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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918547/adaptive-step-goals-and-rewards-a-longitudinal-growth-model-of-daily-steps-for-a-smartphone-based-walking-intervention
#1
Elizabeth V Korinek, Sayali S Phatak, Cesar A Martin, Mohammad T Freigoun, Daniel E Rivera, Marc A Adams, Pedja Klasnja, Matthew P Buman, Eric B Hekler
Adaptive interventions are an emerging class of behavioral interventions that allow for individualized tailoring of intervention components over time to a person's evolving needs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an adaptive step goal + reward intervention, grounded in Social Cognitive Theory delivered via a smartphone application (Just Walk), using a mixed modeling approach. Participants (N = 20) were overweight (mean BMI = 33.8 ± 6.82 kg/m(2)), sedentary adults (90% female) interested in participating in a 14-week walking intervention...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917208/prenatal-exposure-to-perfluoroalkyl-substances-and-birth-outcomes-in-a-spanish-birth-cohort
#2
Cyntia B Manzano-Salgado, Maribel Casas, Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa, Ferran Ballester, Carmen Iñiguez, David Martinez, Olga Costa, Loreto Santa-Marina, Eva Pereda-Pereda, Thomas Schettgen, Jordi Sunyer, Martine Vrijheid
BACKGROUND: Prenatal perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) exposure has been associated with reduced birth weight but maternal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) may attenuate this association. Further, this association remains unclear for other perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA). We estimated associations between prenatal PFAS exposure and birth outcomes, and the influence of GFR, in a Spanish birth cohort...
September 13, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915931/nutrient-removal-from-wastewater-using-microalgae-a-kinetic-evaluation-and-lipid-analysis
#3
(no author information available yet)
The objective of this study was to examine the performance of mixed microalgal bioreactors in treating three differenttypes of wastewaters - kitchen wastewater (KWW), palm oil mill effluent (POME), and pharmaceutical wastewater (PWW) in semi-continuous mode and to analyze the lipid content in the harvested algal biomass. The reactors were monitored for total nitrogen and phosphate removal at eight solid retention times (SRTs) - 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 days. The nutrient uptake kinetic parameters were quantified using linearized Michaelis-Menten and Monod models at steady-state conditions...
September 15, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915782/voicing-assimilation-in-czech-and-slovak-speakers-of-english-interactions-of-segmental-context-language-and-strength-of-foreign-accent
#4
Radek Skarnitzl, Pavel Šturm
This study focuses on voicing assimilation across word boundaries in the speech of second language (L2) users. We compare native speakers of British English to speakers of two West Slavic languages, Czech and Slovak, which, despite their many similarities, differ with respect to voicing assimilation rules. Word-final voicing was analysed in 30 speakers, using the static value of voicing percentage and the voicing profile method. The results of linear mixed-effects modelling suggest an effect of first language (L1) transfer in all L2 English speaker groups, with the tendency to assimilate being correlated with the strength of foreign accent...
September 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915236/modeling-antibiotic-treatment-in-hospitals-a-systematic-approach-shows-benefits-of-combination-therapy-over-cycling-mixing-and-mono-drug-therapies
#5
Burcu Tepekule, Hildegard Uecker, Isabel Derungs, Antoine Frenoy, Sebastian Bonhoeffer
Multiple treatment strategies are available for empiric antibiotic therapy in hospitals, but neither clinical studies nor theoretical investigations have yielded a clear picture when which strategy is optimal and why. Extending earlier work of others and us, we present a mathematical model capturing treatment strategies using two drugs, i.e the multi-drug therapies referred to as cycling, mixing, and combination therapy, as well as monotherapy with either drug. We randomly sample a large parameter space to determine the conditions determining success or failure of these strategies...
