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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343237/actogram-analysis-of-free-flying-migratory-birds-new-perspectives-based-on-acceleration-logging
#1
REVIEW
Johan Bäckman, Arne Andersson, Lykke Pedersen, Sissel Sjöberg, Anders P Tøttrup, Thomas Alerstam
The use of accelerometers has become an important part of biologging techniques for large-sized birds with accelerometer data providing information about flight mode, wing-beat pattern, behaviour and energy expenditure. Such data show that birds using much energy-saving soaring/gliding flight like frigatebirds and swifts can stay airborne without landing for several months. Successful accelerometer studies have recently been conducted also for free-flying small songbirds during their entire annual cycle. Here we review the principles and possibilities for accelerometer studies in bird migration...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331007/advantages-of-comparative-studies-in-songbirds-to-understand-the-neural-basis-of-sensorimotor-integration
#2
Karagh Murphy, Logan S James, Jon T Sakata, Jonathan F Prather
Sensorimotor integration is the process through which the nervous system creates a link between motor commands and associated sensory feedback. This process allows for the acquisition and refinement of many behaviors, including learned communication behaviors like speech and birdsong. Consequently, it is important to understand fundamental mechanisms of sensorimotor integration, and comparative analyses of this process can provide vital insight. Songbirds offer a powerful comparative model system to study how the nervous system links motor and sensory information for learning and control...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317843/winter-temperatures-limit-population-growth-rate-of-a-migratory-songbird
#3
Bradley K Woodworth, Nathaniel T Wheelwright, Amy E Newman, Michael Schaub, D Ryan Norris
Understanding the factors that limit and regulate wildlife populations requires insight into demographic and environmental processes acting throughout the annual cycle. Here, we combine multi-year tracking data of individual birds with a 26-year demographic study of a migratory songbird to evaluate the relative effects of density and weather at the breeding and wintering grounds on population growth rate. Our results reveal clear support for opposing forces of winter temperature and breeding density driving population dynamics...
March 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314822/topography-and-lateralized-effect-of-acute-aromatase-inhibition-on-auditory-processing-in-a-seasonal-songbird
#4
Geert De Groof, Jacques Balthazart, Charlotte A Cornil, Annemie Van der Lindena
It is increasingly recognized that brain-derived estrogens (neuroestrogens) can regulate brain physiology and behavior much faster than what was previously known from the transcriptional action of estrogens on nuclear receptors. One of the best examples of such neuromodulation by neuroestrogens concerns the acute regulation of sensory coding by the auditory cortex as demonstrated by electrophysiological studies of selected neurons in zebra finches. Yet, the spatial extent of such modulation by neuroestrogens is not known...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293176/muscarinic-receptors-are-responsible-for-the-cholinergic-modulation-of-projection-neurons-in-the-song-production-brain-nucleus-ra-of-zebra-finches
#5
Wei Meng, Songhua Wang, Lihua Yao, Nan Zhang, Dongfeng Li
Songbirds are a useful model for the study of learned vocal behavior in vertebrates. The robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) is a premotor nucleus in the vocal motor pathway. It receives excitatory synaptic inputs from the anterior forebrain pathway. RA also receives cholinergic inputs from the ventral paleostriatum of the basal forebrain. Our previous study showed that carbachol, a non-selective cholinergic receptor agonist, modulates the electrophysiology of RA projection neurons (PNs), indicating that cholinergic modulation of RA may play an important role in song production...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292671/heavy-metal-bioaccumulation-in-two-passerines-with-differing-migration-strategies
#6
Zoë Cooper, Robert Bringolf, Robert Cooper, Kathy Loftis, Albert L Bryan, James A Martin
Various anthropogenic activities have resulted in concentration of heavy metals and contamination of surrounding environments. Historically, heavy metal contamination at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina has resulted from accidental releases of stored waste generated from nuclear weapon production in the early 1950s. Songbirds inhabiting and using resources from these areas have the potential to bioaccumulate metals but there is limited information on metal concentration levels in areas suspected of contamination as well as uncontaminated sites...
March 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288397/neural-mechanisms-of-vocal-imitation-the-role-of-sleep-replay-in-shaping-mirror-neurons
#7
REVIEW
Nicolas Giret, Jean-Marc Edeline, Catherine Del Negro
Learning by imitation involves not only perceiving another individual's action to copy it, but also the formation of a memory trace in order to gradually establish a correspondence between the sensory and motor codes, which represent this action through sensorimotor experience. Memory and sensorimotor processes are closely intertwined. Mirror neurons, which fire both when the same action is performed or perceived, have received considerable attention in the context of imitation. An influential view of memory processes considers that the consolidation of newly acquired information or skills involves an active offline reprocessing of memories during sleep within the neuronal networks that were initially used for encoding...
