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Ali Abbara, Shakunthala Narayanaswamy, Chioma Izzi-Engbeaya, Alexander N Comninos, Sophie Clarke, Zainab Malik, Deborah Papadopoulou, Ailish Clobentz, Zubair Sarang, Paul Bassett, Channa Jayasena, Waljit S Dhillo
<br>Background: Male testosterone levels decline by 1% per year from the age of 40yrs. Whilst a primary testicular deficit occurs, hypothalamic or pituitary dysregulation may also coexist. This study aimed to compare the hypothalamic response to kisspeptin and the pituitary response to GnRH of older men with those of young men. METHODS: Following 1 hour of baseline sampling, healthy older men (n=5, mean age 59.3±2.9yrs) received a 3 hour intravenous infusion (IVI) of either: vehicle, kisspeptin-54 0...
March 15, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Diane L Rosenbaum, Jocelyn E Remmert, Evan M Forman, Meghan L Butryn
OBJECTIVES: Parenthood is a time marked by behaviors that may promote risk for weight gain, including decreased physical activity and increased unhealthy eating. Little is known about parents in the context of behavioral weight loss, such as whether they differ in weight losses, and related barriers, or behaviors. METHOD: We compared parents of children aged 18 and younger (n = 105) to other participants who did not have children, or whose children were in adulthood (n = 215) in a behavioral weight loss program to evaluate six-month weight losses, and weight loss barriers and behaviors...
March 1, 2018: Eating Behaviors
Nadia J Sweis
OBJECTIVES: To highlight the physical, psychological, social, and economic reasons related to sex differences in smoking behaviors in Jordan. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted among Jordanian adult smokers. RESULTS: Sex was a significant predictor of physical reasons related to smoking; when controlling for other factors (t765 = 5.027; P < 0.001), women were more affected by physical factors than were men...
March 12, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
Camillia K Lui, William C Kerr, Nina Mulia, Yu Ye
BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic status (SES) has been associated with lower alcohol consumption, but also with heavier drinking. To explain this contradictory relationship, we examined SES differences in drinking patterns from an age-period-cohort (APC) perspective. METHODS: Data are from seven waves of the U.S. National Alcohol Surveys from 1979 to 2010. As a proxy for SES, educational attainment was used. Past-year alcohol volume was calculated from frequency (never-to-every day) and usual quantity (1-2, 3-4, or 5-6 drinks)...
March 7, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Peter Riško, Jan Pláteník, Richard Buchal, Jana Potočková, Pavel J Kraml
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The increased iron level and the labile iron pool (LIP) in circulating monocytes are connected to a higher frequency of cardiovascular events. METHODS: The study investigates the relationship between LIP in circulating monocytes and markers of iron metabolism and atherosclerosis (inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and arterial elasticity) in long-term blood donors and non-donor volunteers. RESULTS: We found that donors had significantly higher LIP values than the control group (1...
March 3, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Sang Min Yoon, Baek-Yeol Ryoo, So Jung Lee, Jong Hoon Kim, Ji Hoon Shin, Ji Hyun An, Han Chu Lee, Young-Suk Lim
Importance: Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma showing macroscopic vascular invasion have a poor prognosis. Sorafenib is the sole treatment option for these patients, with unsatisfactory response and survival benefit. Combined treatment with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) plus external beam radiotherapy (RT) has shown promising results for these patients in observational studies. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of TACE plus RT compared with sorafenib for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and macroscopic vascular invasion...
March 15, 2018: JAMA Oncology
Jeff M Michalski, Jennifer Moughan, James Purdy, Walter Bosch, Deborah W Bruner, Jean-Paul Bahary, Harold Lau, Marie Duclos, Matthew Parliament, Gerard Morton, Daniel Hamstra, Michael Seider, Michael I Lock, Malti Patel, Hiram Gay, Eric Vigneault, Kathryn Winter, Howard Sandler
Importance: Optimizing radiation therapy techniques for localized prostate cancer can affect patient outcomes. Dose escalation improves biochemical control, but no prior trials were powered to detect overall survival (OS) differences. Objective: To determine whether radiation dose escalation to 79.2 Gy compared with 70.2 Gy would improve OS and other outcomes in prostate cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: The NRG Oncology/RTOG 0126 randomized clinical trial randomized 1532 patients from 104 North American Radiation Therapy Oncology Group institutions March 2002 through August 2008...
