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Harman Khatkar, Harry Hothi, Danielle de Villiers, Christian Lausmann, Daniel Kendoff, Thorsten Gehrke, John Skinner, Alister Hart
PURPOSE: Ceramic coatings have been used in metal-on-polyethylene (MOP) hips to reduce the risk of wear and also infection; the clinical efficacy of this remains unclear. This retrieval study sought to better understand the performance of coated bearing surfaces. METHODS: Forty-three coated MOP components were analysed post-retrieval for evidence of coating loss and gross polyethylene wear. Coating loss was graded using a visual semi-quantitative protocol. Evidence of gross polyethylene wear was determined by radiographic analysis and visual inspection of the retrieved implants...
October 25, 2016: International Orthopaedics
Chengwei Wang, Celso Grebogi, Murilo S Baptista
The electric power system is one of the cornerstones of modern society. One of its most serious malfunctions is the blackout, a catastrophic event that may disrupt a substantial portion of the system, playing havoc to human life and causing great economic losses. Thus, understanding the mechanisms leading to blackouts and creating a reliable and resilient power grid has been a major issue, attracting the attention of scientists, engineers, and stakeholders. In this paper, we study the blackout problem in power grids by considering a practical phase-oscillator model...
September 2016: Chaos
Joe X Zhang, Jacob R Berry, Devin P Beckstrand
BACKGROUND: Arterial gas embolism (AGE) is a rare condition in the flying community most often only ever seen in flight while operating at high altitude or incidents involving hypobaric chambers. This article describes a severe case of AGE that occurred in a pilot of a fourth generation fighter aircraft at ground level. The environmental control system (ECS) malfunctioned, causing an overpressurized cockpit and a subsequent explosive decompression when the pilot opened the canopy to egress...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
E Huertas-Hoyas, E J Pedrero-Perez, M Martinez-Campos, M Laselle-Lopez
INTRODUCTION: The use of self-reports about symptoms of malfunctioning in daily life derived from functional deficits of a prefrontal origin has become widespread in clinical practice, since they allow incremental ecological validity to be added to other specific tests. Yet it remains to be determined whether self-assessment is sufficient on its own or if the participation of an external evaluator would be preferable. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The Prefrontal Symptoms Inventory (PSI) was administered to 115 subjects being treated for a range of brain pathologies...
November 1, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
Chong Kun Cheon
The Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a human imprinting disorder resulting from genomic alterations that inactivate imprinted, paternally expressed genes in human chromosome region 15q11-q13. This genetic condition appears to be a contiguous gene syndrome caused by the loss of at least 2 of a number of genes expressed exclusively from the paternal allele, including SNRPN, MKRN3, MAGEL2, NDN and several snoRNAs, but it is not yet well known which specific genes in this region are associated with this syndrome...
September 2016: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
V S Kokhan, M I Matveeva, A S Bazyan, V S Kudrin, A Mukhametov, A S Shtemberg
Space flight factors (SFF) significantly affect the operating activity of astronauts during deep space missions. In contrast to an orbital flight, leaving the Earth's magnetic field is fraught with the dangers of exposure to ionizing radiation and more specifically, the high-energy nuclei component of galactic cosmic rays. Microgravity, just another critical non-radiation factor, significantly affects the normal functioning of the CNS. Some morphological structures of the brain, such as the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, that are rich in monoaminergic and acetylcholinergic neurones, are the most sensitive to the effects of ionizing radiation and non-radiation spaceflight factors (SFF)...
October 21, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
J-C Kleiber, B Marlier, M Bannwarth, E Theret, P Peruzzi, F Litre
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to evaluate the complications of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for chronic pain. METHODS: This was a retrospective case series of 212 patients treated with SCS for chronic lower-limb neuropathic pain between March 2002 and February 2015 in a Reims academic hospital. All patients received a surgically implanted paddle-type electrode. Complications with this technique are here described and analyzed, and other treatment and preventative methods proposed...
