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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165029/brief-report-active-ingredients-for-adherence-to-a-tracker-based-physical-activity-intervention-in-older-adults
#1
Maria C Swartz, Zakkoyya H Lewis, Michael D Swartz, Eloisa Martinez, Elizabeth J Lyons
OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with weekly adherence to a 12-week tracker-based activity intervention in older adults. METHOD: Using generalized linear mixed models in a secondary analysis ( N = 35), we examined factors associated with weekly adherence (defined as wore the Jawbone Up24 tracker for ≥5 days and completed weekly calls). Factors examined included individual characteristics, gave and received virtual support, achieved step goals, barrier and task self-efficacy, and self-comment...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164795/education-mitigates-the-effect-of-poverty-on-total-knee-arthroplasty-outcomes
#2
Susan M Goodman, Lisa A Mandl, Bella Mehta, Iris Navarro-Millan, Linda A Russell, Michael L Parks, Shirin A Dey, Daisy Crego, Mark P Figgie, Joseph T Nguyen, Jackie Szymonifka, Meng Zhang, Anne R Bass
OBJECTIVE: TKA outcomes are worse for patients from poor neighborhoods, but whether education mitigates the effect of poverty is not known. We assessed the interaction between education and poverty on 2-year WOMAC pain and function. METHODS: Patient level variables from an institutional registry were linked to US Census Bureau data (census tract (CT) level). Statistical models including patient and CT level variables were constructed within multilevel frameworks...
November 22, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164741/effects-of-breed-proportion-and-components-of-heterosis-for-semen-traits-in-a-composite-cattle-breed
#3
N Khayatzadeh, G Mészáros, Y T Utsunomiya, F Schmitz-Hsu, F Seefried, U Schnyder, M Ferenčaković, J F Garcia, I Curik, J Sölkner
The aim of this study was to estimate the non-additive genetic effects of the dominance component of heterosis as well as epistatic loss on semen traits in admixed Swiss Fleckvieh, a composite of Simmental (SI) and Red Holstein Friesian (RHF) cattle. Heterosis is the additional gain in productivity or fitness of cross-bred progeny over the mid-purebred parental populations. Intralocus gene interaction usually has a positive effect, while epistatic loss generally reduces productivity or fitness due to lack of evolutionarily established interactions of genes from different breeds...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164637/internal-pilot-design-for-balanced-repeated-measures
#4
Xinrui Zhang, Keith E Muller, Maureen M Goodenow, Yueh-Yun Chi
Repeated measures are common in clinical trials and epidemiological studies. Designing studies with repeated measures requires reasonably accurate specifications of the variances and correlations to select an appropriate sample size. Underspecifying the variances leads to a sample size that is inadequate to detect a meaningful scientific difference, while overspecifying the variances results in an unnecessarily large sample size. Both lead to wasting resources and placing study participants in unwarranted risk...
November 21, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164493/mapping-quality-of-life-eq-5d-from-dapsa-clinical-dapsa-and-haq-in-psoriatic-arthritis
#5
Tomas Mlcoch, Jan Tuzil, Liliana Sedova, Jiri Stolfa, Monika Urbanova, David Suchy, Andrea Smrzova, Jitka Jircikova, Tereza Hrnciarova, Karel Pavelka, Tomas Dolezal
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials and observational studies lacking measures of health-related quality of life (QoL) are often inapplicable when conducting cost-effectiveness analyses using quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The only solution is to map QoL ex post from additionally collected clinical outcomes and generic QoL instruments. Nonetheless, mapping studies are absent in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). METHODS: In this 2-year, prospective, multicentre, non-interventional study of PsA patients, EQ-5D and key clinical parameters such as Disease Activity in PsA (DAPsA), clinical DAPsA (cDAPsA; DAPsA without C-reactive protein [CRP]), and Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index (HAQ) were collected...
