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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726994/cell-biology-symposium-practical-application-of-the-basic-aspects-of-glut4-membrane-trafficking-and-insulin-signaling-on-issues-related-to-animal-agriculture
#1
S B Smith
Because of the relatively short lifespans of beef cattle, membrane trafficking in relation to inflammation is not considered important unless it overtly affects productivity. However, glucose uptake and utilization is important for adipose tissue development in beef cattle, and increasing glucose utilization in intramuscular adipose tissue can increase carcass quality. Research from the 1980s demonstrated a lack of insulin sensitivity in isolated bovine adipocytes and adipose tissue explants incubated in vitro...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726990/cell-biology-symposium-membrane-trafficking-and-signal-transduction
#2
J L Klotz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726733/interaction-of-mitochondria-with-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-plasma-membrane-in-calcium-homeostasis-lipid-trafficking-and-mitochondrial-structure
#3
REVIEW
Jędrzej Szymański, Justyna Janikiewicz, Bernadeta Michalska, Paulina Patalas-Krawczyk, Mariasole Perrone, Wiesław Ziółkowski, Jerzy Duszyński, Paolo Pinton, Agnieszka Dobrzyń, Mariusz R Więckowski
Studying organelles in isolation has been proven to be indispensable for deciphering the underlying mechanisms of molecular cell biology. However, observing organelles in intact cells with the use of microscopic techniques reveals a new set of different junctions and contact sites between them that contribute to the control and regulation of various cellular processes, such as calcium and lipid exchange or structural reorganization of the mitochondrial network. In recent years, many studies focused their attention on the structure and function of contacts between mitochondria and other organelles...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724787/disrupted-apical-exocytosis-of-cargo-vesicles-causes-enteropathy-in-fhl5-patients-with-munc18-2-mutations
#4
Georg F Vogel, Jorik M van Rijn, Iris M Krainer, Andreas R Janecke, Carsten Posovzsky, Marta Cohen, Claire Searle, Prevost Jantchou, Johanna C Escher, Natalie Patey, Ernest Cutz, Thomas Müller, Sabine Middendorp, Michael W Hess, Lukas A Huber
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 5 (FHL5) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in STXBP2, coding for Munc18-2, which is required for SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. FHL5 causes hematologic and gastrointestinal symptoms characterized by chronic enteropathy that is reminiscent of microvillus inclusion disease (MVID). However, the molecular pathophysiology of FHL5-associated diarrhea is poorly understood. Five FHL5 patients, including four previously unreported patients, were studied...
July 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724772/binding-of-hsv-1-ul20-to-godz-affects-its-palmitoylation-and-is-essential-for-infectivity-and-proper-targeting-and-localization-of-ul20-and-gk
#5
Shaohui Wang, Kevin R Mott, Kolja Wawrowsky, Konstantin G Kousoulas, Bernhard Luscher, Homayon Ghiasi
HSV-1 UL20 plays a crucial role in the envelopment of the cytoplasmic virion and its egress. It is a non-glycosylated envelope protein that is regulated as a γ1 gene. Two-hybrid and pull-down assays demonstrated that UL20, but no other HSV-1 gene-encoded proteins, binds specifically to GODZ (a.k.a.: DHHC3), a cellular Golgi-specific Asp-His-His-Cys (DHHC) zinc finger protein. A catalytically inactive dominant-negative GODZ construct significantly reduced HSV-1 replication in vitro and affected the localization of UL20 and gK and their interactions but not gC...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724767/integrity-of-the-linker-of-nucleoskeleton-and-cytoskeleton-is-required-for-efficient-herpesvirus-nuclear-egress
#6
Barbara G Klupp, Teresa Hellberg, Harald Granzow, Kati Franzke, Beatriz Dominguez Gonzalez, Rose Goodchild, Thomas C Mettenleiter
Herpesvirus capsids assemble in the nucleus while final virion maturation proceeds in the cytoplasm. This requires that newly formed nucleocapsids cross the nuclear envelope (NE), which occurs by budding at the inner nuclear membrane (INM), release of the primary enveloped virion into the perinuclear space (PNS), and subsequent rapid fusion with the outer nuclear membrane (ONM). During this process the NE remains intact, even at late stages of infection. In addition, the spacing between the INM and ONM is maintained, as is that between the primary virion envelope and nuclear membranes...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724764/rab5-and-rab11-are-required-for-clathrin-dependent-endocytosis-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus-in-bhk-21-cells
