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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638318/maturation-behavioral-activation-and-connectivity-of-adult-born-medium-spiny-neurons-in-a-striatal-song-nucleus
#1
Jennifer Kosubek-Langer, Lydia Schulze, Constance Scharff
Neurogenesis continues in the adult songbird brain. Many telencephalic song control regions incorporate new neurons into their existing circuits in adulthood. One song nucleus that receives many new neurons is Area X. Because this striatal region is crucial for song learning and song maintenance the recruitment of new neurons into Area X could influence these processes. As an entry point into addressing this possibility, we investigated the maturation and connectivity within the song circuit and behavioral activation of newly generated Area X neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636887/temporal-dynamics-of-the-hpa-axis-linked-to-exploratory-behavior-in-a-wild-european-songbird-parus-major
#2
Alexander T Baugh, Sarah C Davidson, Michaela Hau, Kees van Oers
Variation in the reactivity of the endocrine stress axis is thought to underlie aspects of persistent individual differences in behavior (i.e. animal personality). Previous studies, however, have focused largely on estimating baseline or peak levels of glucocorticoids (CORT), often in captive animals. In contrast, the temporal dynamics of the HPA axis-how quickly it turns on and off, for example-may better indicate how an individual copes with stressors. Moreover, these HPA components might be correlated, thereby representing endocrine suites...
June 19, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617829/rhythmic-syllable-related-activity-in-a-songbird-motor-thalamic-nucleus-necessary-for-learned-vocalizations
#3
Husain H Danish, Dmitriy Aronov, Michale S Fee
Birdsong is a complex behavior that exhibits hierarchical organization. While the representation of singing behavior and its hierarchical organization has been studied in some detail in avian cortical premotor circuits, our understanding of the role of the thalamus in adult birdsong is incomplete. Using a combination of behavioral and electrophysiological studies, we seek to expand on earlier work showing that the thalamic nucleus Uvaeformis (Uva) is necessary for the production of stereotyped, adult song in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614414/species-specific-variation-in-nesting-and-postfledging-resource-selection-for-two-forest-breeding-migrant-songbirds
#4
Julianna M A Jenkins, Frank R Thompson, John Faaborg
Habitat selection is a fundamental component of community ecology, population ecology, and evolutionary biology and can be especially important to species with complex annual habitat requirements, such as migratory birds. Resource preferences on the breeding grounds may change during the postfledging period for migrant songbirds, however, the degree to which selection changes, timing of change, and whether all or only a few species alter their resource use is unclear. We compared resource selection for nest sites and resource selection by postfledging juvenile ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla) and Acadian flycatchers (Empidonax virescens) followed with radio telemetry in Missouri mature forest fragments from 2012-2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614358/livestock-grazing-supports-native-plants-and-songbirds-in-a-california-annual-grassland
#5
Sasha Gennet, Erica Spotswood, Michele Hammond, James W Bartolome
Over eight years we measured the effects of plant community composition, vegetation structure, and livestock grazing on occurrence of three grassland bird species-Western Meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris), and Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum)-at sites in central California during breeding season. In California's Mediterranean-type climatic region, coastal and inland grassland vegetation is dominated by exotic annual grasses with occasional patches of native bunchgrass and forbs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611372/fuel-loads-acquired-at-a-stopover-site-influence-the-pace-of-intercontinental-migration-in-a-boreal-songbird
#6
Camila Gómez, Nicholas J Bayly, D Ryan Norris, Stuart A Mackenzie, Kenneth V Rosenberg, Philip D Taylor, Keith A Hobson, Carlos Daniel Cadena
Long-distance migratory organisms are under strong selection to migrate quickly. Stopovers demand more time than flying and are used by individuals to refuel during migration, but the effect of fuel loads (fat) acquired at stopover sites on the subsequent pace of migration has not been quantified. We studied stopover behaviour of Grey-cheeked Thrush (Catharus minimus) at a site in northern Colombia and then tracked their migration using an intercontinental radio-telemetry array. Tracking confirmed long-distance flights of more than 3000 km, highlighting the key importance of a single stopover site to the migration strategy of this species...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608154/neural-control-of-daily-and-seasonal-timing-of-songbird-migration
#7
Tyler J Stevenson, Vinod Kumar
Bird migration is one of most salient annual events in nature. It involves predictable seasonal movements between breeding and non-breeding habitats. Both circadian and circannual clocks are entrained by photoperiodic cues and time daily and seasonal changes in migratory physiology and behavior. This mini-review provides an update on daily and seasonal rhythms of migratory behavior, and examines the neuroendocrine and molecular pathways involved in the timing of migration in songbirds. Recent findings have identified key neural substrates, and suggest the involvement of multiple neuroendocrine regulatory systems in controlling seasonal states in migrants...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599206/mercury-flow-through-an-asian-rice-based-food-web
#8
Kasun S Abeysinghe, Guangle Qiu, Eben Goodale, Christopher W N Anderson, Kevin Bishop, David C Evers, Morgan W Goodale, Holger Hintelmann, Shengjie Liu, Christos Mammides, Rui-Chang Quan, Jin Wang, Pianpian Wu, Xiao-Hang Xu, Xiao-Dong Yang, Xinbin Feng
Mercury (Hg) is a globally-distributed pollutant, toxic to humans and animals. Emissions are particularly high in Asia, and the source of exposure for humans there may also be different from other regions, including rice as well as fish consumption, particularly in contaminated areas. Yet the threats Asian wildlife face in rice-based ecosystems are as yet unclear. We sought to understand how Hg flows through rice-based food webs in historic mining and non-mining regions of Guizhou, China. We measured total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in soil, rice, 38 animal species (27 for MeHg) spanning multiple trophic levels, and examined the relationship between stable isotopes and Hg concentrations...