March 10, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287934/seasonal-patterns-in-eastern-equine-encephalitis-virus-antibody-in-songbirds-in-southern-maine
#8
Susan P Elias, Patrick Keenan, Joan L Kenney, Sara R Morris, Kristen M Covino, Sara Robinson, Kimberly A Foss, Peter W Rand, Charles Lubelczyk, Eleanor H Lacombe, John-Paul Mutebi, David Evers, Robert P Smith
The intent of this study was to assess passerine eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEv) seroprevalence during the breeding season in southern Maine by testing songbird species identified in the literature as amplifying hosts of this virus. In 2013 and 2014, we collected serum samples from songbirds at a mainland site and an offshore island migratory stopover site, and screened samples for EEEv antibodies using plaque reduction neutralization tests. We compared seasonal changes in EEEv antibody seroprevalence in young (hatched in year of capture) and adult birds at the mainland site, and also compared early season seroprevalence in mainland versus offshore adult birds...
March 13, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280562/experimental-illumination-of-a-forest-no-effects-of-lights-of-different-colours-on-the-onset-of-the-dawn-chorus-in-songbirds
#9
Arnaud Da Silva, Maaike de Jong, Roy H A van Grunsven, Marcel E Visser, Bart Kempenaers, Kamiel Spoelstra
Light pollution is increasing exponentially, but its impact on animal behaviour is still poorly understood. For songbirds, the most repeatable finding is that artificial night lighting leads to an earlier daily onset of dawn singing. Most of these studies are, however, correlational and cannot entirely dissociate effects of light pollution from other effects of urbanization. In addition, there are no studies in which the effects of different light colours on singing have been tested. Here, we investigated whether the timing of dawn singing in wild songbirds is influenced by artificial light using an experimental set-up with conventional street lights...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275143/genomic-islands-of-divergence-or-opportunities-for-introgression
#10
Rachael A Bay, Kristen Ruegg
In animals, introgression between species is often perceived as the breakdown of reproductive isolating mechanisms, but gene flow between incipient species can also represent a source for potentially beneficial alleles. Recently, genome-wide datasets have revealed clusters of differentiated loci ('genomic islands of divergence') that are thought to play a role in reproductive isolation and therefore have reduced gene flow. We use simulations to further examine the evolutionary forces that shape and maintain genomic islands of divergence between two subspecies of the migratory songbird, Swainson's thrush (Catharus ustulatus), which have come into secondary contact since the last glacial maximum...
March 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273111/mating-success-follows-duet-dancing-in-the-java-sparrow
#11
Masayo Soma, Midori Iwama
Mutual interactions between sexes have multiple signalling functions. Duet singing in songbirds is related to mutual mate guarding, joint resource defence, and signalling commitment. Coordinated visual displays of mating pairs are thought to perform similar functions, but are less well understood. The current study evaluated mutual interactions in an Estrildid species to explore the relative importance of duet dancing and male singing in mating success of pairs in a first encounter. When Java sparrows (Lonchura oryzivora) court prospective mates, only males sing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271185/to-transduce-a-zebra-finch-interrogating-behavioral-mechanisms-in-a-model-system-for-speech
#12
Jonathan B Heston, Stephanie A White
The ability to alter neuronal gene expression, either to affect levels of endogenous molecules or to express exogenous ones, is a powerful tool for linking brain and behavior. Scientists continue to finesse genetic manipulation in mice. Yet mice do not exhibit every behavior of interest. For example, Mus musculus do not readily imitate sounds, a trait known as vocal learning and a feature of speech. In contrast, thousands of bird species exhibit this ability. The circuits and underlying molecular mechanisms appear similar between disparate avian orders and are shared with humans...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265501/construction-patterns-of-birds-nests-provide-insight-into-nest-building-behaviours
#13
Lucia Biddle, Adrian M Goodman, D Charles Deeming
Previous studies have suggested that birds and mammals select materials needed for nest building based on their thermal or structural properties, although the amounts or properties of the materials used have been recorded for only a very small number of species. Some of the behaviours underlying the construction of nests can be indirectly determined by careful deconstruction of the structure and measurement of the biomechanical properties of the materials used. Here we examined this idea in an investigation of Bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) nests as a model for open-nesting songbird species that construct a "twig" nest, and tested the hypothesis that materials in different parts of nests serve different functions...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254568/extra-hypothalamic-brain-clocks-in-songbirds-photoperiodic-state-dependent-clock-gene-oscillations-in-night-migratory-blackheaded-buntings-emberiza-melanocephala
#14
Devraj Singh, Vinod Kumar
The avian circadian pacemaker system is comprised of independent clocks in the retina, pineal and hypothalamus, as shown by daily and circadian oscillations of core clock genes (Per2, Cry1, Bmal1 and Clock) in several birds including migratory blackheaded buntings (Emberiza melanocephala). This study investigated the extra-hypothalamic brain circadian clocks in blackheaded buntings, and measured Per2, Cry1, Cry2, Bmal1 and Clock mRNA expressions at 4h intervals over 24h beginning 1h after light-on in the left and right telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum, the brain regions involved in several physiological and cognitive functions...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250467/automated-synaptic-connectivity-inference-for-volume-electron-microscopy
#15
Sven Dorkenwald, Philipp J Schubert, Marius F Killinger, Gregor Urban, Shawn Mikula, Fabian Svara, Joergen Kornfeld
Teravoxel volume electron microscopy data sets from neural tissue can now be acquired in weeks, but data analysis requires years of manual labor. We developed the SyConn framework, which uses deep convolutional neural networks and random forest classifiers to infer a richly annotated synaptic connectivity matrix from manual neurite skeleton reconstructions by automatically identifying mitochondria, synapses and their types, axons, dendrites, spines, myelin, somata and cell types. We tested our approach on serial block-face electron microscopy data sets from zebrafish, mouse and zebra finch, and computed the synaptic wiring of songbird basal ganglia...