October 21, 2016: Revue Neurologique
Lena Diekmann, Marc Behrendt, Mahdi Amiri, Hassan Y Naim
BACKGROUND: Lactase phlorizin-hydrolase (LPH) is a membrane anchored type I glycoprotein of the intestinal epithelium that is composed of four homologous structural domains. The role of each distinct domain in the intramolecular organization and function of LPH is not completely understood. METHODS: Here, we analyzed the early events of LPH biosynthesis and trafficking by directed restructuring of the domain compositions. RESULTS: Removal of domain I (LPH∆1) results in a malfolded ER-localized protein...
October 21, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Erik Neovius, Maria Fransson, Cecilia Persson, Sophie Clarliden, Filip Farnebo, T Kalle Lundgren
BACKGROUND: Orbitozygomatic fractures often lead to infraorbital nerve (ION) injury, and affected sensibility is a common long-term complaint within this patient group. We present a long-term follow-up study where the validated von Frey filament system was used for testing ION sensibility. Furthermore, we examined the incidence of persistent nerve injury and whether more complex fractures led to more pronounced ION sensibility disturbances. METHODS: Patients treated for facial fractures involving the orbitozygomatic complex were included and the follow-up time was 3 years or more...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Matthew S Lebowitz, Woo-Kyoung Ahn
People with mental disorders are strongly stigmatized. Among mental-health professionals, stigmatizing attitudes often manifest as desire for social distance from people with mental disorders. Currently ascendant biomedical conceptualizations of psychopathology could exacerbate this problem by engendering dehumanization, which is linked to prejudice. Given the clinical implications of such an occurrence, the present research tested a possible mitigation strategy. In an online study of 216 U.S. mental-health clinicians, two strategies for mitigating dehumanization in healthcare were tested-personification, highlighting personal traits of people with mental disorders rather than presenting them as malfunctioning brains, and agency reorientation, underscoring people's ability to make choices and decisions...
August 2016: Stigma Health
Michele Malagù, Alessandra Ferri, Ottavia Mancuso, Filippo Trevisan, Marianna Nardozza, Matteo Bertini
Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is the cornerstone of primary and secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death. In 35 years of technologic improvement and clinical trials, there has been a continuous increase in implantation rate. Purpose of this review is to point out and discuss every aspect related to actual ICD management, investigating implantation procedure and predischarge care, office and remote monitoring follow-up, diagnostic evaluations, management of patients with suspected therapies or malfunctions, heart failure, surgery, radiotherapy and endoscopic procedures...
October 20, 2016: Future Cardiology
Carlo Luca Romanò, Delia Romanò, Ilaria Morelli, Lorenzo Drago
Biofilms have a tremendous impact on industrial machines working in moist environments, while in biological systems their effect is further complicated by the host's response.Implant-related infections are a complex process, starting with bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, followed by the variable interaction between host, implant, microorganisms and their by-products. Depending on the balance of these factors, different clinical presentations are observed, which may eventually, at times, shift from one into the other...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Thomas A Masters, John Kendrick-Jones, Folma Buss
Myosins are cytoskeletal motor proteins that use energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to generate force and movement along actin filaments. Humans express 38 myosin genes belonging to 12 classes that participate in a diverse range of crucial activities, including muscle contraction, intracellular trafficking, cell division, motility, actin cytoskeletal organisation and cell signalling. Myosin malfunction has been implicated a variety of disorders including deafness, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Usher syndrome, Griscelli syndrome and cancer...