March 15, 2018: JAMA Oncology
Franck Maunoury, Aurore Clément, Chizoba Nwankwo, Laurie Levy-Bachelot, Armand Abergel, Vincent Di Martino, Eric Thervet, Isabelle Durand-Zaleski
OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of the elbasvir/grazoprevir (EBR/GZR) regimen in patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with severe and end-stage renal disease compared to no treatment. DESIGN: This study uses a health economic model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of treating previously untreated and treatment experienced chronic hepatitis C patients who have severe and end stage renal disease with the elbasvir-grazoprevir regimen versus no treatment in the French context...
2018: PloS One
Ken Iseri, Masayuki Iyoda, Makoto Watanabe, Kei Matsumoto, Daisuke Sanada, Takashi Inoue, Shohei Tachibana, Takanori Shibata
INTRODUCTION: The clinical utility of denosumab for the treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) has yet to be established. This study aimed to compare the effects of denosumab on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers to those of alendronate in patients with GIOP. METHODS: A prospective, single-center study of 32 patients (18 men; median age, 66.0 years) with glomerular disease receiving prednisolone (PSL) who were diagnosed as having GIOP and had not received bisphosphonates before was conducted...
2018: PloS One
Nancy A Scott, Taryn Vian, Jeanette L Kaiser, Thandiwe Ngoma, Kaluba Mataka, Elizabeth G Henry, Godfrey Biemba, Mary Nambao, Davidson H Hamer
BACKGROUND: The WHO recommends maternity waiting homes (MWH) as one intervention to improve maternal and newborn health. However, persistent structural, cultural and financial barriers in their design and implementation have resulted in mixed success in both their uptake and utilization. Guidance is needed on how to design a MWH intervention that is acceptable and sustainable. Using formative research and guided by a sustainability framework for health programs, we systematically collected data from key stakeholders and potential users in order to design a MWH intervention in Zambia that could overcome multi-dimensional barriers to accessing facility delivery, be acceptable to the community and be financially and operationally sustainable...
2018: PloS One
Jihyun An, Jong Woo Kim, Ju Hyun Shim, Seungbong Han, Chang Sik Yu, Jaewon Choe, Danbi Lee, Kang Mo Kim, Young-Suk Lim, Young-Hwa Chung, Yung Sang Lee, Dong Jin Suh, Jin Hyoung Kim, Han Chu Lee
BACKGROUND: Prior epidemiological evidences suggest that hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is linked to cancers other than hepatocellular carcinoma. This prospective hospital registry-based case-control study aimed to investigate the sero-epidemiological association between chronic HBV infection and various types of cancer. METHODS: 95,034 patients with first-diagnosed non-hepatocellular malignancy in a tertiary hospital between 2007 and 2014; and 118,891 non-cancer individuals as controls from a health promotion center were included...
2018: PloS One
(no author information available yet)
In 2016, men aged ≥18 years were more likely than women to be current regular drinkers of alcohol (62.1% versus 47.2%). Non-Hispanic white men (65.5%) were more likely to be current regular drinkers than Hispanic men (57.8%) and non-Hispanic black men (52.9%). Non-Hispanic white women (55.6%) were more likely to be current regular drinkers than non-Hispanic black women (35.9%) and Hispanic women (31.5%).
March 16, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Katsuyuki Taguchi, Toshihide Itoh, Matthew K Fuld, Eric Fournie, Okkyun Lee, Kyo Noguchi
OBJECTIVES: A novel imaging technique ("X-map") has been developed to identify acute ischemic lesions for stroke patients using non-contrast-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography (NE-DE-CT). Using the 3-material decomposition technique, the original X-map ("X-map 1.0") eliminates fat and bone from the images, suppresses the gray matter (GM)-white matter (WM) tissue contrast, and makes signals of edema induced by severe ischemia easier to detect. The aim of this study was to address the following 2 problems with the X-map 1...
