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Strength and conditioning training

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329154/effects-on-volume-load-and-ratings-of-perceived-exertion-in-individuals-advanced-weight-training-after-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#1
Eduardo Lattari, Blair José Rosa Filho, Sidnei Jorge Fonseca Junior, Eric Murillo-Rodriguez, Nuno Rocha, Sérgio Machado, Geraldo Albuquerque Maranhão Neto
The aim of this study was investigate the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on volume-load and ratings of perceived exertion. Fifteen young healthy individuals, aged between 20 and 30 years in advanced strength training were recruited. Test and retest of the 10 maximum repetitions (10RM) were performed to determine the reliability of load utilized. Subjects performed three experimental conditions in a randomized, double-blinded crossover design: anodic stimulation (a-tDCS), cathodic stimulation (c-tDCS) and sham (2 mA for 20 minutes targeting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex cortex left)...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321341/exercise-tolerance-and-balance-of-inspiratory-to-expiratory-muscle-strength-in-relation-to-breathing-timing-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#2
Keisuke Miki, Kazuyuki Tsujino, Tatsuya Edahiro, Seigo Kitada, Mari Miki, Kenji Yoshimura, Hiroyuki Kagawa, Yohei Oshitani, Yuko Ohara, Yuki Hosono, Hiroyuki Kurebe, Ryoji Maekura
Little is known about the applicability of respiratory muscle training based on exertional pathophysiological conditions in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between breathing timing and exertional responses, as well as whether exertional changes in the inspiratory duty cycle (inspiratory time [Ti]/total time [Ttot]) affect pathophysiological conditions, including respiratory muscles. Methods: Forty-five stable COPD patients (mean age: 71...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318170/injury-incidence-and-patterns-among-dutch-crossfit-athletes
#3
Mirwais Mehrab, Robert-Jan de Vos, Gerald A Kraan, Nina M C Mathijssen
Background: CrossFit is a strength and conditioning program that has gained widespread recognition, with 11,000 affiliated gyms worldwide. The incidence of injuries during CrossFit training is poorly analyzed. Purpose: To investigate the incidence of injuries for persons participating in CrossFit. Risk factors for injury and injury mechanisms were also explored through athlete demographics and characteristics. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study...
December 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286534/fitness-training-for-cardiorespiratory-conditioning-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
REVIEW
Leanne Hassett, Anne M Moseley, Alison R Harmer
BACKGROUND: Reduced cardiorespiratory fitness (cardiorespiratory deconditioning) is a common consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Fitness training may be implemented to address this impairment. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this updated review was to evaluate whether fitness training improves cardiorespiratory fitness in people who have sustained a TBI. The secondary objectives were to evaluate whether fitness training improves body function and structure (physical and cognitive impairments, psychological responses resulting from the injury), activity limitations and participation restrictions in people who have sustained a TBI as well as to evaluate its safety, acceptance, feasibility and suitability...
December 29, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284521/exercise-intervention-for-unilateral-amputees-with-low-back-pain-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
Joseph G Wasser, Daniel C Herman, MaryBeth Horodyski, Jason L Zaremski, Brady Tripp, Phillip Page, Kevin R Vincent, Heather K Vincent
BACKGROUND: Atraumatic lower limb amputation is a life-changing event for approximately 185,000 persons in the United States each year. A unilateral amputation is associated with rapid changes to the musculoskeletal system including leg and back muscle atrophy, strength loss, gait asymmetries, differential mechanical joint loading and leg length discrepancies. Even with high-quality medical care and prostheses, amputees still develop secondary musculoskeletal conditions such as chronic low back pain (LBP)...
December 29, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283690/how-fast-is-a-horizontal-squat-jump
#6
Pierre Samozino, Jean Romain Riviere, Jérémy Rossi, Jean-Benoit Morin, Pedro Jimenez-Reyes
Velocity strength training requires exercise modalities allowing athletes to reach very high movement velocity, which is limited during vertical movements involving body weight. PURPOSE: Our aim was to quantify the mechanical outputs developed during horizontal squat jumps, and notably the movement velocity, in comparison to vertical squat jumps with and without loads. METHODS: Thirteen healthy male athletes performed squat jumps without additional loads (SJ0), with a load of ~60% of body mass (SJ60) and during horizontal squat jumps performed lying down on a roller device with (AHSJ) and without (HSJ) a rubber band assistance...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283292/morphological-molecular-and-hormonal-adaptations-to-early-morning-versus-afternoon-resistance-training
#7
Milan Sedliak, Michal Zeman, Gabriel Buzgó, Jan Cvecka, Dusan Hamar, Eugen Laczo, Monika Okuliarova, Marian Vanderka, Tomas Kampmiller, Keijo Häkkinen, Juha P Ahtiainen, Juha J Hulmi, Tormod S Nilsen, Håvard Wiig, Truls Raastad
It has been clearly established that maximal force and power is lower in the morning compared to noon or afternoon hours. This morning neuromuscular deficit can be diminished by regularly training in the morning hours. However, there is limited and contradictory information upon hypertrophic adaptations to time-of-day-specific resistance training. Moreover, no cellular or molecular mechanisms related to muscle hypertrophy adaptation have been studied with this respect. Therefore, the present study examined effects of the time-of-day-specific resistance training on muscle hypertrophy, phosphorylation of selected proteins, hormonal concentrations and neuromuscular performance...