November 21, 2017: Patient
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164139/associations-between-antibacterial-treatment-and-the-prevalence-of-tail-biting-related-sequelae-in-danish-finishers-at-slaughter
#6
Mette Fertner, Matt Denwood, Anna Camilla Birkegård, Helle Stege, Anette Boklund
Secondary infections as a result of tail biting cause substantial economic losses in pig production and are a subject of concern for animal welfare. The use of first-choice antibacterial agents in the treatment of tail biting in finishing pigs is hypothesized to be negatively correlated with the development of systemic infection. This would be expected to reduce the prevalence of post-mortem pyemic sequelae (such as osteomyelitis and abscesses) in finishers with tail-bite lesions. We performed a register-based study that included three Danish databases, holding information on the purchase of antibacterials at herd level (VetStat), herd demographics (Central Husbandry Register), and relevant observations at slaughter (meat inspection data)...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163144/the-relationship-of-cognitive-performance-and-the-theta-alpha-power-ratio-is-age-dependent-an-eeg-study-of-short-term-memory-and-reasoning-during-task-and-resting-state-in-healthy-young-and-old-adults
#7
Janet P Trammell, Priscilla G MacRae, Greta Davis, Dylan Bergstedt, Ariana E Anderson
Objective: The Theta-Alpha ratio (TAR) is known to differ based upon age and cognitive ability, with pathological electroencephalography (EEG) patterns routinely found within neurodegenerative disorders of older adults. We hypothesized that cognitive ability would predict EEG metrics differently within healthy young and old adults, and that healthy old adults not showing age-expected EEG activity may be more likely to demonstrate cognitive deficits relative to old adults showing these expected changes. Methods: In 216 EEG blocks collected in 16 young and 20 old adults during rest (eyes open, eyes closed) and cognitive tasks (short-term memory [STM]; matrix reasoning [RM; Raven's matrices]), models assessed the contributing roles of cognitive ability, age, and task in predicting the TAR...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163092/how-well-can-saliency-models-predict-fixation-selection-in-scenes-beyond-central-bias-a-new-approach-to-model-evaluation-using-generalized-linear-mixed-models
#8
Antje Nuthmann, Wolfgang Einhäuser, Immo Schütz
Since the turn of the millennium, a large number of computational models of visual salience have been put forward. How best to evaluate a given model's ability to predict where human observers fixate in images of real-world scenes remains an open research question. Assessing the role of spatial biases is a challenging issue; this is particularly true when we consider the tendency for high-salience items to appear in the image center, combined with a tendency to look straight ahead ("central bias"). This problem is further exacerbated in the context of model comparisons, because some-but not all-models implicitly or explicitly incorporate a center preference to improve performance...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162101/ivermectin-susceptibility-sporontocidal-effect-and-inhibition-of-time-to-re-feed-in-the-amazonian-malaria-vector-anopheles-darlingi
#9
Kevin C Kobylinski, Karín S Escobedo-Vargas, Victor M López-Sifuentes, Salomón Durand, Edward S Smith, G Christian Baldeviano, Robert V Gerbasi, Sara-Blythe Ballard, Craig A Stoops, Gissella M Vásquez
BACKGROUND: Outdoor malaria transmission hinders malaria elimination efforts in the Amazon region and novel vector control tools are needed. Ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA) to humans kills wild Anopheles, targets outdoor-feeding vectors, and can suppress malaria parasite transmission. Laboratory investigations were performed to determine ivermectin susceptibility, sporontocidal effect and inhibition of time to re-feed for the primary Amazonian malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi...
November 21, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161632/ambient-air-pollution-adipokines-and-glucose-homeostasis-the-framingham-heart-study
#10
Wenyuan Li, Kirsten S Dorans, Elissa H Wilker, Mary B Rice, Itai Kloog, Joel D Schwartz, Petros Koutrakis, Brent A Coull, Diane R Gold, James B Meigs, Caroline S Fox, Murray A Mittleman
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of proximity to major roadways, sustained exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and acute exposure to ambient air pollutants with adipokines and measures of glucose homeostasis among participants living in the northeastern United States. METHODS: We included 5958 participants from the Framingham Offspring cohort examination cycle 7 (1998-2001) and 8 (2005-2008) and Third Generation cohort examination cycle 1 (2002-2005) and 2 (2008-2011), who did not have type 2 diabetes at the time of examination visit...