September 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915102/acceleration-selective-arterial-spin-labeling-mr-angiography-used-to-visualize-distal-cerebral-arteries-and-collateral-vessels-in-moyamoya-disease
#6
Osamu Togao, Akio Hiwatashi, Makoto Obara, Koji Yamashita, Kazufumi Kikuchi, Ryotaro Kamei, Ataru Nishimura, Koichi Arimura, Koji Yoshimoto, Koji Iihara, Marc Van Cauteren, Hiroshi Honda
Purpose To evaluate and compare the performance of acceleration-selective arterial spin labeling (AccASL) magnetic resonance (MR) angiography in the visualization of cerebral arteries and collateral vessels in patients with Moyamoya disease with that of time-of-flight (TOF) MR angiography, with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as the reference standard. Materials and Methods Thirty-six cerebral hemispheres from 22 patients with Moyamoya disease underwent TOF and AccASL MR angiography and DSA. Qualitative evaluations included imaging of the terminal internal carotid artery (ICA), distal middle cerebral arteries (MCAs), Moyamoya vessels, and leptomeningeal anastomosis (LMA) collaterals with reference to DSA...
September 15, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914707/prospective-randomized-feasibility-study-assessing-the-effect-of-cyclic-sacral-neuromodulation-on-urinary-urge-incontinence-in-women
#7
Steven Siegel, Karl Kreder, Elizabeth Takacs, Rachael McNamara, Fangyu Kan
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this prospective, randomized, multicenter, single-blind, 4 × 4 crossover study was to estimate the effect of 4 InterStim cycling settings (continuous, 16 seconds on/8 seconds off, 10 minutes on/10 minutes off, and 30 minutes on/23.5 hours off) on efficacy, Global Response Assessment, and safety. METHODS: Eligible women implanted for at least 3 months for urgency urinary incontinence (UI) were enrolled, and daily diaries were collected. General linear mixed models were used to estimate the cycling effect on efficacy...
September 13, 2017: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913930/accuracy-repeatability-and-interplatform-reproducibility-of-t1-quantification-methods-used-for-dce-mri-results-from-a-multicenter-phantom-study
#8
Octavia Bane, Stefanie J Hectors, Mathilde Wagner, Lori L Arlinghaus, Madhava P Aryal, Yue Cao, Thomas L Chenevert, Fiona Fennessy, Wei Huang, Nola M Hylton, Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer, Kathryn E Keenan, Dariya I Malyarenko, Robert V Mulkern, David C Newitt, Stephen E Russek, Karl F Stupic, Alina Tudorica, Lisa J Wilmes, Thomas E Yankeelov, Yi-Fei Yen, Michael A Boss, Bachir Taouli
PURPOSE: To determine the in vitro accuracy, test-retest repeatability, and interplatform reproducibility of T1 quantification protocols used for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI at 1.5 and 3 T. METHODS: A T1 phantom with 14 samples was imaged at eight centers with a common inversion-recovery spin-echo (IR-SE) protocol and a variable flip angle (VFA) protocol using seven flip angles, as well as site-specific protocols (VFA with different flip angles, variable repetition time, proton density, and Look-Locker inversion recovery)...
September 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912652/objectively-measured-physical-activity-levels-among-ethnic-minority-children-attending-school-based-afterschool-programs-in-a-high-poverty-neighborhood
#9
Youngdeok Kim, Marc Lochbaum
Ethnic minority children living in high poverty neighborhoods are at high risk of having insufficient physical activity (PA) during school days and, thus, the importance of school as a place to facilitate PA in these underserved children has been largely emphasized. This study examined the levels and patterns of PA in minority children, with particular focus on the relative contributions of regular physical education (PE) and school-based afterschool PA program in promoting moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA) during school days...
