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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829769/temperature-manipulation-of-neuronal-dynamics-in-a-forebrain-motor-control-nucleus
#1
Matías A Goldin, Gabriel B Mindlin
Different neuronal types within brain motor areas contribute to the generation of complex motor behaviors. A widely studied songbird forebrain nucleus (HVC) has been recognized as fundamental in shaping the precise timing characteristics of birdsong. This is based, among other evidence, on the stretching and the "breaking" of song structure when HVC is cooled. However, little is known about the temperature effects that take place in its neurons. To address this, we investigated the dynamics of HVC both experimentally and computationally...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828271/late-pleistocene-songbirds-of-liang-bua-flores-indonesia-the-first-fossil-passerine-fauna-described-from-wallacea
#2
Hanneke J M Meijer, Rokus Awe Due, Thomas Sutikna, Wahyu Saptomo, Jatmiko, Sri Wasisto, Matthew W Tocheri, Gerald Mayr
BACKGROUND: Passerines (Aves: Passeriformes) dominate modern terrestrial bird communities yet their fossil record is limited. Liang Bua is a large cave on the Indonesian island of Flores that preserves Late Pleistocene-Holocene deposits (∼190 ka to present day). Birds are the most diverse faunal group at Liang Bua and are present throughout the stratigraphic sequence. METHODS: We examined avian remains from the Late Pleistocene deposits of Sector XII, a 2 × 2 m area excavated to about 8...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826502/sexual-dimorphism-in-striatal-dopaminergic-responses-promotes-monogamy-in-social-songbirds
#3
Kirill Tokarev, Julia Hyland Bruno, Iva Ljubičić, Paresh J Kothari, Santosh A Helekar, Ofer Tchernichovski, Henning U Voss
In many songbird species, males sing to attract females and repel rivals. How can gregarious, non-territorial songbirds such as zebra finches, where females have access to numerous males, sustain monogamy? We found that the dopaminergic reward circuitry of zebra finches can simultaneously promote social cohesion and breeding boundaries. Surprisingly, in unmated males but not in females, striatal dopamine neurotransmission was elevated after hearing songs. Behaviorally too, unmated males but not females persistently exchanged mild punishments in return for songs...
August 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821656/dissociable-effects-on-birdsong-of-androgen-signaling-in-cortex-like-brain-regions-of-canaries
#4
Beau A Alward, Jacques Balthazart, Gregory F Ball
The neural basis of how learned vocalizations change during development and in adulthood represents a major challenge facing cognitive neuroscience. This plasticity in the degree to which learned vocalizations can change in both humans and songbirds is linked to the actions of sex steroid hormones during ontogeny but also in adulthood in the context of seasonal changes in birdsong. We investigated the role of steroid hormone signaling in the brain on distinct features of birdsong using adult male canaries (Serinus canaria), which show extensive seasonal vocal plasticity as adults...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814612/effects-of-a-social-cue-on-reproductive-development-and-pre-alternate-molt-in-seasonally-breeding-migrant-and-resident-female-songbirds-zonotrichia-leucophrys
#5
Helen E Chmura, Simone L Meddle, John C Wingfield, Thomas P Hahn
To time reproduction optimally, birds have evolved diverse mechanisms by which they respond to environmental changes that help them anticipate and prepare for the breeding season. While residents initiate reproductive preparation and breed in the same geographic location, migrant birds simultaneously prepare for breeding and migration far from their breeding grounds. As a result, it is hypothesized that migrant and resident birds use environmental cues differently to prepare to breed and that there is adaptive specialization in mechanisms regulating reproductive preparation...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814575/prenatal-environment-affects-embryonic-response-to-song
#6
Diane Colombelli-Négrel, Sonia Kleindorfer
Early environmental enrichment improves postnatal cognition in animals and humans. Here, we examined the effects of the prenatal acoustic environment (parental song rate) on prenatal attention in superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus) embryos, the only songbird species with evidence of prenatal discrimination of maternal calls and in ovo call learning. Because both adults also sing throughout the incubation phase, we broadcast songs to embryos and measured their heart rate response in relation to parental song rate and tutor identity (familiarity, sex)...