March 14, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Simone B S P Terra, Scott W Aesif, Joseph J Maleszewski, Andrew L Folpe, Jennifer M Boland
Synovial sarcoma (SS), a translocation-associated sarcoma characterized by SS18-SSX1/2 fusion, presents most often in the extremities of young adults. While SS regularly occurs in the pleuropulmonary parenchyma, the mediastinum is an exceedingly rare primary site; the literature on this subject is predominantly composed of case reports and small series, mostly without molecular confirmation. Cases of mediastinal SS were selected from our institutional and consultation archives. Diagnoses were confirmed by either SS18 fluorescence in situ hybridization (n=6) or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for SS18-SSX1/2 (n=15)...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Maurizio Battaglia Parodi, Alessandro Arrigo, Robert E MacLaren, Emanuela Aragona, Lisa Toto, Rodolfo Mastropasqua, Maria Pia Manitto, Francesco Bandello
PURPOSE: Choroideremia is a rare degenerative retinal disease that causes incurable blindness. It occurs as a result of the deficiency of the X-linked CHM gene, which encodes the Rab escort protein 1 (REP1). Gene therapy has been developed to treat CHM using adeno-associated viral vectors and is currently undergoing clinical trials. Expression of the CHM gene is ubiquitous throughout the retina, and it is therefore important to identify which retinal layers are affected in the disease process...
March 14, 2018: Retina
Jennifer S Dunkle
This qualitative study examined: 1) What older lesbians and gay men know about OAA-funded services; 2) attitudes towards the services; 3) experiences utilizing the services; 4) how current needs are met; and 5) plans for care as they age. Focus groups were conducted from June-August 2016. Purposive and snowball sampling yielded a sample size of 31. Five focus groups were conducted, and analysis used Grounded Theory. Four themes emerged: 1) low expectations of a welcoming environment, 2) the importance of being out, 3) need for LGBT-specific services, and 4) how to create inclusive services...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Gerontological Social Work
Ramón Medel Jiménez, Juan C Sánchez España, José Visa Nassarre, Eva Ayala Barroso, Alfredo Pueyo Ferrer, Alejandra Tapia Bahamondes, Luz M Vasquez
PURPOSE: To describe our experience and outcomes managing complete third cranial nerve palsy. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of the clinical records of 7 consecutive patients treated at our centre for unilateral third nerve palsy over the period 2010-2016. We describe our surgical approach using a frontalis muscle flap to correct the eyelid ptosis associated with medial fixation of the rectus muscle tendon to the orbit to correct the horizontal deviation...
March 15, 2018: Orbit
Marc N Jarczok, Corina Aguilar-Raab, Julian Koenig, Michael Kaess, Jeremy C Borniger, Randy J Nelson, Martica Hall, Beate Ditzen, Julian F Thayer, Joachim E Fischer
INTRODUCTION: Successful regulation of emotional states is positively associated to mental health, while difficulties in regulating emotions are negatively associated to overall mental health and in particular associated with anxiety or depression symptoms. A key structure associated to socio-emotional regulatory processes is the central autonomic network. Activity in this structure is associated to vagal activity can be indexed noninvasively and simply by measures of peripheral cardiac autonomic modulations such as heart rate variability...
March 15, 2018: Chronobiology International
Elizabeth Allen, Kayla Knopp, Galena Rhoades, Scott Stanley, Howard Markman
Using data from 570 male service members and their wives, the current study investigated over-time associations between male service members' self-report of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and marital functioning (marital satisfaction, positive bonding, conflict behavior) as perceived by both spouses. Analyses spanned 5 time points over a 2-year period and fully disentangled between- and within-subject effects. Higher levels of all four PTSD symptom clusters (numbing, hyperarousal, effortful avoidance, and reexperiencing) showed significant between-subject associations with lower levels of marital satisfaction and positive bonding, and higher levels of conflict for both men and women, whereas there were markedly fewer significant within-subject associations...
February 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Nubia A Mayorga, Charles Jardin, Jafar Bakhshaie, Lorra Garey, Andres G Viana, Jodi Berger Cardoso, Michael Zvolensky
Although recent work has highlighted the relation of acculturative stress with depression and anxiety symptoms specifically among Latino/a university students, the potential mechanisms underlying these associations remain relatively unknown. The present study aims to examine difficulties in emotion regulation as an explanatory factor in the relation of acculturative stress with symptoms of depression, suicidality, social anxiety, and anxious arousal. A sample of 448 Latino/a college students (Mage = 20.67 years, SD = 1...
March 2018: Journal of Counseling Psychology
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