison G Lee, Blake Le Grand, Hsiao-Hsien Leon Hsu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda Chiu, Kasey J Brennan, Sonali Bose, Maria José Rosa, Kelly J Brunst, Itai Kloog, Ander Wilson, Joel Schwartz, Wayne Morgan, Brent A Coull, Robert O Wright, Andrea A Baccarelli, Rosalind J Wright
BACKGROUND: In utero exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5 ) has been linked to child lung function. Overlapping evidence suggests that child sex and exposure timing may modify effects and associations may be mediated through glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) methylation. METHODS: We prospectively examined associations among prenatal PM2.5 exposure and child lung function and GSTP1 methylation in an urban pregnancy cohort study...
April 27, 2018: Respiratory Research
Calvin D Eiber, Socrates Dokos, Nigel H Lovell, Gregg J Suaning
Visual prostheses are now an available mobility aid for patients blinded by degenerative retinal diseases. However, the spatial resolution of existing devices is still insufficient to deliver normal levels of mobility vision without stimulation strategies, which enable existing devices to deliver several different percepts per stimulation site. A stimulation strategy, in which field shaping is achieved by incorporating multipolar (bipolar and tripolar) stimulation could convey additional information to a user of a visual prosthesis, as compared with monopolar stimulation, is investigated...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Amy A Schultz, Jamie J Schauer, Kristen Mc Malecki
BACKGROUND: Exposure to multiple types of air pollution may contribute to and exacerbate allergic diseases including asthma and wheezing. However, few studies have examined chronic air pollution exposure and allergic disease outcomes among an adult population. Associations between potential estimates of annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5), traffic related air pollution, and industrial source air emissions and three allergic disease outcomes (asthma, allergies and wheezing) were examined in a state-wide general population of adults...
May 2017: Environmental Research
David Adger
The Baysian Iterated Learning approach to language is consistent with generative grammar, but needs to be supplemented with specific cognitive constraints for empirical adequacy.
February 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Fabian Grandke, Priyanka Singh, Henri C M Heuven, Jorn R de Haan, Dirk Metzler
BACKGROUND: Association studies are an essential part of modern plant breeding, but are limited for polyploid crops. The increased number of possible genotype classes complicates the differentiation between them. Available methods are limited with respect to the ploidy level or data producing technologies. While genotype classification is an established noise reduction step in diploids, it gains complexity with increasing ploidy levels. Eventually, the errors produced by misclassifications exceed the benefits of genotype classes...
August 24, 2016: BMC Genomics
Thomas J Fayton, Stephen S Curran, Michael J Andres, Robin M Overstreet, Chris T McAllister
Two species of digeneans belonging in Homalometron are described from Nearctic freshwater fundulid fishes: Homalometron robisoni n. sp. is described from the Blackstripe Topminnow, Fundulus notatus, from Oklahoma and Homalometron frocioneae n. sp. is described from the Banded Killifish, Fundulus diaphanus, from New York. Homalometron robisoni n. sp. differs from all congeners by having vitelline follicles that extend into the forebody, a feature that necessitates altering the generic diagnosis for the genus...
February 2016: Journal of Parasitology
Chaeyoung Lee
Epistasis that may explain a large portion of the phenotypic variation for complex economic traits of animals has been ignored in many genetic association studies. A Baysian method was introduced to draw inferences about multilocus genotypic effects based on their marginal posterior distributions by a Gibbs sampler. A simulation study was conducted to provide statistical powers under various unbalanced designs by using this method. Data were simulated by combined designs of number of loci, within genotype variance, and sample size in unbalanced designs with or without null combined genotype cells...
November 2012: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Michelle R Gaither, Jennifer K Schultz, David R Bellwood, Richard L Pyle, Joseph D Dibattista, Luiz A Rocha, Brian W Bowen
The pygmy angelfishes (genus Centropyge, family Pomacanthidae) are brightly colored species that occupy reef habitats in every tropical ocean. Some species are rarely observed because they occur below conventional scuba depths. Their striking coloration can command thousands of U.S. dollars in the aquarium trade, and closely related species are often distinguished only by coloration. These factors have impeded phylogenetic resolution, and every phylogeographic survey to date has reported discordance between coloration, taxonomy, and genetic partitions...
May 2014: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
G Ian Gallicano
Embryonic stem cell (ESC), iPCs, and adult stem cells (ASCs) all are among the most promising potential treatments for heart failure, spinal cord injury, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes. However, considerable uncertainty in the production of ESC-derived terminally differentiated cell types has limited the efficiency of their development. To address this uncertainty, we and other investigators have begun to employ a comprehensive statistical model of ESC differentiation for determining the role of intracellular pathways (e...
2013: Scientifica
Jeffrey Cummings, Heath Gould, Kate Zhong
There is an urgent need to identify new treatments for the rapidly growing population of people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Innovations in clinical trial designs many help to reduce development time, provide more definitive answers regarding drug efficacy, and facilitate prioritizing compounds to be advanced to Phase III clinical trials. Standard designs compare drug and placebo changes from baseline on a rating scale. Baysian adaptive clinical trials allow the use of data collected in the trial to modify doses, sample size, trial duration, and entry criteria in an ongoing way as the data are collected...
