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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814657/differential-sperm-storage-by-female-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#1
Nicola Hemmings, Tim Birkhead
When females mate promiscuously, female sperm storage provides scope to bias the fertilization success towards particular males via the non-random acceptance and utilization of sperm. The difficulties observing post-copulatory processes within the female reproductive tract mean that the mechanisms underlying cryptic female choice remain poorly understood. Here, we use zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, selected for divergent sperm lengths, combined with a novel technique for isolating and extracting sperm from avian sperm storage tubules (SSTs), to test the hypothesis that sperm from separate ejaculates are stored differentially by female birds...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813599/tetraterpene-synthase-substrate-and-product-specificity-in-the-green-microalga-botryococcus-braunii-race-l
#2
Hem Raj Thapa, Su Tang, James C Sacchettini, Timothy P Devarenne
Recently, the biosynthetic pathway for lycopadiene, a C40 tetraterpenoid hydrocarbon, was deciphered from the L race of Botryococcus braunii, an alga that produces hydrocarbon oils capable of being converted into combustible fuels. The lycopadiene pathway is initiated by the squalene synthase (SS)-like enzyme lycopaoctaene synthase (LOS), which catalyzes the head-to-head condensation of two C20 geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) molecules to produce C40 lycopaoctaene. LOS shows unusual substrate promiscuity for SS or SS-like enzymes by utilizing C15 farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) and C20 phytyl diphosphate in addition to GGPP as substrates...
August 16, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811263/the-role-of-escrt-during-development-and-functioning-of-the-nervous-system
#3
REVIEW
Rémy Sadoul, Marine H Laporte, Romain Chassefeyre, Yves Goldberg, Christine Chatellard, Fiona J Hemming, Sandrine Fraboulet
The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) is made of subcomplexes (ESCRT I-III), crucial to membrane remodelling at endosomes, nuclear envelope and cell surface. ESCRT-III shapes membranes and in most cases cooperates with the ATPase VPS4 to mediate fission of membrane necks from the inside. The first ESCRT complexes mainly serve to catalyse the formation of ESCRT-III but can be bypassed by accessory proteins like the Alg-2 interacting protein-X (ALIX). In the nervous system, ALIX/ESCRT controls the survival of embryonic neural progenitors and later on the outgrowth and pruning of axons and dendrites, all necessary steps to establish a functional brain...
August 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810895/understanding-the-cluster-randomised-crossover-design-a-graphical-illustraton-of-the-components-of-variation-and%C3%A2-a-sample-size%C3%A2-tutorial
#4
Sarah J Arnup, Joanne E McKenzie, Karla Hemming, David Pilcher, Andrew B Forbes
BACKGROUND: In a cluster randomised crossover (CRXO) design, a sequence of interventions is assigned to a group, or 'cluster' of individuals. Each cluster receives each intervention in a separate period of time, forming 'cluster-periods'. Sample size calculations for CRXO trials need to account for both the cluster randomisation and crossover aspects of the design. Formulae are available for the two-period, two-intervention, cross-sectional CRXO design, however implementation of these formulae is known to be suboptimal...
August 15, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806206/chronic-pain-and-associated-factors-in-india-and-nepal-a-pilot-study-of-the-vanderbilt-global-pain-survey
#5
Jenna L Walters, Kelly Baxter, Hannah Chapman, Tracy Jackson, Adinarayanan Sethuramachandran, Marcus Couldridge, Hem Raj Joshi, Pankaj Kundra, Xulei Liu, Divya Nair, Bonnie Sullivan, Matthew S Shotwell, Ryan J Jense, Nicholas J Kassebaum, K A Kelly McQueen
BACKGROUND: Evaluation and treatment of chronic pain worldwide are limited by the lack of standardized assessment tools incorporating consistent definitions of pain chronicity and specific queries of known social and psychological risk factors for chronic pain. The Vanderbilt Global Pain Survey (VGPS) was developed as a tool to address these concerns, specifically in the low- and middle-income countries where global burden is highest. METHODS: The VGPS was developed using standardized and cross-culturally validated metrics, including the Brief Pain Inventory and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale, as well as the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, the Fibromyalgia Survey Questionnaire along with queries about pain attitudes to assess the prevalence of chronic pain and disability along with its psychosocial and emotional associations...
August 10, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796573/development-of-exon-skipping-therapies-for-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-a-critical-review-and-a-perspective-on-the-outstanding-issues
#6
Annemieke Aartsma-Rus, Volker Straub, Robert Hemmings, Manuel Haas, Gabriele Schlosser-Weber, Violeta Stoyanova-Beninska, Eugenio Mercuri, Francesco Muntoni, Bruno Sepodes, Elizabeth Vroom, Pavel Balabanov
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a rare, severe, progressive muscle-wasting disease leading to disability and premature death. Patients lack the muscle membrane-stabilizing protein dystrophin. Antisense oligonucleotide (AON)-mediated exon skipping is a therapeutic approach that aims to induce production of partially functional dystrophins. Recently, an AON targeting exon 51 became the first of its class to be approved by the United States regulators [Food and Drug Administration (FDA)] for the treatment of DMD...