June 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597541/restless-roosts-light-pollution-affects-behavior-sleep-and-physiology-in-a-free-living-songbird
#9
Jenny Q Ouyang, Maaike de Jong, Roy H A van Grunsven, Kevin D Matson, Mark F Haussmann, Peter Meerlo, Marcel E Visser, Kamiel Spoelstra
The natural nighttime environment is increasingly polluted by artificial light. Several studies have linked artificial light at night to negative impacts on human health. In free-living animals, light pollution is associated with changes in circadian, reproductive, and social behavior, but whether these animals also suffer from physiologic costs remains unknown. To fill this gap, we made use of a unique network of field sites which are either completely unlit (control), or are artificially illuminated with white, green, or red light...
June 9, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584270/ambient-anthropogenic-noise-but-not-light-is-associated-with-the-ecophysiology-of-free-living-songbird-nestlings
#10
Thomas Raap, Rianne Pinxten, Giulia Casasole, Nina Dehnhard, Marcel Eens
Urbanization is associated with dramatic increases in noise and light pollution, which affect animal behaviour, physiology and fitness. However, few studies have examined these stressors simultaneously. Moreover, effects of urbanization during early-life may be detrimental but are largely unknown. In developing great tits (Parus major), a frequently-used model species, we determined important indicators of immunity and physiological condition: plasma haptoglobin (Hp) and nitric oxide (NOx) concentration. We also determined fledging mass, an indicator for current health and survival...
June 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575175/central-administration-of-indomethacin-mitigates-the-injury-induced-upregulation-of-aromatase-expression-and-estradiol-content-in-the-zebra-finch-brain
#11
Alyssa L Pedersen, Jenna L Brownrout, Colin J Saldanha
Injury to the vertebrate brain causes neuroinflammation, characterized in part by increases in prostaglandins. In rodents and songbirds, brain injury also induces the transcription and translation of aromatase in reactive astrocytes around the site of damage. Interestingly, this induction is more rapid in female zebra finches relative to males. Induced aromatization is neuroprotective, as inhibition of aromatase and estrogen replacement, increases and decreases the extent of damage, respectively. While the consequences of induced astrocytic aromatization are intensely studied, little is known about what factor(s) induce aromatase...
June 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555872/local-density-regulates-migratory-songbird-reproductive-success-through-effects-on-double-brooding-and-nest-predation
#12
Bradley K Woodworth, Nathaniel T Wheelwright, Amy E M Newman, D Ryan Norris
Knowledge of the density-dependent processes that regulate animal populations is key to understanding, predicting, and conserving populations. In migratory birds, density-dependence is most often studied during the breeding season, yet we still lack a robust understanding of the reproductive traits through which density influences individual reproductive success. We used 27-years of detailed, individual-level productivity data from an island-breeding population of Savannah sparrows Passerculus sandwichensis to evaluate effects of local and total annual population density on female reproductive success...
May 27, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553008/song-duration-mediates-responses-of-territory-owner-in-a-songbird-species-with-a-small-song-repertoire
#13
Tomasz S Osiejuk, Aleksandra Jakubowska
Song is a sexually selected trait that is involved in mate attraction and territory defence in birds. Songs may convey information about different male quality components. They are flexible in terms of frequency, amplitude, and duration. Although changes in song duration are common, the function of this behaviour has been studied less strongly. It is known that song duration changes within a singing bout and may provide information about aggressive motivation. We tested whether the elongation and shortening of songs affects the responses of territorial ortolan bunting males to neighbour song playback...