#7
Chun-Chun Liu, Yun-Na Zhang, Zhao-Yao Li, Jin-Xiu Hou, Jing Zhou, Lin Kan, Bin Zhou, Pu-Yan Chen
During infection Japanese Encephalitis Virus generally enters host cells via receptor-mediated clathrin dependent endocytosis. The trafficking of JEV within endosomes is controlled by Rab GTPases, but which Rab proteins are involved in JEV entry into BHK-21 cells is unknown. In this study, entry and post-internalization of JEV were analyzed using biochemical inhibitors, RNA interference and dominant negative mutants. Our data demonstrate that JEV entry into BHK-21 cells depends on clathrin, dynamin, and cholesterol, but not caveolae or macropinocytosis...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724758/the-shcd-phosphotyrosine-adaptor-subverts-canonical-egf-receptor-trafficking
#8
Melanie K B Wills, Hayley R Lau, Nina Jones
Shc family signalling adaptors connect activated transmembrane receptors to proximal effectors, and most also contain a sequence involved in clathrin-mediated receptor endocytosis. Notably, this AP2 adaptin binding motif (AD) is absent from the ShcD homolog, which also uniquely promotes ligand-independent phosphorylation of the Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) Receptor (EGFR). We now report that cultured cells expressing ShcD exhibit reduced EGF uptake, commensurate with a decrease in EGFR surface presentation...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724635/heterodimers-of-the-transcriptional-factors-nfatc3-and-fosb-mediate-tissue-factor-expression-for-15-s-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic-acid-induced-monocyte-trafficking
#9
Sivareddy Kotla, Nikhlesh K Singh, Daniel Kirchhofer, Gadiparthi N Rao
Tissue factor (TF) is expressed in vascular and nonvascular tissues and functions in several pathways, including embryonic development, inflammation, and cell migration. Many risk factors for atherosclerosis, including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and smoking, increase TF expression. To better understand the TF-related mechanisms in atherosclerosis, here we investigated the role of 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) in TF expression. 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE), the major product of human 15-LOXs 1 and 2, induced TF expression and activity in a time-dependent manner in the human monocytic cell line THP1...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724630/altered-met-receptor-phosphorylation-and-lrp1-mediated-uptake-in-cells-lacking-carbohydrate-dependent-lysosomal-targeting
#10
Megan Aarnio-Peterson, Peng Zhao, Seok-Ho Yu, Courtney Christian, Heather Flanagan-Steet, Lance Wells, Richard Steet
Acid hydrolases utilize a carbohydrate-dependent mechanism for lysosomal targeting. These hydrolases acquire a mannose 6-phosphate tag by the action of the GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase enzyme, allowing them to bind receptors and traffic to endosomes. Loss of GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase results in hydrolase hypersecretion and profound lysosomal storage. Little, however, is known about how these cellular phenotypes affect the trafficking, activity and localization of surface glycoproteins. To address this question, we profiled the abundance of surface glycoproteins in WT and CRISPR-mediated GNPTAB-/- HeLa cells and identified changes in numerous glycoproteins including the uptake receptor LRP1 and multiple receptor tyrosine kinases...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724573/a-single-dose-of-peripherally-infused-egfrviii-directed-car-t-cells-mediates-antigen-loss-and-induces-adaptive-resistance-in-patients-with-recurrent-glioblastoma
#11
Donald M O'Rourke, MacLean P Nasrallah, Arati Desai, Jan J Melenhorst, Keith Mansfield, Jennifer J D Morrissette, Maria Martinez-Lage, Steven Brem, Eileen Maloney, Angela Shen, Randi Isaacs, Suyash Mohan, Gabriela Plesa, Simon F Lacey, Jean-Marc Navenot, Zhaohui Zheng, Bruce L Levine, Hideho Okada, Carl H June, Jennifer L Brogdon, Marcela V Maus
We conducted a first-in-human study of intravenous delivery of a single dose of autologous T cells redirected to the epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) mutation by a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). We report our findings on the first 10 recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) patients treated. We found that manufacturing and infusion of CAR-modified T cell (CART)-EGFRvIII cells are feasible and safe, without evidence of off-tumor toxicity or cytokine release syndrome. One patient has had residual stable disease for over 18 months of follow-up...