November 18, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161063/impact-of-the-2010-us-healthy-hunger-free-kids-act-on-school-breakfast-and-lunch-participation-rates-between-2008-and-2015
#11
Nicole Vaudrin, Kristen Lloyd, Michael J Yedidia, Michael Todd, Punam Ohri-Vachaspati
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and School Breakfast Program (SBP) participation over a 7-year period before and after the implementation of the 2010 Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act (HHFKA), which required healthier school lunch options beginning in school year (SY) 2012-2013 and healthier school breakfast options beginning in SY2013-2014. METHODS: Data were gathered from low-income, high-minority public schools in 4 New Jersey cities...
November 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160442/effects-of-socioeconomic-position-and-social-mobility-on-linear-growth-from-early-childhood-until-adolescence
#12
Ana Paula Muraro, Rita Adriana Gomes de Souza, Paulo Rogério Melo Rodrigues, Márcia Gonçalves Ferreira, Rosely Sichieri
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of socioeconomic position (SEP) in childhood and social mobility on linear growth through adolescence in a population-based cohort. METHODS: Children born in Cuiabá-MT, central-western Brazil, were evaluated during 1994 - 1999. They were first assessed during 1999 - 2000 (0 - 5 years) and again during 2009 - 2011 (10 - 17 years), and their height-for-age was evaluated during these two periods.Awealth index was used to classify the SEP of each child's family as low, medium, or high...
July 2017: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159710/prediction-of-free-from-total-mycophenolic-acid-concentrations-in-stable-renal-transplant-patients-a-population-based-approach
#13
Helena Colom, Franc Andreu, Teun van Gelder, Dennis A Hesselink, Brenda C M de Winter, Oriol Bestard, Joan Torras, Josep M Cruzado, Josep M Grinyó, Núria Lloberas
BACKGROUND: A population pharmacokinetic (PK) protein-binding model was developed to (1) predict free mycophenolic acid (fMPA) based on total MPA (tMPA) concentrations in renal transplant patients, to establish the therapeutic range of fMPA through pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic studies; and (2) provide a guideline for dosing mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). METHODS: Full PK profiles of 56 patients (from five different occasions) during the first year after transplantation who were treated with oral MMF and cyclosporine, or macrolides (either tacrolimus or sirolimus), were analysed...
November 20, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159506/a-longitudinal-study-of-dna-methylation-as-a-potential-mediator-of-age-related-diabetes-risk
#14
Crystal D Grant, Nadereh Jafari, Lifang Hou, Yun Li, James D Stewart, Guosheng Zhang, Archana Lamichhane, JoAnn E Manson, Andrea A Baccarelli, Eric A Whitsel, Karen N Conneely
DNA methylation (DNAm) has been found to show robust and widespread age-related changes across the genome. DNAm profiles from whole blood can be used to predict human aging rates with great accuracy. We sought to test whether DNAm-based predictions of age are related to phenotypes associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), with the goal of identifying risk factors potentially mediated by DNAm. Our participants were 43 women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative. We obtained methylation data via the Illumina 450K Methylation array on whole blood samples from participants at three timepoints, covering on average 16 years per participant...