December 28, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282529/the-development-of-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy-through-resistance-training-the-role-of-muscle-damage-and-muscle-protein-synthesis
#8
REVIEW
Felipe Damas, Cleiton A Libardi, Carlos Ugrinowitsch
Resistance training (RT)-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy is a highly intricate process. Despite substantial advances, we are far from understanding exactly how muscle hypertrophy develops during RT. The aim of the present review is to discuss new insights related to the role of skeletal muscle damage and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in mediating RT-induced hypertrophy. Specifically, the thesis that in the early phase of RT (≤ 4 previous RT sessions) increases in muscle cross-sectional area are mostly attributable to muscle damage-induced muscle swelling; then (after ~ 10 sessions), a modest magnitude of muscle hypertrophy ensues; but only during a latter phase of RT (after ~ 18 sessions) is true muscle hypertrophy observed...
December 27, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280665/use-of-nutritional-supplements-and-ergogenic-aids-in-professional-tennis-players
#9
Álvaro López-Samanes, Víctor Moreno-Pérez, Mark S Kovacs, Jesús G Pallarés, Ricardo Mora-Rodríguez, Juan F Ortega
INTRODUCTION: Nutritional supplements and ergogenic aids (NS&EA) are used between training/matches with the goal of enhancing tennis performance. Scientific literature about prevalence and use of NS&EA in professional tennis players is scarce. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe the NS&EA used by professional tennis players during a season. METHODS: Using a validated self-administered questionnaire, 62 professional male and 9 professional female tennis players (11% in their gender specific top 100 tennis world ranking (i...
November 17, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278423/exercise-for-intermittent-claudication
#10
REVIEW
Risha Lane, Amy Harwood, Lorna Watson, Gillian C Leng
BACKGROUND: Exercise programmes are a relatively inexpensive, low-risk option compared with other, more invasive therapies for treatment of leg pain on walking (intermittent claudication (IC)). This is the fourth update of a review first published in 1998. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to determine whether an exercise programme was effective in alleviating symptoms and increasing walking treadmill distances and walking times in people with intermittent claudication. Secondary objectives were to determine whether exercise was effective in preventing deterioration of underlying disease, reducing cardiovascular events, and improving quality of life...
December 26, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258176/wireless-concrete-strength-monitoring-of-wind-turbine-foundations
#11
Marcus Perry, Grzegorz Fusiek, Pawel Niewczas, Tim Rubert, Jack McAlorum
Wind turbine foundations are typically cast in place, leaving the concrete to mature under environmental conditions that vary in time and space. As a result, there is uncertainty around the concrete's initial performance, and this can encourage both costly over-design and inaccurate prognoses of structural health. Here, we demonstrate the field application of a dense, wireless thermocouple network to monitor the strength development of an onshore, reinforced-concrete wind turbine foundation. Up-to-date methods in fly ash concrete strength and maturity modelling are used to estimate the distribution and evolution of foundation strength over 29 days of curing...
December 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249454/biomechanical-consequences-of-running-with-deep-core-muscle-weakness
#12
Margaret E Raabe, Ajit M W Chaudhari
The deep core muscles are often neglected or improperly trained in athletes. Improper function of this musculature may lead to abnormal spinal loading, muscle strain, or injury to spinal structures, all of which have been associated with increased low back pain (LBP) risk. The purpose of this study was to identify potential strategies used to compensate for weakness of the deep core musculature during running and to identify accompanying changes in compressive and shear spinal loads. Kinematically-driven simulations of overground running were created for eight healthy young adults in OpenSim at increasing levels of deep core muscle weakness...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246977/temporal-specificity-in-pavlovian-to-instrumental-transfer
#13
Matthew S Matell, Rebecca B Della Valle
Presentation of a previously trained Pavlovian conditioned stimulus while an organism is engaged in operant responding can moderate the rate of responding, a phenomenon known as Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer. Although it is well known that Pavlovian contingencies will generate conditioned behavior that is temporally organized with respect to the arrival of the predicted outcome, little work has examined the temporal dynamics of responding during Pavlovian-instrumental transfer. We trained rats using a fixed time 60-sec, fixed time 120-sec, or random time 60-sec schedule in an appetitive Pavlovian task, and found that presentation of the conditioned stimulus potentiated operant responding in a manner that reflected these previously established temporal expectancies...
