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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786613/biophysics-of-membrane-curvature-remodeling-at-molecular-and-mesoscopic-lengthscales
#1
Natesan Ramakrishnan, Ryan P Bradley, Richard W Tourdot, Ravi Radhakrishnan
At the micron scale, where cell organelles display an amazing complexity in their shape and organization, the physical properties of a biological membrane can be better-understood using continuum models subject to thermal (stochastic) undulations. Yet, the chief orchestrators of these complex and intriguing shapes are a specialized class of membrane associating often peripheral proteins called curvature remodeling proteins (CRPs) that operate at the molecular level through specific protein-lipid interactions...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784874/select-%C3%AE-arrestins-control-cell-surface-abundance-of-the-mammalian-kir2-1-potassium-channel-in-a-yeast-model
#2
Natalie A Hager, Collin J Krasowski, Timothy D Mackie, Alexander R Kolb, Patrick G Needham, Andrew A Augustine, Alison Dempsey, Christopher Szent-Gyorgyi, Marcel P Bruchez, Daniel J Bain, Adam V Kwiatkowski, Allyson F O'Donnell, Jeffrey L Brodsky
Protein composition at the plasma membrane is tightly regulated, with rapid protein internalization and selective targeting to the cell surface occurring in response to environmental changes. For example, ion channels are dynamically relocalized to or from the plasma membrane in response to physiological alterations, allowing cells and organisms to maintain osmotic and salt homeostasis. To identify additional factors that regulate the selective trafficking of a specific ion channel, we used a yeast model for a mammalian potassium channel, the K+ inwardly rectifying channel Kir2...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783682/heat-shock-gene-inactivation-and-protein-aggregation-with-links-to-chronic-diseases
#3
Ian James Martins
The heat shock response involved in protein misfolding is linked to the formation of toxic immunogenic proteins with heat shock proteins (HSP) as regulators of amyloid beta aggregation. The defective amyloid beta trafficking between different intracellular compartments is now relevant to HSPs and autoimmunity. Overnutrition, temperature dysregulation, and stress repress the heat shock gene Sirtuin 1 with the induction of HSP regulated amyloid beta aggregation involved in the autoimmune response. Defective circadian rhythm alterations are connected to inactivation of the peripheral sink amyloid beta clearance pathway and related to insulin resistance, protein aggregation, and autoimmune disease in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and various neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease...
May 18, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782846/abnormal-small-intestinal-epithelial-microvilli-in-patients-with-crohn-s-disease
#4
Kelli L VanDussen, Aleksandar Stojmirović, Katherine Li, Ta-Chiang Liu, Patrick K Kimes, Brian D Muegge, Katherine F Simpson, Matthew A Ciorba, Jacqueline G Perrigoue, Joshua R Friedman, Jennifer E Towne, Richard D Head, Thaddeus S Stappenbeck
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Crohn's disease (CD) presents as chronic and often progressive intestinal inflammation, but the contributing pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. We aimed to identify alterations in intestinal cells that could contribute to the chronic and progressive course of CD. METHODS: We took an unbiased, system-wide approach, performing sequence analysis of RNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ileal tissue sections from patients with CD (n=36) and without CD (controls, n=32)...
May 18, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780898/sumoylation-and-phosphorylation-cross-talk-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#5
REVIEW
Maria Lauda Tomasi, Komal Ramani
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary malignancy of the liver and occurs predominantly in patients with underlying chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. The large spectrum of protein post-translational modification (PTM) includes numerous critical signaling events that occur during neoplastic transformation. PTMs occur to nearly all proteins and increase the functional diversity of proteins. We have reviewed the role of two major PTMs, SUMOylation and phosphorylation, in the altered signaling of key players in HCC...
2018: Translational Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778978/tough-love-accommodating-intracellular-bacteria-through-directed-secretion-of-antimicrobial-peptides-during-the-nitrogen-fixing-symbiosis
#6
REVIEW
Christina Stonoha-Arther, Dong Wang
The symbiosis formed by nitrogen-fixing bacteria with plant hosts mainly in the legume family involves a very intimate interaction. Within the symbiotic organ (the nodule) the bacteria are fully internalized by the host cell to become an intracellular organelle surrounded by a host-derived membrane. This arrangement is probably necessary for the efficient provision of energy and the sequestration of free oxygen molecules, two conditions required for sustained nitrogen fixation. Recent advances made in model legume species, such as Medicago truncatula, are beginning to uncover the genetic components allowing rhizobia to access the host cytoplasm and establish chronic intracellular infections without overt detrimental effects...
May 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778647/expression-of-recombinant-proteins-in-insect-and-mammalian-cells
#7
REVIEW
Edward A McKenzie, W Mark Abbott
Purified recombinant proteins are key reagents in academic and industrial research. The ability to make these proteins quickly often relies on the availability of higher eukaryotic cell hosts such as insect and mammalian cells where there is a very wide range of post-translational modifications, protein folding and trafficking pathways. This enables the generation of many proteins that cannot be made in microbial hosts. In this article we outline some of the most commonly used methods to express recombinant proteins in insect and mammalian cells...