September 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912532/chronic-kidney-disease-is-associated-with-poorer-in-hospital-outcomes-in-patients-hospitalized-with-infections-electronic-record-analysis-from-china
#10
Guobin Su, Hong Xu, Gaetano Marrone, Bengt Lindholm, Zehuai Wen, Xusheng Liu, Juan-Jesus Carrero, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg
Predominantly based on studies from high-income countries, reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) has been associated with increased risk of infections and infection-related hospitalizations (IRHs). We here explore in-hospital outcomes of IRHs in patients with different kidney function. A total of 6,283 adults, not on renal replacement therapy, with a discharge diagnosis of infection, and with an eGFR 1-12 months before index hospitalization, were included from four hospitals in China. We compared in-hospital outcomes (death, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, length of hospital stay (LOHS) and medical expenses), between patients with and without chronic kidney disease (CKD, defined as eGFR ≤ 60 ml/min per 1...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911842/genetic-correlations-of-hip-dysplasia-scores-for-golden-retrievers-and-labrador-retrievers-in-france-sweden-and-the-uk
#11
S Wang, G Leroy, S Malm, T Lewis, Å Viklund, E Strandberg, W F Fikse
In order to reduce the prevalence of inherited diseases in pedigree dogs, the feasibility of implementation of an international breeding program was investigated. One prerequisite is a strong genetic correlation between countries and our objective was to estimate this correlation for canine hip dysplasia (HD) across three countries to evaluate the feasibility of an international genetic evaluation. Data were provided by the Société Centrale Canine (SCC, France), Svenska Kennelklubben (SKK, Sweden) and The Kennel Club (KC, UK) on Golden retriever and Labrador retriever dogs...
August 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911006/ghrelin-serum-concentrations-are-associated-with-treatment-response-during-lithium-augmentation-of-antidepressants
#12
Roland Ricken, Sandra Bopp, Peter Schlattmann, Hubertus Himmerich, Tom Bschor, Christoph Richter, Samuel Elstner, Thomas J Stamm, Brigitte Schulz-Ratei, Alexandra Lingesleben, Friedel M Reischies, Philipp Sterzer, Stefan Borgwardt, Michael Bauer, Andreas Heinz, Rainer Hellweg, Undine E Lang, Mazda Adli
Background: Lithium augmentation of antidepressants is an effective strategy in treatment-resistant depression. The proteohormone ghrelin is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of treatment response with the course of ghrelin levels during lithium augmentation. Method: Ghrelin serum concentrations and severity of depression were measured in 85 acute depressive patients before and after 4 weeks of lithium augmentation...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910543/intra-individual-variability-in-the-sleep-of-senior-and-junior-rugby-league-athletes-during-the-competitive-season
#13
Johnpaul Caia, Shona L Halson, Tannath J Scott, Vincent G Kelly
This study examined the sleep intra-individual variability (IIV) of rugby league athletes across senior and junior levels during one week of the competitive season. Forty-five rugby league athletes across elite senior, sub-elite senior and elite junior levels each wore actigraphy monitors for seven days during the competitive season, and completed a subjective sleep diary each morning upon waking. Linear mixed models were used to assess differences in sleep measures between playing levels. Intra-individual standard deviations for each sleep measure were calculated for each athlete to determine their respective IIV, allowing differences in IIV between groups to be assessed...
September 14, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910409/risk-of-acute-gastroenteritis-associated-with-human-bocavirus-infection-in-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Ri De, Liying Liu, Yuan Qian, Runan Zhu, Jie Deng, Fang Wang, Yu Sun, Huijin Dong, Liping Jia, Linqing Zhao
Human bocaviruses (HBoVs), which were first identified in 2005 and are composed of genotypes 1-4, have been increasingly detected worldwide in pediatric patients with acute gastroenteritis. To investigate if HBoV infection is a risk factor of acute gastroenteritis in children younger than 5 years old, we searched PubMed, Embase (via Ovid), the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), and the Cochrane Library for studies assessing the prevalence of HBoVs in individuals from Oct 25, 2005 to Oct 31, 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906485/weight-status-cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-high-blood-pressure-relationship-among-5-12-year-old-chinese-primary-school-children
#15
W J Liu, L H Xiong, C S Guo, B Li, M Pallan, T Griffin, K K Cheng, P Adab
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and adiposity contribute to high blood pressure (HBP) in adults and children. However, their relative importance as risk factors is unknown. We examined the relationships between weight status, CRF and HBP among Chinese primary school children. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 4926 school children aged 5-12 years. CRF was estimated from a modified Cooper test, body mass index z-scores and weight categories were calculated from objective height and weight measurements and BP was measured using an electronic sphygmomanometer...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906031/design-optimization-for-clinical-trials-in-early-stage-manifest-huntington-s-disease
#16
Chris Frost, Amy Mulick, Rachael I Scahill, Gail Owen, Elizabeth Aylward, Blair R Leavitt, Alexandra Durr, Raymund A C Roos, Beth Borowsky, Julie C Stout, Ralf Reilmann, Douglas R Langbehn, Sarah J Tabrizi, Cristina Sampaio
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to inform the design of randomized clinical trials in early-stage manifest Huntington's disease through analysis of longitudinal data from TRACK-Huntington's Disease (TRACK-HD), a multicenter observational study. METHODS: We compute sample sizes required for trials with candidate clinical, functional, and imaging outcomes, whose aims are to reduce rates of change. The calculations use a 2-stage approach: first using linear mixed models to estimate mean rates of change and components of variability from TRACK-HD data and second using these to predict sample sizes for a range of trial designs...
