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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444847/turnover-of-muscle-lipids-and-response-to-exercise-differs-between-neutral-and-polar-fractions-in-a-model-songbird-the-zebra-finch
#1
Wales A Carter, Clara Cooper-Mullin, Scott R McWilliams
The turnover rates of tissues and their constituent molecules give us insights into animals' physiological demands and their functional flexibility over time. Thus far, most studies of this kind have focused on protein turnover, and few have considered lipid turnover despite an increasing appreciation of the functional diversity of this class of molecules. We measured the turnover rates of neutral and polar lipids from the pectoralis muscles of a model songbird, the Zebra Finch ( Taeniopygia guttata , N=65), in a 256 day C 3 / C 4 diet shift experiment, with tissue samples taken at ten time points...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435260/hidden-endemism-deep-polyphyly-and-repeated-dispersal-across-the-isthmus-of-tehuantepec-diversification-of-the-white-collared-seedeater-complex-thraupidae-sporophila-torqueola
#2
Nicholas A Mason, Arturo Olvera-Vital, Irby J Lovette, Adolfo G Navarro-Sigüenza
Phenotypic and genetic variation are present in all species, but lineages differ in how variation is partitioned among populations. Examining phenotypic clustering and genetic structure within a phylogeographic framework can clarify which biological processes have contributed to extant biodiversity in a given lineage. Here, we investigate genetic and phenotypic variation among populations and subspecies within a Neotropical songbird complex, the White-collared Seedeater (Sporophila torqueola) of Central America and Mexico...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432157/flexible-usage-and-social-function-in-primate-vocalizations
#3
Dorothy L Cheney, Robert M Seyfarth
Vocalizations are a pervasive feature of nonhuman primate social life, yet we know surprisingly little about their function. We review studies supporting the hypothesis that many primate vocalizations function to facilitate social interactions by reducing uncertainty about the signaler's intentions and likely behavior. Such interactions help to establish and maintain the social bonds that increase reproductive success. Compared with humans, songbirds, and a few other mammals, primates have small vocal repertoires that show little acoustic modification during development...
February 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407461/co-localization-patterns-of-neurotensin-receptor-1-and-tyrosine-hydroxylase-in-brain-regions-involved-in-motivation-and-social-behavior-in-male-european-starlings
#4
Devin P Merullo, Jeremy A Spool, Changjiu Zhao, Lauren V Riters
Animals communicate in distinct social contexts to convey information specific to those contexts, such as sexual or agonistic motivation. In seasonally-breeding male songbirds, seasonal changes in day length and increases in testosterone stimulate sexually-motivated song directed at females for courtship and reproduction. Dopamine and testosterone may act in the same brain regions to stimulate sexually-motivated singing. The neuropeptide neurotensin, acting at the neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1), can strongly influence dopamine transmission...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404216/evaluating-outcomes-of-management-targeting-the-recovery-of-a-migratory-songbird-of-conservation-concern
#5
Henry M Streby, Gunnar R Kramer, Sean M Peterson, David E Andersen
Background: Assessing outcomes of habitat management is critical for informing and adapting conservation plans. From 2013-2019, a multi-stage management initiative, led by the American Bird Conservancy (ABC), aims to create >25,000 ha of shrubland and early-successional vegetation to benefit Golden-winged Warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) in managed forested landscapes of the western Great Lakes region. We studied a dense breeding population of Golden-winged Warblers at Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in Minnesota, USA, where ABC initiative management was implemented to benefit the species...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403051/no-evidence-that-carotenoid-pigments-boost-either-immune-or-antioxidant-defenses-in-a-songbird
#6
Rebecca E Koch, Andreas N Kavazis, Dennis Hasselquist, Wendy R Hood, Yufeng Zhang, Matthew B Toomey, Geoffrey E Hill
Dietary carotenoids have been proposed to boost immune system and antioxidant functions in vertebrate animals, but studies aimed at testing these physiological functions of carotenoids have often failed to find support. Here we subject yellow canaries (Serinus canaria), which possess high levels of carotenoids in their tissue, and white recessive canaries, which possess a knockdown mutation that results in very low levels of tissue carotenoids, to oxidative and pathogen challenges. Across diverse measures of physiological performance, we detect no differences between carotenoid-rich yellow and carotenoid-deficient white canaries...
February 5, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388024/intraspecific-variation-in-exploratory-behavior-and-elevational-affinity-in-a-widely-distributed-songbird
#7
Yanina Poblete, Víctor Gutiérrez, Valeska Cid, Seth D Newsome, Pablo Sabat, Rodrigo A Vasquez
Populations of the same species can vary substantially in their behavioral and morphometric traits when they are subject to different environmental pressures, which may lead to the development of different adaptive strategies. We quantified variation in exploratory behavior and morphometric traits among two rufous-collared sparrow populations that occur at low and high elevations in central Chile. Moreover, we used census and δ2H values of feather and blood to evaluate migration. We found that individual sparrows inhabiting high elevations were larger and showed more intense exploratory behavior in comparison with those that were captured at lower elevation...