July 19, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724527/the-spread-of-prion-like-proteins-by-lysosomes-and-tunneling-nanotubes-implications-for-neurodegenerative-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Guiliana Soraya Victoria, Chiara Zurzolo
Progression of pathology in neurodegenerative diseases is hypothesized to be a non-cell-autonomous process that may be mediated by the productive spreading of prion-like protein aggregates from a "donor cell" that is the source of misfolded aggregates to an "acceptor cell" in which misfolding is propagated by conversion of the normal protein. Although the proteins involved in the various diseases are unrelated, common pathways appear to be used for their intercellular propagation and spreading. Here, we summarize recent evidence of the molecular mechanisms relevant for the intercellular trafficking of protein aggregates involved in prion, Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and Parkinson's diseases...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723543/necroptosis-last-message-in-a-bubble
#13
Peter Vandenabeele, Franck Riquet, Benjamin Cappe
RIPK3 kinase-mediated phosphorylation of MLKL pseudokinase is the execution event of necroptosis. Two independent reports-in Immunity (Yoon et al., 2017) and Cell (Gong et al., 2017)-reveal that MLKL affects homeostatic membrane trafficking and necroptosis-enhanced bubble formation involving interaction with the ESCRT machinery.
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722539/an-autophagy-driven-pathway-of-atp-secretion-supports-the-aggressive-phenotype-of-braf-v600e-inhibitor-resistant-metastatic-melanoma-cells
#14
Shaun Martin, Aleksandra M Dudek-Peric, Abhishek D Garg, Heleen Roose, Seyma Demirsoy, Sofie Van Eygen, Freya Mertens, Peter Vangheluwe, Hugo Vankelecom, Patrizia Agostinis
The ingrained capacity of melanoma cells to rapidly evolve towards an aggressive phenotype is manifested by their increased ability to develop drug-resistance, evident in the case of vemurafenib, a therapeutic-agent targeting BRAF(V600E). Previous studies indicated a tight correlation between heightened melanoma-associated macroautophagy/autophagy and acquired Vemurafenib resistance. However, how this vesicular trafficking pathway supports Vemurafenib resistance remains unclear. Here, using isogenic human and murine melanoma cell lines of Vemurafenib-resistant and patient-derived melanoma cells with primary resistance to the BRAF(V600E) inhibitor, we found that the enhanced migration and invasion of the resistant melanoma cells correlated with an enhanced autophagic capacity and autophagosome-mediated secretion of ATP...
July 19, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721844/cd81-large-extracellular-loop-containing-fusion-proteins-with-a-dominant-negative-effect-on-hcv-cell-spread-and-replication
#15
Boyan Grigorov, Jennifer Molle, Eric Rubinstein, Fabien Zoulim, Birke Bartosch
The roles of CD81 in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle are multiple but remain ill characterized. CD81 is known to interact with the HCV glycoproteins as an attachment factor. It also has an important role in the post-attachment entry process. Its interaction with claudin-1, for example, is vital for viral uptake and trafficking. Furthermore, CD81 and its role in membrane organization and trafficking are thought to play a pivotal role in HCV replication. Some of these functions are particularly limited to human CD81; others can be substituted with CD81 molecules from other species...
