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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545898/risk-averse-personalities-have-a-systemically-potentiated-neuroendocrine-stress-axis-a-multilevel-experiment-in-parus-major
#1
Alexander T Baugh, Rebecca A Senft, Marian Firke, Abigail Lauder, Julia Schroeder, Simone L Meddle, Kees van Oers, Michaela Hau
Hormonal pleiotropy-the simultaneous influence of a single hormone on multiple traits-has been hypothesized as an important mechanism underlying personality, and circulating glucocorticoids are central to this idea. A major gap in our understanding is the neural basis for this link. Here we examine the stability and structure of behavioral, endocrine and neuroendocrine traits in a population of songbirds (Parus major). Upon identifying stable and covarying behavioral and endocrine traits, we test the hypothesis that risk-averse personalities exhibit a neuroendocrine stress axis that is systemically potentiated-characterized by stronger glucocorticoid reactivity and weaker negative feedback...
May 22, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544663/from-song-dialects-to-speciation-in-white-crowned-sparrows
#2
David P L Toews
The behavioural signals used in mate selection are a key component in the evolution of premating isolating barriers and, subsequently, the formation of new species. The importance of mating signals has a long tradition of study in songbirds, where many species differ in their song characteristics. In oscine songbirds, individual birds usually learn their songs from a tutor. Mistakes during learning can help generate geographic dialects, akin to those within human language groups. In songbirds, dialect differences can often be substantial and there is an intuitive connection between the evolution of song amongst populations at a small scale, and the more substantive song differences between bird species and presumably used in species recognition...
June 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544577/hatching-asynchrony-impacts-cognition-in-male-zebra-finches
#3
Simone A Campbell, Michelle L Beck, Kendra B Sewall
Conditions experienced early in life can shape brain development and later cognition. Altricial songbirds are particularly vulnerable to early environmental perturbations. Research on "Developmental Stress" in songbirds has addressed how early-life conditions may impair song learning and has been extended to consider other components of adult phenotype. Early-life challenges ranging from ectoparasites to competition with siblings have been shown to compromise song learning and other measures of cognition, as well as behavioral strategy...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542900/the-sensory-trigeminal-complex-and-the-organisation-of-its-primary-afferents-in-the-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata
#4
Macarena Faunes, J Martin Wild, Thomas Finger
Our knowledge of the avian sensory trigeminal system has been largely restricted to the principal trigeminal nucleus (PrV) and its ascending projections to the forebrain. Studies addressing the cytoarchitecture and organisation of afferent input to the sensory trigeminal complex, which includes both the PrV and the nuclei of the descending trigeminal tract (nTTD), have only been performed in pigeons and ducks. Here we extend such an analysis to a songbird, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). We describe the cytoarchitecture of the sensory trigeminal complex, the patterns of calbindin-like and substance P-like immunoreactivity, and the organisation of afferents from the three branches of the trigeminal nerve and from the lingual branch of the hypoglossal nerve...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540595/social-media-and-scientific-research-are-complementary-youtube-and-shrikes-as-a-case-study
#5
Łukasz Dylewski, Peter Mikula, Piotr Tryjanowski, Federico Morelli, Reuven Yosef
Fascination with animals and their behaviour is one the most prominent patterns persisting in all human cultures. During the last decades, however, technological development and public access to the Internet have increased the speed and the extent of information sharing at an unprecedented rate, in some cases even challenging the traditional methods used in science. In order to understand the extent of this influence, we focused on the behaviour of shrikes. Shrikes are an enigmatic group of songbirds with a unique behaviour of impaling prey...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539523/courtship-song-preferences-in-female-zebra-finches-are-shaped-by-developmental-auditory-experience
#6
Yining Chen, Oliver Clark, Sarah C Woolley
The performance of courtship signals provides information about the behavioural state and quality of the signaller, and females can use such information for social decision-making (e.g. mate choice). However, relatively little is known about the degree to which the perception of and preference for differences in motor performance are shaped by developmental experiences. Furthermore, the neural substrates that development could act upon to influence the processing of performance features remains largely unknown...