August 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809019/lentiviral-mediated-transgenesis-in-songbirds
#7
Wan-Chun Liu, Marian Hruska-Plochan, Atsushi Miyanohara
Transgenesis involves the insertion of an exogenous gene into an animal's genome, which allows the identification of the expressed phenotypes in brain function or behavior. Lentiviral-mediated transgenesis offers unique transduction potency making it possible to deliver and stably integrate transgenes into a wide variety of dividing and nondividing cells. The ability to establish long-term expression of such transgenes allows their use for transgenesis which is especially useful in organisms lacking quality pluripotent stem cell lines and which is otherwise difficult to produce via traditional pronuclear microinjection, such as songbirds...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798667/the-foxp2-driven-network-in-developmental-disorders-and-neurodegeneration
#8
Franz Oswald, Patricia Klöble, André Ruland, David Rosenkranz, Bastian Hinz, Falk Butter, Sanja Ramljak, Ulrich Zechner, Holger Herlyn
The transcription repressor FOXP2 is a crucial player in nervous system evolution and development of humans and songbirds. In order to provide an additional insight into its functional role we compared target gene expression levels between human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) stably overexpressing FOXP2 cDNA of either humans or the common chimpanzee, Rhesus monkey, and marmoset, respectively. RNA-seq led to identification of 27 genes with differential regulation under the control of human FOXP2, which were previously reported to have FOXP2-driven and/or songbird song-related expression regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796893/singing-from-north-to-south-latitudinal-variation-in-timing-of-dawn-singing-under-natural-and-artificial-light-conditions
#9
Arnaud Da Silva, Bart Kempenaers
1. Animals breeding at northern latitudes experience drastic changes in daily light conditions during the breeding season with decreasing periods of darkness, whereas those living at lower latitudes are exposed to naturally dark nights throughout the year. Nowadays, many animals are also exposed to artificial night lighting (often referred to as light pollution). 2. Animals strongly rely on variation in light levels to time their daily and seasonal behaviour. Previous work on passerine birds showed that artificial night lighting leads to earlier onset of dawn song...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794486/the-female-perspective-of-personality-in-a-wild-songbird-repeatable-aggressiveness-relates-to-exploration-behaviour
#10
Bert Thys, Rianne Pinxten, Thomas Raap, Gilles De Meester, Hector F Rivera-Gutierrez, Marcel Eens
Males often express traits that improve competitive ability, such as aggressiveness. Females also express such traits but our understanding about why is limited. Intraspecific aggression between females might be used to gain access to reproductive resources but simultaneously incurs costs in terms of energy and time available for reproductive activities, resulting in a trade-off. Although consistent individual differences in female behaviour (i.e. personality) like aggressiveness are likely to influence these reproductive trade-offs, little is known about the consistency of aggressiveness in females...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794216/higher-songs-of-city-birds-may-not-be-an-individual-response-to-noise
#11
Sue Anne Zollinger, Peter J B Slater, Erwin Nemeth, Henrik Brumm
It has been observed in many songbird species that populations in noisy urban areas sing with a higher minimum frequency than do matched populations in quieter, less developed areas. However, why and how this divergence occurs is not yet understood. We experimentally tested whether chronic noise exposure during vocal learning results in songs with higher minimum frequencies in great tits (Parus major), the first species for which a correlation between anthropogenic noise and song frequency was observed. We also tested vocal plasticity of adult great tits in response to changing background noise levels by measuring song frequency and amplitude as we changed noise conditions...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794163/very-weak-oscillating-magnetic-field-disrupts-the-magnetic-compass-of-songbird-migrants
#12
Alexander Pakhomov, Julia Bojarinova, Roman Cherbunin, Raisa Chetverikova, Philipp S Grigoryev, Kirill Kavokin, Dmitry Kobylkov, Regina Lubkovskaja, Nikita Chernetsov
Previously, it has been shown that long-distance migrants, garden warblers (Sylvia borin), were disoriented in the presence of narrow-band oscillating magnetic field (1.403 MHz OMF, 190 nT) during autumn migration. This agrees with the data of previous experiments with European robins (Erithacus rubecula). In this study, we report the results of experiments with garden warblers tested under a 1.403 MHz OMF with various amplitudes (∼0.4, 1, ∼2.4, 7 and 20 nT). We found that the ability of garden warblers to orient in round arenas using the magnetic compass could be disrupted by a very weak oscillating field, such as an approximate 2...
August 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792100/understanding-sources-of-methylmercury-to-songbirds-with-stable-mercury-isotopes-challenges-and-future-directions
#13
Martin Tsz-Ki Tsui, Evan M Adams, Allyson K Jackson, David C Evers, Joel D Blum, Steven J Balogh
Mercury (Hg) stable isotope analysis is an emerging technique that has contributed to a better understanding of many aspects of the biogeochemical cycling of Hg in the environment. However, no study has yet evaluated its usefulness in elucidating the sources of methylmercury (MeHg) to songbird species, a common organism for biomonitoring of Hg in forested ecosystems. In this pilot study, we examined stable mercury isotope ratios in blood of four species of songbirds and the invertebrates they are likely foraging upon in multiple habitats in a small watershed of mixed forest and wetlands in Acadia National Park in Maine, U...