February 27, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235893/single-neurons-in-the-avian-auditory-cortex-encode-individual-identity-and-propagation-distance-in-naturally-degraded-communication-calls
#16
Solveig C Mouterde, Julie E Elie, Nicolas Mathevon, Frédéric E Theunissen
One of the most complex tasks performed by sensory systems is "scene analysis": the interpretation of complex signals as behaviorally relevant objects. The study of this problem, universal to species and sensory modalities, is particularly challenging in audition, where sounds from various sources and localizations, degraded by propagation through the environment, sum to form a single acoustical signal. Here we investigated in a songbird model, the zebra finch, the neural substrate for ranging and identifying a single source...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230159/diversity-in-mixed-species-groups-improves-success-in-a-novel-feeder-test-in-a-wild-songbird-community
#17
Todd M Freeberg, Shannon K Eppert, Kathryn E Sieving, Jeffrey R Lucas
Mixed-species groups are common and are thought to provide benefits to group members via enhanced food finding and antipredator abilities. These benefits could accrue due to larger group sizes in general but also to the diverse species composition in the groups. We tested these possibilities using a novel feeder test in a wild songbird community containing three species that varied in their dominant-subordinate status and in their nuclear-satellite roles: Carolina chickadees (Poecile carolinensis), tufted titmice (Baeolophus bicolor), and white-breasted nuthatches (Sitta carolinensis)...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229973/female-conspecifics-restore-rhythmic-singing-behaviour-in-arrhythmic-male-zebra-finches
#18
Neelu Anand Jha, Vinod Kumar
The present study investigated whether pairing with a conspecific female would restore rhythmicity in the singing behaviour of arrhythmic male songbirds. We recorded the singing and, as the circadian response indicator, monitored the activity-rest pattern in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) housed without or with a conspecific female under 12 h light: 12 h darkness (12L:12D) or constant bright light (LL bright). Both unpaired and paired birds exhibited a significant daily rhythm in the singing and activity behaviour, but paired birds, under 12L:12D, showed a ~2 h extension in the evening...
March 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221825/ecological-and-social-factors-constrain-spatial-and-temporal-opportunities-for-mating-in-a-migratory-songbird
#19
Sara A Kaiser, Benjamin B Risk, T Scott Sillett, Michael S Webster
Many studies of sexual selection assume that individuals have equal mating opportunities and that differences in mating success result from variation in sexual traits. However, the inability of sexual traits to explain variation in male mating success suggests that other factors moderate the strength of sexual selection. Extrapair paternity is common in vertebrates and can contribute to variation in mating success and thus serves as a model for understanding the operation of sexual selection. We developed a spatially explicit, multifactor model of all possible female-male pairings to test the hypothesis that ecological (food availability) and social (breeding density, breeding distance, and the social mate's nest stage) factors influence an individual's opportunity for extrapair paternity in a socially monogamous bird, the black-throated blue warbler, Setophaga caerulescens...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199421/correction-within-site-variation-in-feather-stable-hydrogen-isotope-%C3%AE-2hf-values-of-boreal-songbirds-implications-for-assignment-to-molt-origin
#20
Cameron J Nordell, Samuel Haché, Erin M Bayne, Péter Sólymos, Kenneth R Foster, Christine M Godwin, Richard Krikun, Peter Pyle, Keith A Hobson
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0163957.].
2017: PloS One
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