May 31, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533979/a-genome-wide-assessment-of-stages-of-elevational-parapatry-in-bornean-passerine-birds-reveals-no-introgression-implications-for-processes-and-patterns-of-speciation
#7
Robert G Moyle, Joseph D Manthey, Peter A Hosner, Mustafa Rahman, Maklarin Lakim, Frederick H Sheldon
Topographically complex regions often contain the close juxtaposition of closely related species along elevational gradients. The evolutionary causes of these elevational replacements, and thus the origin and maintenance of a large portion of species diversity along elevational gradients, are usually unclear because ecological differentiation along a gradient or secondary contact following allopatric diversification can produce the same pattern. We used reduced representation genomic sequencing to assess genetic relationships and gene flow between three parapatric pairs of closely related songbird taxa (Arachnothera spiderhunters, Chloropsis leafbirds, and Enicurus forktails) along an elevational gradient in Borneo...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530225/a-canonical-neural-mechanism-for-behavioral-variability
#8
Ran Darshan, William E Wood, Susan Peters, Arthur Leblois, David Hansel
The ability to generate variable movements is essential for learning and adjusting complex behaviours. This variability has been linked to the temporal irregularity of neuronal activity in the central nervous system. However, how neuronal irregularity actually translates into behavioural variability is unclear. Here we combine modelling, electrophysiological and behavioural studies to address this issue. We demonstrate that a model circuit comprising topographically organized and strongly recurrent neural networks can autonomously generate irregular motor behaviours...
May 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518074/eliciting-and-analyzing-male-mouse-ultrasonic-vocalization-usv-songs
#9
Jonathan Chabout, Joshua Jones-Macopson, Erich D Jarvis
Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in a variety of social contexts throughout development and adulthood. These USVs are used for mother-pup retrieval(1), juvenile interactions(2), opposite and same sex interactions(3)(,)(4)(,)(5), and territorial interactions(6). For decades, the USVs have been used by investigators as proxies to study neuropsychiatric and developmental or behavioral disorders(7)(,)(8)(,)(9), and more recently to understand mechanisms and evolution of vocal communication among vertebrates(10)...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514631/the-hawk-eyed-songbird-retinal-morphology-eye-shape-and-visual-fields-of-an-aerial-insectivore
#10
Luke P Tyrrell, Esteban Fernández-Juricic
Swallows are a unique group of songbirds because they are active-pursuit predators that execute all aspects of hunting prey in flight: search, detection, pursuit, and capture. We show that swallows have evolved a visual system that is unlike that of any other studied songbird. Swallows have a bifoveate retina that provides sharp lateral and frontal vision, an unusually long eye that enhances spatial resolution, a large posterior blind area, and a narrow binocular field. We also show that swallows and diurnal raptors (hawks and falcons) have converged on a similar visual configuration but that, interestingly, predatory songbirds that ambush prey (flycatchers) have not converged on the same suite of traits...
June 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514229/an-open-source-wireless-capable-miniature-microscope-system
#11
William A Liberti, L Nathan Perkins, Daniel P Leman, Timothy J Gardner
OBJECTIVE: Fluorescence imaging through head-mounted microscopes in freely behaving animals is becoming a standard method to study neural circuit function. Flexible, open-source designs are needed to spur evolution of the method. APPROACH: We describe a miniature microscope for single-photon fluorescence imaging in freely behaving animals. The device is made from 3D printed parts and off-the-shelf components. These microscopes weigh less than 1.8 g, can be configured to image a variety of fluorophores, and can be used wirelessly or in conjunction with active commutators...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507134/dopaminergic-modulation-of-basal-ganglia-output-through-coupled-excitation-inhibition
#12
Agata Budzillo, Alison Duffy, Kimberly E Miller, Adrienne L Fairhall, David J Perkel
Learning and maintenance of skilled movements require exploration of motor space and selection of appropriate actions. Vocal learning and social context-dependent plasticity in songbirds depend on a basal ganglia circuit, which actively generates vocal variability. Dopamine in the basal ganglia reduces trial-to-trial neural variability when the bird engages in courtship song. Here, we present evidence for a unique, tonically active, excitatory interneuron in the songbird basal ganglia that makes strong synaptic connections onto output pallidal neurons, often linked in time with inhibitory events...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506621/zenk-expression-following-conspecific-and-heterospecific-playback-in-the-zebra-finch-auditory-forebrain
#13
Erin N Scully, Allison H Hahn, Kimberley A Campbell, Neil McMillan, Jenna V Congdon, Christopher B Sturdy
Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are sexually dimorphic songbirds, not only in appearance but also in vocal production: while males produce both calls and songs, females only produce calls. This dimorphism provides a means to contrast the auditory perception of vocalizations produced by songbird species of varying degrees of relatedness in a dimorphic species to that of a monomorphic species, species in which both males and females produce calls and songs (e.g., black-capped chickadees, Poecile atricapillus)...
May 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504672/identification-of-a-motor-to-auditory-pathway-important-for-vocal-learning
#14
Todd F Roberts, Erin Hisey, Masashi Tanaka, Matthew G Kearney, Gaurav Chattree, Cindy F Yang, Nirao M Shah, Richard Mooney
Learning to vocalize depends on the ability to adaptively modify the temporal and spectral features of vocal elements. Neurons that convey motor-related signals to the auditory system are theorized to facilitate vocal learning, but the identity and function of such neurons remain unknown. Here we identify a previously unknown neuron type in the songbird brain that transmits vocal motor signals to the auditory cortex. Genetically ablating these neurons in juveniles disrupted their ability to imitate features of an adult tutor's song...
