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linear mixed model

Arthur H Owora
Contradictory evidence exists on the role of Major depression disorder (MDD) as a predictor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression, particularly regarding the effect of MDD presence versus pattern of illness. The objective of this study was to examine whether MDD status and pattern of illness differentially predict HIV disease progression. Retrospective cohort data from a six-year follow-up of HIV patients at an outpatient clinic were analyzed. MDD trajectories were identified by latent class growth analysis and generalized linear mixed models were used to examine their relation to low CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts (<200 cells/μL) during follow-up...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Monica H Breitve, Luiza J Chwiszczuk, Kolbjørn Brønnick, Minna J Hynninen, Bjørn H Auestad, Dag Aarsland, Arvid Rongve
Introduction: There are relatively few longitudinal studies on the differences in cognitive decline between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and the majority of existing studies have suboptimal designs. Aim: We investigated the differences in cognitive decline in AD compared to DLB over 4 years and cognitive domain predictors of progression. Methods: In a longitudinal study, 266 patients with first-time diagnosis of mild dementia were included and followed annually...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Linda B Mongero, Eric A Tesdahl, Alfred H Stammers, Andrew J Stasko, Samuel Weinstein
Myocardial protection during cardiac surgery is a multifaceted process that is structured to limit injury and preserve function. Evolving techniques use solutions with varying constituents that enter the systemic circulation and alter intrinsic systemic concentrations. This study compared two distinct cardioplegia solutions on affecting intraoperative glucose levels. Data were abstracted from a multi-institutional perfusion registry, including a total of 1,188 propensity-matched cases performed from January through October 2016, at 17 cardiac surgical centers across the United States in which both del Nido and 4:1 cardioplegia were used during the study period...
March 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Caroline Jacobson, Rongchang Yang, Andrew Williams, Graham E Gardner, Ian Carmichael, Angus J D Campbell, Una Ryan
Associations between faecal shedding of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica (based on the yst virulence gene) with growth, carcass weight and diarrhoea were investigated using an observational longitudinal study of 1200 crossbred prime (meat) lambs on eight Australian farms. Live weight, breech faecal soiling score (scale 1-5) and faecal consistency score (FCS; scale 1-5) were recorded, and faecal samples collected from each lamb on three sampling occasions; weaning (≈12 weeks of age), post-weaning (≈19 weeks) and pre-slaughter (≈29 weeks)...
April 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Nick Kerman, John Sylvestre, Tim Aubry, Jino Distasio
BACKGROUND: Housing First is an effective intervention to stably house and alter service use patterns in a large proportion of homeless people with mental illness. However, it is unknown whether there are differences in the patterns of service use over time among those who do or do not become stably housed and what effect, if any, Housing First has on these differing service use patterns. This study explored changes in the service use of people with mental illness who received Housing First compared to standard care, and how patterns of use differed among people who did and did not become stably housed...
March 20, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Deulle Min, Eunhee Cho
BACKGROUND: Korea is becoming an aged society. Accordingly, it is very meaningful to investigate the impact of job retention on quality of life (QOL) for older adults. We aimed to understand the pattern of changes over time in QOL of older adults aged 65 years or older based on employment status using the national data, the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA). METHODS: Data from the KLoSA during 2008-2014 were used. QOL was measured with the question, "How is your overall quality of life when compared to that of your peers in the same age group?" A total of 526 older adults were selected from 2008, including 267 who retained their jobs without change (job retention group) and 259 who lost their jobs by 2014 (job loss group)...
March 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
Rachel Reed, Michele Barletta, Janet Grimes, Jennifer Mumaw, Hea Jin Park, Steeve Giguère, Michael Azain, Xi Fang, Jane Quandt
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of an oscillometric blood pressure monitor in anesthetized pigs. Invasive blood pressure (IBP) and noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP) measurements were taken using a DRE Waveline Pro multiparameter monitor at four different time points in 17 pigs undergoing injectable anesthesia. NIBP measurements were taken on both the thoracic and pelvic limbs. Bland Altman analysis was used to assess agreement between methods and a linear mixed-effects model was used to evaluate the effect of cuff position and blood pressure on bias...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
T W Pike, F Mushtaq, R P Mann, P Chambers, G Hall, J E Tomlinson, R Mir, R M Wilkie, M Mon-Williams, J P A Lodge
BACKGROUND: Recent reviews suggest that the way in which surgeons prepare for a procedure (warm up) can affect performance. Operating lists present a natural experiment to explore this phenomenon. The aim was to use a routinely collected large data set on surgical procedures to understand the relationship between case list order and operative performance. METHOD: Theatre lists involving the 35 procedures performed most frequently by senior surgeons across 38 private hospitals in the UK over 26 months were examined...