January 31, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385141/contrasting-impacts-of-competition-on-ecological-and-social-trait-evolution-in-songbirds
#8
Jonathan P Drury, Joseph A Tobias, Kevin J Burns, Nicholas A Mason, Allison J Shultz, Hélène Morlon
Competition between closely related species has long been viewed as a powerful selective force that drives trait diversification, thereby generating phenotypic diversity over macroevolutionary timescales. However, although the impact of interspecific competition has been documented in a handful of iconic insular radiations, most previous studies have focused on traits involved in resource use, and few have examined the role of competition across large, continental radiations. Thus, the extent to which broad-scale patterns of phenotypic diversity are shaped by competition remain largely unclear, particularly for social traits...
January 31, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381764/potential-disruption-of-seed-dispersal-in-the-absence-of-a-native-kauai-thrush
#9
Monica Kaushik, Liba Pejchar, Lisa H Crampton
Hawaii has experienced a catastrophic decline in frugivorous native birds coupled with the introduction of non-native species. Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri), a critically endangered thrush, is the sole extant native songbird capable of dispersing fleshy fruited plants in the rainforest of Kauai island, Hawaii. As this species has declined to occupy a small proportion of its original range, a suite of largely omnivorous non-native birds have been introduced to this region, including the common and widespread Japanese White-eye (Zosterops japonicus)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380464/hypothalamic-and-liver-transcriptome-from-two-critical-life-history-stages-in-a-migratory-songbird
#10
Aakansha Sharma, Devraj Singh, Subhajit Das, Vinod Kumar
Very little is understood about genetic mechanisms underlying the onset of spring migration in latitudinal avian migrants. To gain insight into genetic architecture of the hypothalamus and liver tissues of a long-distance migrant, we examined and compared the transcriptome profile of captive night-migratory blackheaded buntings (Emberiza melanocephala) between photoperiodically-induced winter non-migratory (WnM) and spring migratory (SM) life-history states (LHSs) under short and long days, respectively. High-throughput 454 pyrosequenced transcripts were mapped initially with reference to the genome of two phylogenetically close species, Taeniopygia guttata and Ficedula albicollis...
January 29, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370529/temporal-expression-of-clock-genes-in-central-and-peripheral-tissues-of-spotted-munia-under-varying-light-conditions-evidence-for-circadian-regulation-of-daily-physiology-in-a-non-photoperiodic-circannual-songbird-species
#11
Neha Agarwal, Ila Mishra, Sangeeta Rani, Vinod Kumar
We investigated if the duration and/or frequency of the light period affect 24-h rhythm of circadian clock genes in central and peripheral tissues of a non-photoperiodic songbird, the spotted munia (Lonchura punctulata), in which a circannual rhythm regulates the reproductive cycle. We monitored activity-rest pattern and measured 24-h mRNA oscillation of core clock (Bmal1, Clock, Per2, Cry1 and Cry2) and clock-controlled (E4bp4, Rorα and Rev-erbα) genes in the hypothalamus, retina, liver and gut of spotted munia subjected to an aberrant light-dark (LD) cycle (3...
January 25, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356443/immune-profiles-vary-seasonally-but-are-not-significantly-related-to-migration-distance-or-natal-dispersal-in-a-migratory-songbird
#12
Tosha R Kelly, Heather L MacGillivray, Keith A Hobson, Scott A MacDougall-Shackleton, Elizabeth A MacDougall-Shackleton
A central tenet of ecoimmunology is that an organism's environment shapes its optimal investment in immunity. For example, the benefits of acquired (relatively pathogen specific) versus innate (nonspecific) immune defenses are thought to vary with the risk of encountering familiar versus unfamiliar pathogens. Because pathogen communities vary geographically, individuals that travel farther during seasonal migration or natal dispersal are predicted to have higher exposure to novel pathogens, and lower exposure to familiar pathogens, potentially favoring investment in innate immunity...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351614/a-membrane-g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-is-necessary-but-not-sufficient-for-sex-differences-in-zebra-finch-auditory-coding
#13
Amanda A Krentzel, Matheus Macedo-Lima, Maaya Z Ikeda, Luke Remage-Healey
Estradiol acts as a neuromodulator in brain regions important for cognition and sensory processing. Estradiol also shapes brain sex differences, but rarely have these concepts been considered simultaneously. In male and female songbirds, estradiol rapidly increases within the auditory forebrain during song exposure and enhances local auditory processing. We tested whether GPER1, a membrane bound estrogen receptor, is necessary and sufficient for neuroestrogen regulation of forebrain auditory processing in male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)...
January 17, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351011/a-migratory-divide-in-the-painted-bunting-passerina-ciris
#14
C J Battey, Ethan B Linck, Kevin L Epperly, Cooper French, David L Slager, Paul W Sykes, John Klicka
In the painted bunting (Passerina ciris), a North American songbird, populations on the Atlantic coast and interior southern United States are known to be allopatric during the breeding season, but efforts to map connectivity with wintering ranges have been largely inconclusive. Using genomic and morphological data from museum specimens and banded birds, we found evidence of three genetically differentiated painted bunting populations with distinct wintering ranges and molt-migration phenologies. In addition to confirming that the Atlantic coast population remains allopatric throughout the annual cycle, we identified an unexpected migratory divide within the interior breeding range...