May 15, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502764/cryptic-speciation-and-gene-flow-in-a-migratory-songbird-species-complex-insights-from-the-red-eyed-vireo-vireo-olivaceus
#15
C J Battey, John Klicka
Migratory species that alternate between sympatry and allopatry over the course of an annual cycle are promising subjects for studies seeking to understand the process of speciation in the absence of strict geographic isolation. Here we sought to identify cryptic species and assess rates of gene flow in a clade of neotropical migrant songbirds in which geography and taxonomy are currently out of sync: the Red-Eyed Vireo (V. olivaceus) Species Complex. Phylogenetic, clustering, and statistical species delimitation analyses found that V...
May 12, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501633/atmospheric-mercury-deposition-to-forests-in-the-eastern-usa
#16
Martin R Risch, John F DeWild, David A Gay, Leiming Zhang, Elizabeth W Boyer, David P Krabbenhoft
Atmospheric mercury (Hg) deposition to forests is important because half of the land cover in the eastern USA is forest. Mercury was measured in autumn litterfall and weekly precipitation samples at a total of 27 National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) monitoring sites in deciduous and mixed deciduous-coniferous forests in 16 states in the eastern USA during 2007-2014. These simultaneous, uniform, repeated, annual measurements of forest Hg include the broadest area and longest time frame to date. The autumn litterfall-Hg concentrations and litterfall mass at the study sites each year were combined with annual precipitation-Hg data...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501612/the-effects-of-pleistocene-climate-change-on-biotic-differentiation-in-a-montane-songbird-clade-from-wallacea
#17
Nathaniel S R Ng, Peter R Wilton, Dewi Malia Prawiradilaga, Ywee Chieh Tay, Mochamad Indrawan, Kritika M Garg, Frank E Rheindt
The role of Pleistocene Ice Age in tropical diversification is poorly understood, especially in archipelagos, in which glaciation-induced sea level fluctuations may lead to complicated changes in land distribution. To assess how Pleistocene land bridges may have facilitated gene flow in tropical archipelagos, we investigated patterns of diversification in the rarely-collected rusty-bellied fantail Rhipidura teysmanni (Passeriformes: Rhipiduridae) complex from Wallacea using a combination of bioacoustic traits and whole-genome sequencing methods (dd-RADSeq)...
May 10, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499963/neither-artificial-light-at-night-anthropogenic-noise-nor-distance-from-roads-are-associated-with-oxidative-status-of-nestlings-in-an-urban-population-of-songbirds
#18
Giulia Casasole, Thomas Raap, David Costantini, Hamada AbdElgawad, Han Asard, Rianne Pinxten, Marcel Eens
Increasing urbanization is responsible for road-related pollutants and causes an unprecedented increase in light and noise pollution, with potential detrimental effects for individual animals, communities and ecosystems. These stressors rarely act in isolation but studies dissecting the effects of these multiple stressors are lacking. Moreover, studies on urban stressors have mainly focused on adults, while exposure in early-life may be detrimental but is largely ignored. To fill this important knowledge gap, we studied if artificial light at night, anthropogenic noise and road-related pollution (using distance from roads as a proxy) explain variation in oxidative status in great tit nestlings (Parus major) in an urban population...
May 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490627/concerted-and-mosaic-evolution-of-functional-modules-in-songbird-brains
#19
Jordan M Moore, Timothy J DeVoogd
Vertebrate brains differ in overall size, composition and functional capacities, but the evolutionary processes linking these traits are unclear. Two leading models offer opposing views: the concerted model ascribes major dimensions of covariation in brain structures to developmental events, whereas the mosaic model relates divergent structures to functional capabilities. The models are often cast as incompatible, but they must be unified to explain how adaptive changes in brain structure arise from pre-existing architectures and developmental mechanisms...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488276/cntnap2-is-a-direct-foxp2-target-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-in-zebra-finches-complex-regulation-by-age-and-activity
#20
Iris Adam, Ezequiel Mendoza, Ursula Kobalz, Sandra Wohlgemuth, Constance Scharff
Mutations of FOXP2 are associated with altered brain structure, including the striatal part of the basal ganglia, and cause a severe speech and language disorder. Songbirds serve as a tractable neurobiological model for speech and language research. Experimental downregulation of FoxP2 in zebra finch Area X, a nucleus of the striatal song control circuitry, affects synaptic transmission and spine densities. It also renders song learning and production inaccurate and imprecise, similar to the speech impairment of patients carrying FOXP2 mutations...
May 10, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
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