May 17, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777911/deficiency-in-gnrh-receptor-trafficking-due-to-a-novel-homozygous-mutation-causes-idiopathic-hypogonadotropic-hypogonadism-in-three-prepubertal-siblings
#8
Rui Zhang, Siyuan Linpeng, Zhuo Li, Yingxi Cao, Hu Tan, Desheng Liang, Lingqian Wu
Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is characterized by low levels of gonadotropins and delayed or absent sexual development. Most of the patients are diagnosed in late adolescence or early adulthood. Determining the diagnosis of IHH in prepubertal patients can be challenging. Making a timely, correct diagnosis has important clinical implications. Here we aimed to identify the genetic cause of IHH in three prepubertal siblings from a Chinese Han family and give appropriate treatment advice. Using whole exome sequencing (WES), we identified a novel homozygous GNRHR mutation (NM_000406; c...
May 16, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777060/protease-activated-receptor-1-inhibits-cholesterol-efflux-and-promotes-atherogenesis-via-cullin-3-mediated-degradation-of-the-abca1-transporter
#9
Somasundaram Raghavan, Nikhlesh K Singh, Arul M Mani, Gadiparthi N Rao
Although signaling of thrombin via its receptor protease-activated receptor 1 (Par1) is known to occur in atherothrombosis, its link to the actual pathogenesis of this condition is less clear. To better understand the role of thrombin-Par1 signaling in atherosclerosis, here we have studied their effects on cellular cholesterol efflux in mice. We found that by activating Par1 and cullin 3-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of ATP-binding cassette subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1), thrombin inhibits cholesterol efflux in both murine macrophages and smooth muscle cells...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776664/rhod-localization-and-function-is-dependent-on-its-gtp-gdp-bound-state-and-unique-n-terminal-motif
#10
Magdalena Blom, Katarina Reis, Pontus Aspenström
The atypical Rho GTPase RhoD has previously been shown to have a major impact on the organization and function of the actin filament system. However, when first discovered, RhoD was found to regulate endosome trafficking and dynamics and we therefore sought to investigate this regulation in more detail. We found that exogenously expressed RhoD in human fibroblasts localized to vesicles and the plasma membrane and that the active GTP-bound conformation was required for the plasma membrane localization but not for vesicle localization...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776606/advances-in-membrane-trafficking-and-endosomal-signaling-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#11
Aylin C Hanyaloglu
The integration of GPCR signaling with membrane trafficking, as a single orchestrated system, is a theme increasingly evident with the growing reports of GPCR endosomal signaling. Once viewed as a mechanism to regulate cell surface heterotrimeric G protein signaling, the endocytic trafficking system is complex, highly compartmentalized, yet deeply interconnected with cell signaling. The organization of receptors into distinct plasma membrane signalosomes, biochemically distinct endosomal populations, endosomal microdomains, and its communication with distinct subcellular organelles such as the Golgi provides multiple unique signaling platforms that are critical for specifying receptor function physiologically and pathophysiologically...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775737/deltex-interacts-with-eiger-and-consequently-influences-the-cell-death-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#12
Debdeep Dutta, Ankita Singh, Maimuna Sali Paul, Vartika Sharma, Mousumi Mutsuddi, Ashim Mukherjee
TNF-JNK signaling is one of the highly conserved signaling pathways that regulate a broad spectrum of cellular processes including proliferation and apoptosis. Eiger, the sole homologue of TNF in Drosophila, initiates the TNF-JNK pathway to induce cell death. Previously, Deltex (Dx) has been identified as a Notch signaling component that regulates vesicular trafficking of Notch. In the present study, we have investigated the interaction between these two proteins in order to identify how Dx influences the activity of Eiger...
May 15, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775645/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-induce-a-permissive-state-in-the-bone-marrow-that-enhances-g-csf-induced-hematopoietic-stem-cell-mobilization-in-mice
#13
Evert-Jan F M de Kruijf, Rob Zuijderduijn, Marjolein C Stip, Willem E Fibbe, Melissa van Pel
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) support hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in vivo and enhance HSC engraftment and hematopoietic recovery upon co-transplantation with HSC. These data have led to the hypothesis that MSC may impact the HSC niche, leading to changes in HSC retention and trafficking. We studied the effect of MSC administration on the HSC compartment in the bone marrow (BM) in mice. Following injection of MSC, HSC numbers in the BM were decreased coinciding with an increased cell cycle activity compared to PBS-injected controls...