January 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244841/individual-preferences-for-physical-exercise-as-secondary-prevention-for-non-specific-low-back-pain-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#14
Emmanuel Aboagye, Jan Hagberg, Iben Axén, Lydia Kwak, Malin Lohela-Karlsson, Eva Skillgate, Gunilla Dahlgren, Irene Jensen
BACKGROUND: Exercise is effective in improving non-specific low back pain (LBP). Certain components of physical exercise, such as the type, intensity and frequency of exercise, are likely to influence participation among working adults with non-specific LBP, but the value and relative importance of these components remain unknown. The study's aim was to examine such specific components and their influence on individual preferences for exercise for secondary prevention of non-specific LBP among working adults...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238247/effects-of-hypoxic-training-versus-normoxic-training-on-exercise-performance-in-competitive-swimmers
#15
Hun-Young Park, Kiwon Lim
In swimming competition, optimal swimming performance is characterized by a variety of interchangeable components, such as aerobic exercise capacity, anaerobic power and muscular function. Various hypoxic training methods would potentiate greater performance improvements compared to similar training at sea-level. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of six-weeks of hypoxic training on exercise performance in moderately trained competitive swimmers. Twenty swimmers were equally divided into a normoxic training group (n = 10) for residing and training at sea-level (PIO2 = 149...
December 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238244/influence-of-a-thermogenic-dietary-supplement-on-safety-markers-body-composition-energy-expenditure-muscular-performance-and-hormone-concentrations-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-trial
#16
Grant M Tinsley, Stacie Urbina, Jacy Mullins, Jordan Outlaw, Sara Hayward, Matt Stone, Cliffa Foster, Colin Wilborn, Lem Taylor
Dietary supplementation is commonly employed by individuals seeking to improve body composition and exercise performance. The purpose of the present study was to examine the safety and effectiveness of a commercially available dietary supplement designed to promote thermogenesis and fat loss. In a randomized double-blind trial, participants were assigned to consume placebo or a multi-ingredient supplement containing caffeine, green tea extract, l-carnitine, evodiamine and other ingredients that purportedly enhance thermogenesis...
December 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234725/computerized-cognitive-training-for-older-diabetic-adults-at-risk-of-dementia-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Rachel Bloom, Michal Schnaider-Beeri, Ramit Ravona-Springer, Anthony Heymann, Hai Dabush, Lior Bar, Shirel Slater, Yuri Rassovsky, Alex Bahar-Fuchs
Introduction: Older adults with type 2 diabetes are at high risk of cognitive decline and dementia and form an important target group for dementia risk reduction studies. Despite evidence that computerized cognitive training (CCT) may benefit cognitive performance in cognitively healthy older adults and those with mild cognitive impairment, whether CCT may benefit cognitive performance or improve disease self-management in older diabetic adults has not been studied to date. In addition, whether adaptive difficulty levels and tailoring of interventions to individuals' cognitive profile are superior to generic training remains to be established...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232316/prime-a-novel-low-mass-high-repetition-approach-to-improve-function-in-older-adults
#18
Jason D Allen, Mitch D VanBruggen, Neil M Johannsen, Jennifer L Robbins, Daniel P Credeur, Carl F Pieper, Richard Sloane, Conrad P Earnest, Timothy S Church, Eric Ravussin, William E Kraus, Michael A Welsch
INTRODUCTION: The ability to maintain functional independence in a rapidly aging population results in an increased life expectancy without corresponding increases in health care costs. The accelerated decline in VO2peak after the age of 65 is primarily due to peripheral tissue changes rather than centrally mediated factors. The purpose of this study was to determine if the PRIME (Peripheral Remodeling through Intermittent Muscular Exercise) approach, consisting of a low mass, high repetition/duration skeletal muscle focused training regimen would provide superior functional benefits in participants above 70 years old and at risk for losing functional independence...
December 11, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222718/treatment-of-stress-urinary-incontinence-with-a-mobile-app-factors-associated-with-success
#19
Emma Nyström, Ina Asklund, Malin Sjöström, Hans Stenlund, Eva Samuelsson
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Stress urinary incontinence is common among women. First-line treatment includes pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) and lifestyle advice, which can be provided via a mobile app. The efficacy of app-based treatment has been demonstrated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). In this study, we aimed to analyze factors associated with successful treatment. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data from the RCT. At baseline and 3-month follow-up, participants (n = 61) answered questions about symptoms, quality of life, background, and PFMT...
December 8, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220619/the-effect-of-whole-body-vibration-on-lower-body-resistance-detraining-in-college-age-women
#20
Keston G Lindsay, David L Nichols, Ronald W Davis, David D Marshall
PURPOSE: This study explored the effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) using accelerations of 2.56 g to 7.68 g on lower-body detraining. METHODS: All participants (N = 20) were trained using a lower-body resistance-training program for 30 min twice per week from Week 0 to Week 6. At the end of the program, they were randomly assigned to a control group that performed no further training or a WBV group that performed a progressive static WBV program. Data for the 5-repetition-maximum (5RM) squat and extensors and flexors of the knee and ankle were collected at Weeks 0, 6, 8, 10, and 12 for all participants...
December 8, 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
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