2017: Acta Ethologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545898/risk-averse-personalities-have-a-systemically-potentiated-neuroendocrine-stress-axis-a-multilevel-experiment-in-parus-major
#14
Alexander T Baugh, Rebecca A Senft, Marian Firke, Abigail Lauder, Julia Schroeder, Simone L Meddle, Kees van Oers, Michaela Hau
Hormonal pleiotropy-the simultaneous influence of a single hormone on multiple traits-has been hypothesized as an important mechanism underlying personality, and circulating glucocorticoids are central to this idea. A major gap in our understanding is the neural basis for this link. Here we examine the stability and structure of behavioral, endocrine and neuroendocrine traits in a population of songbirds (Parus major). Upon identifying stable and covarying behavioral and endocrine traits, we test the hypothesis that risk-averse personalities exhibit a neuroendocrine stress axis that is systemically potentiated-characterized by stronger glucocorticoid reactivity and weaker negative feedback...
May 26, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544663/from-song-dialects-to-speciation-in-white-crowned-sparrows
#15
David P L Toews
The behavioural signals used in mate selection are a key component in the evolution of premating isolating barriers and, subsequently, the formation of new species. The importance of mating signals has a long tradition of study in songbirds, where many species differ in their song characteristics. In oscine songbirds, individual birds usually learn their songs from a tutor. Mistakes during learning can help generate geographic dialects, akin to those within human language groups. In songbirds, dialect differences can often be substantial and there is an intuitive connection between the evolution of song amongst populations at a small scale, and the more substantive song differences between bird species and presumably used in species recognition...
June 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544577/hatching-asynchrony-impacts-cognition-in-male-zebra-finches
#16
Simone A Campbell, Michelle L Beck, Kendra B Sewall
Conditions experienced early in life can shape brain development and later cognition. Altricial songbirds are particularly vulnerable to early environmental perturbations. Research on "Developmental Stress" in songbirds has addressed how early-life conditions may impair song learning and has been extended to consider other components of adult phenotype. Early-life challenges ranging from ectoparasites to competition with siblings have been shown to compromise song learning and other measures of cognition, as well as behavioral strategy...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542900/the-sensory-trigeminal-complex-and-the-organization-of-its-primary-afferents-in-the-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata
#17
Macarena Faunes, J Martin Wild
Our knowledge of the avian sensory trigeminal system has been largely restricted to the principal trigeminal nucleus (PrV) and its ascending projections to the forebrain. Studies addressing the cytoarchitecture and organization of afferent input to the sensory trigeminal complex, which includes both the PrV and the nuclei of the descending trigeminal tract (nTTD), have only been performed in pigeons and ducks. Here we extend such an analysis to a songbird, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). We describe the cytoarchitecture of the sensory trigeminal complex, the patterns of calbindin-like and substance P-like immunoreactivity, and the organization of afferents from the three branches of the trigeminal nerve and from the lingual branch of the hypoglossal nerve...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540595/social-media-and-scientific-research-are-complementary-youtube-and-shrikes-as-a-case-study
#18
Łukasz Dylewski, Peter Mikula, Piotr Tryjanowski, Federico Morelli, Reuven Yosef
Fascination with animals and their behaviour is one the most prominent patterns persisting in all human cultures. During the last decades, however, technological development and public access to the Internet have increased the speed and the extent of information sharing at an unprecedented rate, in some cases even challenging the traditional methods used in science. In order to understand the extent of this influence, we focused on the behaviour of shrikes. Shrikes are an enigmatic group of songbirds with a unique behaviour of impaling prey...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539523/courtship-song-preferences-in-female-zebra-finches-are-shaped-by-developmental-auditory-experience
#19
Yining Chen, Oliver Clark, Sarah C Woolley
The performance of courtship signals provides information about the behavioural state and quality of the signaller, and females can use such information for social decision-making (e.g. mate choice). However, relatively little is known about the degree to which the perception of and preference for differences in motor performance are shaped by developmental experiences. Furthermore, the neural substrates that development could act upon to influence the processing of performance features remains largely unknown...
May 31, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533979/a-genome-wide-assessment-of-stages-of-elevational-parapatry-in-bornean-passerine-birds-reveals-no-introgression-implications-for-processes-and-patterns-of-speciation
#20
Robert G Moyle, Joseph D Manthey, Peter A Hosner, Mustafa Rahman, Maklarin Lakim, Frederick H Sheldon
Topographically complex regions often contain the close juxtaposition of closely related species along elevational gradients. The evolutionary causes of these elevational replacements, and thus the origin and maintenance of a large portion of species diversity along elevational gradients, are usually unclear because ecological differentiation along a gradient or secondary contact following allopatric diversification can produce the same pattern. We used reduced representation genomic sequencing to assess genetic relationships and gene flow between three parapatric pairs of closely related songbird taxa (Arachnothera spiderhunters, Chloropsis leafbirds, and Enicurus forktails) along an elevational gradient in Borneo...
2017: PeerJ
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