July 18, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721629/epha3-targeting-reduces-in-vitro-adhesion-and-invasion-and-in-vivo-growth-and-angiogenesis-of-multiple-myeloma-cells
#16
Francesco La Rocca, Irma Airoldi, Emma Di Carlo, Pina Marotta, Geppino Falco, Vittorio Simeon, Ilaria Laurenzana, Stefania Trino, Luciana De Luca, Katia Todoerti, Oreste Villani, Martin Lackmann, Fiorella D'Auria, Francesco Frassoni, Antonino Neri, Luigi Del Vecchio, Pellegrino Musto, Daniela Cilloni, Antonella Caivano
PURPOSE: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic malignancy characterized by a clonal expansion of plasma cells (PCs) in the bone marrow (BM). Since MM has so far remained incurable, further insights into its pathogenesis and the concomitant identification of new therapeutic targets are urgently needed. The tyrosine kinase receptor EphA3 is known to be involved in various cellular processes including cell viability, cell movement and cell-cell interactions. Recently, EphA3 has emerged as a potential therapeutic target in several hematologic and solid tumors...
July 18, 2017: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720662/proximal-tubule-apical-endocytosis-is-modulated-by-fluid-shear-stress-via-an-mtor-dependent-pathway
#17
Kimberly R Long, Katherine E Shipman, Youssef Rbaibi, Elizabeth V Menshikova, Vladimir B Ritov, Megan L Eshbach, Yu Jiang, Edwin K Jackson, Catherine J Baty, Ora A Weisz
Cells lining the proximal tubule (PT) have unique membrane specializations that are required to maintain the high capacity ion transport and endocytic functions of this nephron segment. PT cells in vivo acutely regulate ion transport in response to changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to maintain glomerulotubular balance. PT cells in culture upregulate endocytic capacity in response to acute changes in fluid shear stress (FSS); however it is not known whether GFR modulates PT endocytosis to enable maximally efficient uptake of filtered proteins in vivo Here we show that cells cultured under continuous FSS develop an expanded apical endocytic pathway as well as increased endocytic capacity and lysosomal biogenesis...
July 18, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720531/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-the-genes-encoding-the-proteins-of-zika-virus
#18
Wangheng Hou, Ruth Cruz-Cosme, Najealicka Armstrong, Lilian Akello Obwolo, Fayuan Wen, Wenhui Hu, Min-Hua Luo, Qiyi Tang
Zika virus (ZIKV) encodes a precursor protein (also called polyprotein) of about 3424 amino acids that is processed by proteases to generate 10 mature proteins and a small peptide. In the present study, we characterized the chemical features, suborganelle distribution and potential function of each protein using Flag-tagged protein expression system. Western blot analysis revealed the molecular weight of the proteins and the polymerization of E, NS1, and NS3 proteins. In addition, we performed multi-labeled fluorescent immunocytochemistry and subcellular fractionation to determine the subcellular localization of these proteins in host cells...
July 15, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720487/pdms-b-pmoxa-polymersomes-for-hepatocyte-targeting-and-assessment-of-toxicity
#19
Klara Kiene, Susanne H Schenk, Fabiola Porta, Alexandra Ernst, Dominik Witzigmann, Philip Grossen, Jörg Huwyler
Nanoparticles, such as polymersomes, can be directed to the hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor to achieve targeted drug delivery. In this study, we prepared asialofetuin conjugated polymersomes based on the amphiphilic di-block copolymer poly(dimethylsiloxane)-b-poly(2-methyloxazoline) (PDMS-b-PMOXA). They had an average diameter of 150nm and formed monodisperse vesicles. Drug encapsulation and sustained release was monitored using the hydrophilic model compound carboxyfluorescein. Asialoglycoprotein receptor specific uptake by HepG2 cells in vitro was energy dependent and could be competitively inhibited by the free targeting ligand...
July 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720068/inhibitory-effect-of-par-4-combined-with-cisplatin-on-human-wilms-tumor-cells
#20
Jun Wang, Yunjie Li, Fangfang Ma, Huifeng Zhou, Rong Ding, Binbin Lu, Li Zou, Junxia Li, Rugang Lu
Wilms' tumor is associated with a high treatment success rate, but there is still a risk of recurrence. Cisplatin, which is one of the chemotherapeutic agents used for its treatment, is associated with a very high rate of resistance. Par-4 (prostate apoptosis response 4) is a tumor suppressor, which is capable of sensitizing tumor cells to chemotherapy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether combined treatment with Par-4 and cisplatin is effective for inhibiting growth of Wilms' tumor. Wilms' tumor and control cell samples were collected and analyzed by immunofluorescence assay and immunohistochemistry...
July 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
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