October 19, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Robert D Bolen, Jonathan J Halford, Jonathan C Edwards
INTRODUCTION: Digital EEG has brought about greater flexibility in data interpretation but has also resulted in new and unique artifacts. As digital EEG has evolved, an increase in ICU monitoring has occurred, bringing more sources of artifact to light. Aliasing due to a combination of compressed timebase and display monitor resolution can result in appearance of spurious waveforms that can potentially skew interpretation. METHODS: A portion of a digital EEG from an ICU patient acquired at a sample rate of 1024 Hz was reviewed at a timebase of 15 mm/sec on a monitor with a resolution of 1920x1080...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Nick Lawson, Chung-Han Hsieh, Dana March, Xinnan Wang
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating disease characterized by physical and mental exhaustion. The underlying pathogenesis is unknown, but impairments in certain mitochondrial functions have been found in some CFS patients. To thoroughly reveal mitochondrial deficiencies in CFS patients, here we examine the key aspects of mitochondrial function in blood cells from a paired CFS patient-control series. Surprisingly, we discover that in patients the ATP levels are higher and mitochondrial cristae are more condensed compared to their paired controls, while the mitochondrial crista length, mitochondrial size, shape, density, membrane potential, and enzymatic activities of the complexes in the electron transport chain remain intact...
2016: Journal of Nature and Science
Cerrene N Giordano, Yik Weng Yew, Graciela Spivak, Henry W Lim
Hereditary photodermatoses are a spectrum of rare photosensitive disorders that are often caused by genetic deficiency or malfunction of various components of the DNA repair pathway. This results clinically in extreme photosensitivity, with many syndromes exhibiting an increased risk of cutaneous malignancies. This review will focus specifically on the syndromes with malignant potential, including xeroderma pigmentosum, Bloom syndrome, and Rothmund-Thomson syndrome. The typical phenotypic findings of each disorder will be examined and contrasted, including noncutaneous identifiers to aid in diagnosis...
November 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Marivi Nabong Moen, Roar Fjær, El Hassan Hamdani, Jon K Laerdahl, Robin Johansen Menchini, Magnus Dehli Vigeland, Ying Sheng, Dag Erik Undlien, Bjørnar Hassel, Mustafa A Salih, Heba Y El Khashab, Kaja Kristine Selmer, Farrukh Abbas Chaudhry
Progressive myoclonus epilepsy is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures, ataxia and cognitive decline. We here present two affected brothers. At 9 months of age the elder brother developed ataxia and myoclonic jerks. In his second year he lost the ability to walk and talk, and he developed drug-resistant progressive myoclonus epilepsy. The cerebrospinal fluid level of glutamate was decreased while glutamine was increased. His younger brother manifested similar symptoms from 6 months of age...
October 14, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Vitaly K Koltover
There are two generally known concepts in biology of aging. Accordingly to the first one, there is a program of aging. The alternative concept advocates that aging proceeds stochastically. In this area of research, free radical-theory of aging, which was put forward by Denham Harman in fifties of XXth century, has determined the most heuristic line. The goal of this review is to demonstrate how the aging program and the aging stochastics are united on the basis of the systems theory of reliability. On this basis, universal features of aging, such as the exponential growth of mortality rate with time and correlation of longevity with the species-specific resting metabolism, are naturally explained...
October 9, 2016: Current Aging Science
Erin A Fender, Ammar M Killu, Bryan C Cannon, Paul A Friedman, Christopher J Mcleod, David O Hodge, Craig S Broberg, Charles A Henrikson, Yong-Mei Cha
AIMS: Patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) are at increased risk for intracardiac device malfunction and infection that may necessitate extraction; however, the risk of extraction is poorly understood. This study addresses the safety of extraction in patients with structural heart disease and previous cardiac surgery. METHODS: This retrospective study included 40 CHD and 80 matched control patients, who underwent transvenous lead extractions between 2001 and 2014...
October 13, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Jason Huang, Kristen K Patton, Jordan M Prutkin
BACKGROUND: The subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) is a novel implanted defibrillator for the prevention of sudden cardiac death that avoids intravascular access. Use of this device is limited by its inability to provide backup pacing. Combined use of the S-ICD with a permanent pacemaker may be the optimal choice in certain situations though experience with the use of both devices together remains limited. METHODS: We reviewed our single center experience with the S-ICD from March 2011 to November 2015...
October 13, 2016: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
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