May 15, 2018: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775570/rapid-non-classical-effects-of-steroids-on-the-membrane-receptor-dynamics-and-downstream-signaling-in-neurons
#14
REVIEW
Klaudia Barabás, Soma Godó, Ferenc Lengyel, Dávid Ernszt, József Pál, István M Ábrahám
Although rapid effects of steroid hormones on membrane receptors and intracellular signaling molecules have been extensively studied in neurons, we are only beginning to understand the molecular mechanisms behind these non-classical steroid actions. Single molecule tracking (SMT) studies on live cells demonstrated that surface trafficking of membrane receptors determines their ligand binding properties and downstream signaling events. Recent findings suggest that one of the underlying mechanisms of non-classical steroid actions is the alteration of receptor movements on the membrane surface...
May 15, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775225/cytokines-and-chemokines-differentially-regulate-innate-immune-cell-trafficking-during-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis
#15
Ashish K Singh, Vidya N R Das, Ajay Amit, Manas R Dikhit, Vijaya Mahantesh, Shubhankar K Singh, Shyam Naryan, Krishna Pandey, Pradeep Das, Neena Verma, Sanjiva Bimal
Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is often considered to be the anthroponotic reservoir of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in India. A better understanding of the host immune-response in dermal lesions of PKDL patients is therefore of utmost significance to minimize such patients and to restrict VL transmission. Although the innate immune response is known to play an important role in parasite clearance from dermal lesions, the actual contribution of innate cells to the pathogenicity of PKDL is poorly understood...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774078/targeting-intracellular-mmps-efficiently-inhibits-tumor-metastasis-and-angiogenesis
#16
Yaqi Lv, Xiangmei Zhao, Lidan Zhu, Sijia Li, Qingqing Xiao, Wei He, Lifang Yin
Treatment for metastatic cancer is a great challenge throughout the world. Commonly, directed inhibition of extracellular matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) secreted by cancer cells can reduce metastasis. Here, a novel nanoplatform (HPMC NPs) assembled from hyaluronic acid (HA)-paclitaxel (PTX) prodrug and marimastat (MATT)/β-casein (CN) complexes was established to cure a 4T1 metastatic cancer model via targeting CD44 and intracellular, rather than extracellular, MMPs. Methods: HPMC NPs were prepared by assembling the complexes and prodrug under ultrasonic treatment, which the interaction between them was evaluated by förster resonance energy transfer, circular dichroism and fluorescence spectra...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774029/lfa-1-in-t-cell-migration-and-differentiation
#17
REVIEW
Brandon L Walling, Minsoo Kim
Maintenance of homeostatic immune surveillance and development of effective adaptive immune responses require precise regulation of spatial and temporal lymphocyte trafficking throughout the body to ensure pathogen clearance and memory generation. Dysregulation of lymphocyte activation and migration can lead to impaired adaptive immunity, recurrent infections, and an array of autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation. Central to the recruitment of T cells, integrins are cell surface receptors that regulate adhesion, signal transduction, and migration...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773710/arginine-methylation-is-required-for-canonical-wnt-signaling-and-endolysosomal-trafficking
#18
Lauren V Albrecht, Diego Ploper, Nydia Tejeda-Muñoz, Edward M De Robertis
Arginine methylation has emerged as a widespread and reversible protein modification with the potential to regulate a multitude of cellular processes, but its function is poorly understood. Endolysosomes play an important role in Wnt signaling, in which glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) becomes sequestered inside multivesicular bodies (MVBs) by the process known as microautophagy, causing the stabilization of many proteins. Up to 20% of cellular proteins contain three or more consecutive putative GSK3 sites, and of these 33% also contain methylarginine (meArg) modifications...
May 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773668/plants-send-small-rnas-in-extracellular-vesicles-to-fungal-pathogen-to-silence-virulence-genes
#19
Qiang Cai, Lulu Qiao, Ming Wang, Baoye He, Feng-Mao Lin, Jared Palmquist, Hsien-Da Huang, Hailing Jin
Some pathogens and pests deliver small RNAs (sRNAs) into host cells to suppress host immunity. Conversely, hosts also transfer sRNAs into pathogens and pests to inhibit their virulence. Although sRNA trafficking has been observed in a wide variety of interactions, how sRNAs are transferred, especially from hosts to pathogens/pests, is still unknown. Here we show that host Arabidopsis cells secrete exosome-like extracellular vesicles to deliver sRNAs into fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea These sRNA-containing vesicles accumulate at the infection sites and are taken up by the fungal cells...
May 17, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771386/immunotherapy-in-cns-cancers-the-role-of-immune-cell-trafficking
#20
Nivedita M Ratnam, Mark R Gilbert, Amber J Giles
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly malignant CNS tumor with very poor survival despite intervention with conventional therapeutic strategies. Although the CNS is separated from the immune system by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), emerging evidence of immune surveillance and the selective infiltration of GBMs by immune suppressive cells indicates that there is breakdown or compromise of these physical barriers. This in turn offers hope that immunotherapy can be applied to specifically target and reduce tumor burden...
May 15, 2018: Neuro-oncology
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