2012: American Journal of Neurodegenerative Disease
Gajanan Tryambak Behere, Wee Tek Tay, Derek Alan Russell, Keshav Raj Kranthi, Philip Batterham
Helicoverpa armigera is an important pest of cotton and other agricultural crops in the Old World. Its wide host range, high mobility and fecundity, and the ability to adapt and develop resistance against all common groups of insecticides used for its management have exacerbated its pest status. An understanding of the population genetic structure in H. armigera under Indian agricultural conditions will help ascertain gene flow patterns across different agricultural zones. This study inferred the population genetic structure of Indian H...
2013: PloS One
Alireza Abadi, Farzaneh Amanpour, Chris Bajdik, Parvin Yavari
BACKGROUND: The goal of this study is to extend the applications of parametric survival models so that they include cases in which accelerated failure time (AFT) assumption is not satisfied, and examine parametric and semiparametric models under different proportional hazards (PH) and AFT assumptions. METHODS: The data for 12,531 women diagnosed with breast cancer in British Columbia, Canada, during 1990-1999 were divided into eight groups according to patients' ages and stage of disease, and each group was assumed to have different AFT and PH assumptions...
September 2012: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Adrien Gaudineau, Erik-André Sauleau, Israël Nisand, Bruno Langer
PURPOSE: To compare the intervention rates associated with labor in low-risk women who began their labor in the "home-like birth centre" (HLBC) and the traditional labor ward (TLW). METHODS: This retrospective study used data that were collected from January 2005 to June 2008, from women admitted to the HLBC (n = 316) and compared to a group of randomly selected low-risk women admitted to the TLW (n = 890) using the Baysian information criterion to select the best predictive model...
February 2013: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
A Gaudineau, E-A Sauleau, I Nisand, B Langer
OBJECTIVES: To compare intervention rates associated with labor in low-risk women who began their labor in the "home-like birth centre" and the traditional delivery room. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study used data that were collected from January 2005 through June 2008, from women admitted to the "home-like birth centre" (n=316) and compared to a group of randomly selected low-risk women admitted to the traditional labor ward (n=890) using the Baysian Information Criterion to select the best predictive model...
September 2012: Gynécologie, Obstétrique & Fertilité
T S Kiseleva, K I Pagava, I A Korinteli, M G Korinteli, D N Shonvadze
Different methods being used in the rare diseases clinical trials are examined. There is shown the purposefulness of using fuzzy approaches for such studies. Some advantages of Fuzzy logic methods in comparison with Baysian approach are substantiated.
April 2011: Georgian Medical News
B Pernick, R E Kopp, J Lisa, J Mendelsohn, H Stone, R Wohlers
Coherent optical signal processing methods for screening Pap smears were evaluated and are presented in a three-part sequence. In Part 1, 2-D Fourier spectra of normal and abnormal cells generated from many high resolution cell photographs are presented. Each cell spectrum was measured with a coherent optical data processing system containing a special geometry detector and automated data collection capability. Several parameters, determined from weighted measures of the cell transform intensity variations, were tested as feature discriminators to separate normal from abnormal cells...
January 1, 1978: Applied Optics
Emily A Monroe, Frances M Van Dolah
Karenia brevis is the Florida red tide dinoflagellate responsible for detrimental effects on human and environmental health through the production of brevetoxins. Brevetoxins are thought to be synthesized by a polyketide synthase (PKS) complex, but the gene cluster for this PKS has yet to be identified. Here, eight PKS transcripts were identified in K. brevis by high throughput cDNA library screening. Full length sequences were obtained through 3' and 5' RACE, which demonstrated the presence of polyadenylation, 3'-UTRs, and an identical dinoflagellate-specific spliced leader sequence at the 5' end of PKS transcripts...
July 2008: Protist
Koen Van Leemput
This paper addresses the problem of creating probabilistic brain atlases from manually labeled training data. We propose a general mesh-based atlas representation, and compare different atlas models by evaluating their posterior probabilities and the posterior probabilities of their parameters. Using such a Baysian framework, we show that the widely used "average" brain atlases constitute relatively poor priors, partly because they tend to overfit the training data, and partly because they do not allow to align corresponding anatomical features across datasets...
2006: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
Sherwin S Desser, Anne Koehler, John R Barta, Jubin Kamyab, Maurice J Ringuette
A new species of microsporidian, Trichonosema algonquinensis, is described from a freshwater bryozoan, Pectinatella magnifica from Ontario, Canada. The parasite develops in epithelial cells and appears as white, spherical masses throughout the tissues. Trichonosema algonquinensis is diplokaryotic, diploblastic and undergoes development in direct contact with the cytoplasm of the host cell. Mature spores are ovoid, tapered at one end, and measure 8.5 +/- 0.3 x 4.4 +/- 0.1 microm. The polar filament is wound in 20 to 23 helical coils...
July 2004: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Scott Serels, Mark Stein
INTRODUCTION: Multiple surgical approaches for the correction of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) have been described. In an attempt to determine which procedure may be superior, we performed a meta-analysis comparing the needle suspensions (i.e. Gittes, Stamey), Raz, Burch/MMK colposuspension, and urethral sling. METHODS: The most complete 87 of 310 articles relating to the surgical therapy for SUI published between 1982 and 1995 were selected by Medline search for review. These articles incorporated patients operated on from 1965 to 1995...
March 1997: Canadian Journal of Urology
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