August 9, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791134/conventional-oil-and-natural-gas-infrastructure-increases-brown-headed-cowbird-molothrus-ater-relative-abundance-and-parasitism-in-mixed-grass-prairie
#14
Jacy Bernath-Plaisted, Heather Nenninger, Nicola Koper
The rapid expansion of oil and natural gas development across the Northern Great Plains has contributed to habitat fragmentation, which may facilitate brood parasitism of ground-nesting grassland songbird nests by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), an obligate brood parasite, through the introduction of perches and anthropogenic edges. We tested this hypothesis by measuring brown-headed cowbird relative abundance and brood parasitism rates of Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) nests in relation to the presence of infrastructure features and proximity to potential perches and edge habitat...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783753/is-telomere-length-associated-with-mate-choice-in-a-songbird-with-a-high-rate-of-extra-pair-paternity
#15
Arild Johnsen, Angela Pauliny, Jan T Lifjeld, Donald Blomqvist
Telomere length is related to aging in many eukaryotes and the rate of telomere attrition has been suggested to reflect individual genetic quality. Telomere length could thus have implications for mate choice. We investigated telomere length variation in bluethroat Luscinia svecica families with mixed paternity, including social parents, extra-pair fathers and nestlings, testing whether telomere length is associated with social and/or extra-pair mate choice through assortative mating or selection of mates with relatively long telomeres...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770338/echoes-on-the-motor-network-how-internal-motor-control-structures-afford-sensory-experience
#16
REVIEW
Jed D Burgess, Jarrad A G Lum, Jakob Hohwy, Peter G Enticott
Often, during daily experiences, hearing peers' actions can activate motor regions of the CNS. This activation is termed auditory-motor resonance (AMR) and is thought to represent an internal simulation of one's motor memories. Currently, AMR is demonstrated at the neuronal level in the Macaque and songbird, in conjunction with evidence on a systems level in humans. Here, we review evidence of AMR development from a motor control perspective. In the context of internal modelling, we consider data that demonstrates sensory-guided motor learning and action maintenance, particularly the notion of sensory comparison seen during songbird vocalisation...
August 2, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766063/host-responses-to-pathogen-priming-in-a-natural-songbird-host
#17
Ariel E Leon, Dana M Hawley
Hosts in free-living populations can experience substantial variation in the frequency and dose of pathogen exposure, which can alter disease progression and protection from future exposures. In the house finch-Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) system, the pathogen is primarily transmitted via bird feeders, and some birds may be exposed to frequent low doses of MG while foraging. Here we experimentally determined how low dose, repeated exposures of house finches to MG influence host responses and protection from secondary high-dose challenge...
August 1, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758205/clustered-organization-and-region-specific-identities-of-estrogen-producing-neurons-in-the-forebrain-of-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#18
Maaya Z Ikeda, Amanda A Krentzel, Tessa J Oliver, Garrett B Scarpa, Luke Remage-Healey
A fast, neuromodulatory role for estrogen signaling has been reported in many regions of the vertebrate brain. Regional differences in the cellular distribution of aromatase (estrogen synthase) in several species suggest that mechanisms for neuroestrogen signaling differ between and even within brain regions. A more comprehensive understanding of neuroestrogen signaling depends on characterizing the cellular identities of neurons that express aromatase. Calcium-binding proteins such as parvalbumin and calbindin are molecular markers for interneuron subtypes, and are co-expressed with aromatase in human temporal cortex...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756623/spatial-and-temporal-drivers-of-avian-population-dynamics-across-the-annual-cycle
#19
Clark S Rushing, Jeffrey A Hostetler, T Scott Sillett, Peter P Marra, James A Rotenberg, Thomas B Ryder
Untangling the spatial and temporal processes that influence population dynamics of migratory species is challenging, because changes in abundance are shaped by variation in vital rates across heterogeneous habitats and throughout the annual cycle. We developed a full-annual-cycle, integrated population model and used demographic data collected between 2011 and 2014 in southern Indiana and Belize to estimate stage-specific vital rates of a declining migratory songbird, the Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina)...
July 30, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752944/genomic-divergence-across-ecological-gradients-in-the-central-african-rainforest-songbird-andropadus-virens
#20
Ying Zhen, Ryan J Harrigan, Kristen C Ruegg, Eric C Anderson, Thomas C Ng, Sirena Lao, Kirk E Lohmueller, Thomas B Smith
The little greenbul, a common rainforest passerine from sub-Saharan Africa, has been the subject of long-term evolutionary studies to understand the mechanisms leading to rainforest speciation. Previous research found morphological and behavioral divergence across rainforest-savanna transition zones (ecotones), and a pattern of divergence with gene flow suggesting divergent natural selection has contributed to adaptive divergence and ecotones could be important areas for rainforests speciation. Recent advances in genomics and environmental modeling make it possible to examine patterns of genetic divergence in a more comprehensive fashion...
July 28, 2017: Molecular Ecology
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