February 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350284/a-positive-relationship-between-spring-temperature-and-productivity-in-20-songbird-species-in-the-boreal-zone
#15
Kalle Meller, Markus Piha, Anssi V Vähätalo, Aleksi Lehikoinen
Anthropogenic climate warming has already affected the population dynamics of numerous species and is predicted to do so also in the future. To predict the effects of climate change, it is important to know whether productivity is linked to temperature, and whether species' traits affect responses to climate change. To address these objectives, we analysed monitoring data from the Finnish constant effort site ringing scheme collected in 1987-2013 for 20 common songbird species together with climatic data. Warm spring temperature had a positive linear relationship with productivity across the community of 20 species independent of species' traits (realized thermal niche or migration behaviour), suggesting that even the warmest spring temperatures remained below the thermal optimum for reproduction, possibly due to our boreal study area being closer to the cold edge of all study species' distributions...
January 19, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345619/mir-9-regulates-basal-ganglia-dependent-developmental-vocal-learning-and-adult-vocal-performance-in-songbirds
#16
Zhimin Shi, Zoe Piccus, Xiaofang Zhang, Huidi Yang, Hannah Jarrell, Yan Ding, Zhaoqian Teng, Ofer Tchernichovski, XiaoChing Li
miR-9 is an evolutionarily conserved miRNA that is abundantly expressed in Area X, a basal ganglia nucleus required for vocal learning in songbirds. Here, we report that overexpression of miR-9 in Area X of juvenile zebra finches impairs developmental vocal learning, resulting in a song with syllable omission, reduced similarity to the tutor song, and altered acoustic features. miR-9 overexpression in juveniles also leads to more variable song performance in adulthood, and abolishes social context-dependent modulation of song variability...
January 18, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337074/in-situ-clock-shift-reveals-that-the-sun-compass-contributes-to-orientation-in-a-pelagic-seabird
#17
Oliver Padget, Sarah L Bond, Marwa M Kavelaars, Emiel van Loon, Mark Bolton, Annette L Fayet, Martyna Syposz, Stephen Roberts, Tim Guilford
Compass orientation is central to the control of animal movement from the scale of local food-caching movements around a familiar area in parids [1] and corvids [2, 3] to the first autumn vector navigation of songbirds embarking on long-distance migration [4-6]. In the study of diurnal birds, where the homing pigeon, Columba livia, has been the main model, a time-compensated sun compass [7] is central to the two-step map-and-compass process of navigation from unfamiliar places, as well as guiding movement via a representation of familiar area landmarks [8-12]...
January 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334409/climate-driven-mitochondrial-selection-a-test-in-australian-songbirds
#18
Annika Mae Lamb, Han Ming Gan, Chris Greening, Leo Joseph, Yin Peng Lee, Alejandra Morán-Ordóñez, Paul Sunnucks, Alexandra Pavlova
Diversifying selection between populations that inhabit different environments can promote lineage divergence within species and ultimately drive speciation. The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) encodes essential proteins of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system and can be a strong target for climate-driven selection (i.e. associated with inhabiting different climates). We investigated whether Pleistocene climate changes drove mitochondrial selection and evolution within Australian birds. First, using phylogeographic analyses of the mitochondrial ND2 gene for 17 songbird species, we identified mitochondrial clades (mitolineages)...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324422/assimilation-of-biophysical-neuronal-dynamics-in-neuromorphic-vlsi
#19
Jun Wang, Daniel Breen, Abraham Akinin, Frederic Broccard, Henry D I Abarbanel, Gert Cauwenberghs
Representing the biophysics of neuronal dynamics and behavior offers a principled analysis-by-synthesis approach toward understanding mechanisms of nervous system functions. We report on a set of procedures assimilating and emulating neurobiological data on a neuromorphic very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuit. The analog VLSI chip, NeuroDyn, features 384 digitally programmable parameters specifying for 4 generalized Hodgkin-Huxley neurons coupled through 12 conductance-based chemical synapses. The parameters also describe reversal potentials, maximal conductances, and spline regressed kinetic functions for ion channel gating variables...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322535/anatomy-of-the-upper-respiratory-tract-in-domestic-birds-with-emphasis-on-vocalization
#20
REVIEW
C Casteleyn, P Cornillie, S Van Cruchten, W Van den Broeck, C Van Ginneken, P Simoens
This work reviews the anatomy of the upper respiratory tract in domestic birds including the chicken and pigeon. Non-exhaustive additional information on other bird species, illustrating the extraordinary diversity in the biological class Aves, can be found in several footnotes. The described anatomical structures are functionally considered in view of avian sound production. In particular, the Syrinx is invaluable. Its most important structures are the Labia and the lateral and medial tympaniform membranes in non-songbirds and songbirds, respectively...
January 11, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
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