August 10, 2017: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767318/the-gut-microbiome-and-mental-health-implications-for-anxiety-and-trauma-related-disorders
#7
Stefanie Malan-Muller, Mireia Valles-Colomer, Jeroen Raes, Christopher A Lowry, Soraya Seedat, Sian M J Hemmings
Biological psychiatry research has long focused on the brain in elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms of anxiety- and trauma-related disorders. This review challenges this assumption and suggests that the gut microbiome and its interactome also deserve attention to understand brain disorders and develop innovative treatments and diagnostics in the 21st century. The recent, in-depth characterization of the human microbiome spurred a paradigm shift in human health and disease. Animal models strongly suggest a role for the gut microbiome in anxiety- and trauma-related disorders...
August 2, 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765139/the-use-of-feasibility-studies-for-stepped-wedge-cluster-randomised-trials-protocol-for-a-review-of-impact-and-scope
#8
Caroline A Kristunas, Karla Hemming, Helen C Eborall, Laura J Gray
INTRODUCTION: The stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial (SW-CRT) is a complex design, for which many decisions about key design parameters must be made during the planning. These include the number of steps and the duration of time needed to embed the intervention. Feasibility studies are likely to be useful for informing these decisions and increasing the likelihood of the main trial's success. However, the number of feasibility studies being conducted for SW-CRTs is currently unknown...
August 1, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760885/the-neonatal-fc-receptor-and-complement-fixation-facilitate-prophylactic-vaccine-mediated-humoral-protection-against-viral-infection-in-the-ocular-mucosa
#9
Derek J Royer, Meghan M Carr, Hem R Gurung, William P Halford, Daniel J J Carr
The capacity of licensed vaccines to protect the ocular surface against infection is limited. Common ocular pathogens, such as HSV-1, are increasingly recognized as major contributors to visual morbidity worldwide. Humoral immunity is an essential correlate of protection against HSV-1 pathogenesis and ocular pathology, yet the ability of Ab to protect against HSV-1 is deemed limited due to the slow IgG diffusion rate in the healthy cornea. We show that a live-attenuated HSV-1 vaccine elicits humoral immune responses that are unparalleled by a glycoprotein subunit vaccine vis-à-vis Ab persistence and host protection...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758202/sodium-channel-subtypes-are-differentially-localized-to-pre-and-post-synaptic-sites-in-rat-hippocampus
#10
Kenneth W Johnson, Karl F Herold, Teresa A Milner, Hugh C Hemmings, Jimcy Platholi
Voltage-gated Na(+) channels (Nav ) modulate neuronal excitability, but the roles of the various Nav subtypes in specific neuronal functions such as synaptic transmission are unclear. We investigated expression of the three major brain Nav subtypes (Nav 1.1, Nav 1.2, Nav 1.6) in area CA1 and dentate gyrus of rat hippocampus. Using light and electron microscopy, we found labeling for all three Nav subtypes on dendrites, dendritic spines, and axon terminals, but the proportion of pre- and post-synaptic labeling for each subtype varied within and between subregions of CA1 and dentate gyrus...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750676/evaluation-of-a-bespoke-training-to-increase-uptake-by-midwifery-teams-of-nice-guidance-for-membrane-sweeping-to-reduce-induction-of-labour-a-stepped-wedge-cluster-randomised-design
#11
Sara Kenyon, Sophie Dann, Lucy Hope, Paula Clarke, Amanda Hogan, David Jenkinson, Karla Hemming
BACKGROUND: National guidance recommends pregnant women are offered membrane sweeping at term to reduce induction of labour. Local audit suggested this was not being undertaken routinely across two maternity units in the West Midlands, UK between March and November 2012. METHODS: Bespoke training session for midwifery teams (nine community and one antenatal clinic) was developed to address identified barriers to encourage offer of membrane sweeping, together with an information leaflet for women and appointment of a champion within each team...
July 27, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749915/hem-onc-news
#12
Devon Schuyler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746333/transmission-dynamics-of-co-endemic-plasmodium-vivax-and-p-falciparum-in-ethiopia-and-prevalence-of-antimalarial-resistant-genotypes
#13
Eugenia Lo, Elizabeth Hemming-Schroeder, Delenasaw Yewhalaw, Jennifer Nguyen, Estifanos Kebede, Endalew Zemene, Sisay Getachew, Kora Tushune, Daibin Zhong, Guofa Zhou, Beyene Petros, Guiyun Yan
Ethiopia is one of the few African countries where Plasmodium vivax is co-endemic with P. falciparum. Malaria transmission is seasonal and transmission intensity varies mainly by landscape and climate. Although the recent emergence of drug resistant parasites presents a major issue to malaria control in Ethiopia, little is known about the transmission pathways of parasite species and prevalence of resistant markers. This study used microsatellites to determine population diversity and gene flow patterns of P...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743718/twinfilin-2a-is-a-regulator-of-platelet-reactivity-and-turnover-in-mice
#14
Simon Stritt, Sarah Beck, Isabelle C Becker, Timo Vögtle, Markku Hakala, Katrin G Heinze, Xiaoping Du, Markus Bender, Attila Braun, Pekka Lappalainen, Bernhard Nieswandt
Regulated reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is a prerequisite for proper platelet production and function. Consequently, defects in proteins controlling actin dynamics have been associated with platelet disorders in humans and mice. Twinfilin 2a (Twf2a) is a small actin-binding protein, which inhibits actin filament assembly by sequestering actin monomers and by capping filament barbed ends. Moreover, Twf2a binds heterodimeric capping proteins, but the role of this interaction in cytoskeletal dynamics has remained elusive...