March 20, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
Moritz Lindner, Sebastian Kosanetzky, Maximilian Pfau, Jennifer Nadal, Lukas A Gördt, Steffen Schmitz-Valckenberg, Matthias Schmid, Frank G Holz, Monika Fleckenstein
Purpose: To assess the impact of distinct atrophy border characteristics based on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging on local atrophy progression. Methods: Patients with geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to AMD were recruited in the context of the Longitudinal Fundus Autofluorescence in Age-related Macular Degeneration and Directional Spread in Geographic Atrophy studies (NCT00393692, NCT02051998). Horizontal and vertical SD-OCT scans were acquired at sequential visits using a device allowing for anatomically accurate registration of follow-up to baseline scans...
March 20, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Benjamin L Viglianti, Daniel J Wale, Ka Kit Wong, Timothy D Johnson, Christy Ky, Kirk A Frey, Milton D Gross
Purpose To examine the effect metabolic burden (tumor and/or cardiac myocyte uptake) has on fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) distribution in organs and tissues of interest. Materials and Methods Positron emission tomographic (PET)/computed tomographic (CT) scans at the Ann Arbor Veterans Affairs hospital from January to July 2015 were reviewed. A total of 107 scans (50 patients; mean age, 64.3 years ± 13.2 [standard deviation]) had metabolic tissue burden assessed by using total lesion glycolysis (TLG) obtained from autosegmentation of the tumor and/or cardiac tissue...
March 20, 2018: Radiology
Jason A Brant, Steven J Eliades, Hannah Kaufman, Jinbo Chen, Michael J Ruckenstein
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate high-performing cochlear implant patients' performance on AzBio sentence testing. METHODS: Retrospective review of prospectively collected database at a tertiary care hospital. Unilateral cochlear implant patients with AzBio testing were included. The primary outcome of interest was AzBio performance scores in quiet and at +10 and +5 decibels signal to noise (dB S/N). RESULTS: One hundred eighty five subjects met inclusion criteria with scores for AzBio in quiet, 114 at +10 dB S/N, and 66 at +5 dB S/N...
March 19, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Le H Hua, Tracey H Fan, Devon Conway, Nicolas Thompson, Tyler G Kinzy
BACKGROUND: The risk-benefit ratio of continuing immunomodulating disease-modifying therapy (DMT) in older multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical and patient-reported outcomes after stopping DMT in older MS patients. METHODS: Retrospective, observational study identifying patients from our MS clinics who were aged over 60 and on DMT > 2 years. Cause-specific Cox proportional hazards regression modeled time to discontinuation and time to reinitiation of therapy...
March 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Janet Baack Kukreja, Qiuling Shi, Courtney M Chang, Mohamed A Seif, Brandon M Sterling, Ting-Yu Chen, Kelly M Creel, Ashish M Kamat, Colin P Dinney, Neema Navai, Jay B Shah, Xin Shelley Wang
BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer is a disease of the elderly that is associated with high morbidity in those treated with radical cystectomy. In this observational study of patients with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy, we analyzed and compared patient-reported outcomes from those treated with Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) methods versus those who received traditional perioperative care. METHODS: We enrolled patients who underwent radical cystectomy at a high-volume tertiary care referral center from November 2013 to December 2016, when the ERAS concept was being introduced into postoperative care at our institution...