September 14, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905083/assessing-exercises-recommended-for-women-at-risk-of-pelvic-floor-disorders-using-multivariate-statistical-techniques
#17
Tania Tian, Stephanie Budgett, Jackie Smalldridge, Lynsey Hayward, James Stinear, Jennifer Kruger
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: There is a widely held, but untested, belief that certain exercises and activities generate intraabdominal pressure (IAP) that may compromise the function of the pelvic floor muscles. Women with, or at risk of, pelvic floor disorders are advised therefore to refrain from these exercises and activities in order to theoretically protect their pelvic floor. The aim of this study was to compare IAPs generated during exercises of different types that are recommended to women as pelvic floor "safe" with those generated during the corresponding conventional exercises that women are typically cautioned against...
September 13, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904997/development-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-is-linked-to-a-longitudinal-restructuring-of-the-gut-metagenome-in-mice
#18
Thomas Sharpton, Svetlana Lyalina, Julie Luong, Joey Pham, Emily M Deal, Courtney Armour, Christopher Gaulke, Shomyseh Sanjabi, Katherine S Pollard
The gut microbiome is linked to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) severity and altered in late-stage disease. However, it is unclear how gut microbial communities change over the course of IBD development, especially in regard to function. To investigate microbiome-mediated disease mechanisms and discover early biomarkers of IBD, we conducted a longitudinal metagenomic investigation in an established mouse model of IBD, where damped transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling in T cells leads to peripheral immune activation, weight loss, and severe colitis...
September 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904945/effectiveness-of-the-thermal-treatments-used-for-curd-stretching-in-the-inactivation-of-shiga-toxin-producing-o157-and-o26-escherichia-coli
#19
M Trevisani, A Valero, R Mancusi
The kneading treatment of the fresh curd in hot water is a critical control point in the manufacturing of mozzarella. Factors such as the ratio between hot water and curd mass, the rheological properties, and the mixing and kneading activity affect the processing time and the internal temperature of the curd. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal treatments on the fate of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Nine curd samples (weight 160-270 g) were artificially contaminated with O157 or O26 STEC and stretched in hot water (90-95°C) for 5-10 min...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904778/the-influence-of-herbivory-and-weather-on-the-vital-rates-of-two-closely-related-cactus-species
#20
Kristen E Sauby, John Kilmer, Mary C Christman, Robert D Holt, Travis D Marsico
Herbivory has long been recognized as a significant driver of plant population dynamics, yet its effects along environmental gradients are unclear. Understanding how weather modulates plant-insect interactions can be particularly important for predicting the consequences of exotic insect invasions, and an explicit consideration of weather may help explain why the impact can vary greatly across space and time. We surveyed two native prickly pear cactus species (genus Opuntia) in the Florida panhandle, USA, and their specialist insect herbivores (the invasive South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, and three native insect species) for five years across six sites...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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