November 20, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159017/gardening-and-age-related-weight-gain-results-from-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-denver-residents
#15
Jill S Litt, Jeffrey Richard Lambert, Deborah H Glueck
This study examined whether gardening modifies the association between age and body mass index (BMI). We used data from the Neighborhood Environments and Health Survey, which was conducted in Denver (N = 469) between 2006 and 2007. We fit two general linear mixed models. The base model had BMI in kg/m(2) as the outcome, and age, an indicator variable for non-gardening status and the age-by-non-gardening status interaction as predictors. The adjusted model included as covariates the potential confounders of education, ethnicity and self-reported health...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157934/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-onset-and-inflammatory-and-endothelial-function-biomarkers-in-women
#16
Jennifer A Sumner, Qixuan Chen, Andrea L Roberts, Ashley Winning, Eric B Rimm, Paola Gilsanz, M Maria Glymour, Shelley S Tworoger, Karestan C Koenen, Laura D Kubzansky
BACKGROUND: Research has linked posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with higher circulating levels of inflammatory and endothelial function (EF) biomarkers, and effects may be bidirectional. We conducted the first investigation of new-onset PTSD and changes in inflammatory and EF biomarkers. METHODS: Data were from women in the Nurses' Health Study II. Biomarkers obtained at two blood draws, 10-16 years apart, included C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor-II (TNFRII), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)...
November 17, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157367/a-multilevel-study-of-the-environmental-determinants-of-swine-ascariasis-in-england
#17
Ângelo Joel Mendes, Ana Isabel Ribeiro, Milton Severo, João Niza-Ribeiro
Ascariasis is considered a common parasitosis of swine worldwide. The disease causes significant economic losses due to its effect on feed conversion ratio and liver condemnations at slaughter (liver milk spots). This study aimed to characterise the between-farm and spatial variance in porcine ascariasis in England and to assess the association between the percentage of infected animals and potential environmental risk factors, including production system, socioeconomic deprivation, soil characteristics (pH, topsoil bulk density, topsoil organic matter, topsoil texture class, soil water regime, topsoil available water capacity, and elevation), and climatic conditions (relative humidity, air temperature, and rainfall) before slaughter...
December 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156256/effects-of-ambient-temperature-on-lung-function-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-time-series-panel-study
#18
Zhijing Lin, Yutong Gu, Cong Liu, Yuanlin Song, Chunxue Bai, Renjie Chen, Shujing Chen, Haidong Kan
BACKGROUND: Limited evidence concerns the associations between ambient temperature and lung function and the results are mixed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the associations between temperature variations and daily fluctuations in pulmonary function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. METHODS: We designed a time-series panel study of 28 male urban COPD patients with repeated daily lung function measurements from December 2012 to May 2013 in Shanghai, China...
November 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156149/quantitative-evaluation-of-vertebral-microvascular-permeability-and-fat-fraction-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-rabbits
#19
Lei Hu, Yun Fei Zha, Li Wang, Liang Li, Dong Xing, Wei Gong, Jiao Wang, Yuan Lin, Fei Fei Zeng, Xue Song Lu
Purpose To determine longitudinal relationships between lumbar vertebral bone marrow permeability and marrow adipose tissue in a rabbit diabetes model by using quantitative dynamic contrast agent-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and iterative decomposition of water and fat with the echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation quantitation (IDEAL IQ) sequence. Materials and Methods Twenty rabbits were randomly assigned to the diabetic (n = 10) or control (n = 10) group. All rabbits underwent sagittal MR imaging of the lumbar region at fixed time points (0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks after alloxan injection)...
November 20, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156054/hospice-care-cancer-directed-therapy-and-medicare-expenditures-among-older-patients-dying-with-malignant-brain-tumors
#20
Laura L Dover, Caleb R Dulaney, Courtney P Williams, John B Fiveash, Bradford E Jackson, Paula P Warren, Elizabeth A Kvale, D Hunter Boggs, Gabrielle B Rocque
Background: End-of-life care for older adults with malignant brain tumors is poorly understood. The purpose of this study is to quantify end-of-life utilization of hospice care, cancer-directed therapy, and associated Medicare expenditures among older adults with malignant brain tumors. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included deceased Medicare beneficiaries age ≥65 with primary (PMBT) or secondary (SMBT) malignant brain tumor receiving care within a Southeastern cancer community network including academic and community hospitals from 2012-2015...
November 15, 2017: Neuro-oncology
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