March 1, 2018: Surgical Innovation
Jingtao Lu, Jianguo Li, Gabriel Helmlinger, Nidal Al-Huniti
Modeling the relationship between drug concentrations and heart rate corrected QT interval (QTc) change from baseline (C-∆QTc), based on Phase I single ascending dose (SAD) or multiple ascending dose (MAD) studies, has been proposed as an alternative to thorough QT studies (TQT), in assessing drug-induced QT prolongation risk. The present analysis used clinical SAD, MAD and TQT study data of an experimental compound, AZD5672, to evaluate the performance of: (i) three computational platforms (linear mixed-effects modeling implemented via PROC MIXED in SAS, as well as in R using LME4 package and linear quantile mixed models (LQMM) implemented via LQMM package; (ii) different model structures with and without treatment- or time-specific intercepts; and (iii) three methods for calculating the confidence interval (CI) of QTc prolongation (analytical and bootstrap methods with fixed or varied geometric mean concentrations)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
Jan C van der Meijden, Michelle E Kruijshaar, Laurike Harlaar, Dimitris Rizopoulos, Nadine A M E van der Beek, Ans T van der Ploeg
OBJECTIVES: Pompe disease is a progressive metabolic myopathy for which enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) was approved in 2006. While various publications have examined the effects of ERT in classic-infantile patients and in adults, little has been published on ERT in children with non-classic presentations. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective study was conducted from June 1999 to May 2015. Seventeen patients from various countries participated. Outcome measures comprised muscle function (6-minute walk test, quick motor-function test (QMFT)), muscle strength (hand-held dynamometry; manual muscle testing), and lung function (FVC sitting and supine)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Agnete Malm Gulati, Øyvind Salvesen, Ruth Stoklund Thomsen, Arthur Kavanaugh, Anne Grete Semb, Silvia Rollefstad, Glenn Haugeberg, Mari Hoff
Objectives: The aim of this population-based study was to compare changes in cardiovascular (CV) risk factors over a decade-long period in patients who developed psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and the background population. Methods: Patients diagnosed with PsA (n=151) between 1998 and 2008 and matched controls (n=755) who participated in both the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT) 2 (1995-1997) and HUNT3 (2006-2008) were included. Mixed linear and logistic models were used to analyse the difference in mean change between HUNT2 and HUNT3 in patients and controls for body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and blood pressure (BP)...
2018: RMD Open
Yuan Cheng, Haiying Song, Xiaoqing Pan, Hong Xue, Yifei Wan, Tao Wang, Zhongmin Tian, Entai Hou, Ian R Lanza, Pengyuan Liu, Yong Liu, Purushottam W Laud, Kristie Usa, Yongcheng He, Mingyu Liang
Dietary salt intake has significant effects on arterial blood pressure and the development of hypertension. Mechanisms underlying salt-dependent changes in blood pressure remain poorly understood, and it is difficult to assess blood pressure salt-sensitivity clinically. Methods: We examined urinary levels of metabolites in 103 participants of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-Sodium trial after nearly 30 days on a defined diet containing high sodium (targeting 150 mmol sodium intake per day) or low sodium (50 mmol per day)...
2018: Theranostics
Joseph D Kuebler, Jill Shivapour, Selcen Yaroglu Kazanci, Kimberlee Gauvreau, Steven D Colan, Doff B McElhinney, David W Brown
BACKGROUND: Aortic stenosis has been reported to manifest a slow rate of progression in mild disease, with a greater likelihood of progression in patients with moderate-severe disease. The natural history of the Doppler-estimated maximum gradient (DEMG) in patients after balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAVP) has not previously been studied on a large scale. METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective review was performed of 360 patients from 1984 to 2012 with aortic stenosis, providing a total of 2059 echocardiograms both before and after BAVP...
March 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Seth A Berkowitz, Andrew J Karter, Giselle Corbie-Smith, Hilary K Seligman, Sarah A Ackroyd, Lily S Barnard, Steven J Atlas, Deborah J Wexler
OBJECTIVE: Both food insecurity (limited food access owing to cost) and living in areas with low physical access to nutritious foods are public health concerns, but their relative contribution to diabetes management is poorly understood. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study. A random sample of patients with diabetes in a primary care network completed food insecurity assessment in 2013. Low physical food access at the census tract level was defined as no supermarket within 1 mile in urban areas and 10 miles in rural areas...
March 19, 2018: Diabetes Care
Elizabeth Prout Parks, Reneé H Moore, Ziyi Li, Chanelle T Bishop-Gilyard, Andrew R Garrett, Douglas L Hill, Yasmeen P Bruton, David B Sarwer
BACKGROUND: Severe obesity in adolescents has deleterious physical and psychological complications necessitating frequent multi-disciplinary clinic visits. Greater treatment engagement has been equated with weight-loss. However, traditional medical weight-loss programs for adolescents have high attrition rates. Social media is widely used by adolescents and may enhance medical weight management engagement and success. OBJECTIVE: The first objective was to examine the acceptability and feasibility of using a private social media group as an adjunct to medical weight management in youth ages 14 to 20 years with severe obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2]...
March 19, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
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