July 25, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743254/association-between-serotonin-transporter-gene-polymorphisms-and-increased-suicidal-risk-among-hiv-positive-patients-in-uganda
#15
Allan Kalungi, Soraya Seedat, Sian M J Hemmings, Lize van der Merwe, Moses L Joloba, Ann Nanteza, Noeline Nakassujja, Harriet Birabwa, Jennifer Serwanga, Pontiano Kaleebu, Eugene Kinyanda
BACKGROUND: Persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are at an increased risk of suicide. Increased suicidal risk is a predictor of future attempted and completed suicides and has been associated with poor quality of life and poor adherence with antiretroviral therapy. Clinical risk factors have low predictive value for suicide, hence the interest in potential neurobiological correlates and specific heritable markers of suicide vulnerability. The serotonin transporter gene has previously been implicated in the aetiology of increased suicidal risk in non-HIV infected study populations and its variations may provide a platform for identifying genetic risk for suicidality among PLWHA...
July 25, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740096/associations-of-plasma-homocysteine-levels-with-peripheral-systolic-blood-pressure-and-noninvasive-central-systolic-blood-pressure-in-a-community-based-chinese-population
#16
Mohetaboer Momin, Fangfang Fan, Jianping Li, Xianhui Qin, Jia Jia, Litong Qi, Yan Zhang, Yong Huo
Previous studies indicated that homocysteine (Hcy) is associated with higher peripheral systolic blood pressure (pSBP). There have been few data on the relationship between Hcy and central SBP (cSBP). A total of 4,364 Chinese subjects from the Shijingshan community in Beijing were included. cSBP and pSBP were measured with an Omron HEM-9000AI device. Subjects were 57.20 ± 8.9 years old, 37.9% were male. The median of Hcy was 11.96 μmol/L. The mean of cSBP and pSBP was 129.94 ± 18.03 mmHg and 133...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739241/hospital-mortality-based-on-the-mode-of-emergency-medical-services-transportation
#17
Hassan Al-Thani, Ayman El-Menyar, Yugan Pillay, Monira Mollazehi, Ahammed Mekkodathil, Rafael Consunji
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the presentations and outcomes of trauma patients transported by helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) versus ground emergency medical services (GEMS). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of trauma registry data at a level I trauma center was conducted for patients transported by GEMS and HEMS between 2011 and 2013. Data were analyzed and categorized based on the mode of transportation. RESULTS: A total of 4,596 trauma patients were admitted to the hospital with a mean age of 31 ± 15 years...
July 2017: Air Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738727/the-home-as-ethos-of-caring-a-concept-determination
#18
Yvonne Hilli, Katie Eriksson
BACKGROUND: Within nursing, the concepts of home and homelike have been used indiscriminately to describe characteristics of healthcare settings that resemble a home more than an institution. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the concept of home ( hem in Swedish). The main questions were as follows: What does the concept of home entail etymologically and semantically? Of what significance is the meaning of the concept to caring science and nursing? DESIGN AND METHODS: This study had a qualitative design with a hermeneutical approach guided by Gadamer...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738086/an-essential-ebv-latent-antigen-3c-binds-bcl6-for-targeted-degradation-and-cell-proliferation
#19
Yonggang Pei, Shuvomoy Banerjee, Hem Chandra Jha, Zhiguo Sun, Erle S Robertson
The latent EBV nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) is required for transformation of primary human B lymphocytes. Most mature B-cell malignancies originate from malignant transformation of germinal center (GC) B-cells. The GC reaction appears to have a role in malignant transformation, in which a major player of the GC reaction is Bcl6, a key regulator of this process. We now demonstrate that EBNA3C contributes to B-cell transformation by targeted degradation of Bcl6. We show that EBNA3C can physically associate with Bcl6...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734557/-conversational-advice-a-mixed-methods-analysis-of-medical-residents-experiences-co-managing-primary-care-patients-with-behavioral-health-providers
#20
Patrick Hemming, R B Levine, Joseph J Gallo
OBJECTIVE: When integrated behavioral health clinicians (IBHCs) and residents co-manage patients, residents may learn new approaches. We aimed to understand the effect of co-management on residents' behavioral health (BH) management learning. METHODS: Residents completed a web-based survey enquiring: whether co-management included a shared visit and/or face-to-face meeting with an IBHC, whether residents received feedback from the IBHC, and what they learned. Qualitative responses were coded thematically using a constant comparative method...
July 14, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
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