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Methamphetamine addiction

Ali Roohbakhsh, Kobra Shirani, Gholamreza Karimi
Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly potent and addictive drug with major medical, psychiatric, cognitive, socioeconomic, and legal consequences. It is well absorbed following different routes of administration and distributed throughout the body. METH is known as psychomotor stimulant with potent physiological outcomes on peripheral and central nervous systems, resulting in physical and psychological disorders. Autophagy is a highly conserved and regulated catabolic pathway which is critical for maintaining cellular energy homeostasis and regulating cell growth...
October 13, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Roman Gabrhelík, Blanka Nechanská, Viktor Mravčík, Svetlana Skurtveit, Ingunn Olea Lund, Marte Handal
Licit and illicit drug use in pregnant women constitutes a long lasting and serious problem worldwide. Information on long-term effects of maternal drug use on the child is limited. Nationwide registers provide a great potential to study short and long-term consequences for children exposed to licit and illicit drugs during pregnancy. We discuss this potential, with a special emphasis on exposure to methamphetamine, heroin and prescription drugs used for opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). We also discuss the advantages of register data and of merging such data from different regions...
September 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
Zygmunt Zdrojewicz, Bartłomiej Kuszczak, Natalia Olszak
Ibogaine is a natural chemical compound, which belongs to the indole alkaloid family. It can be naturally found within the root bark of african plant Tabernanthe iboga. Ibogaine plays a significant role among tribal cultures. Ibogaine, in small amount, causes reduction of hunger, thirst and exhaustion. In bigger amount, however, it can cause intensive visions. Other effects include reduction or complete disappearance of absitnence symptoms visible in people addicted to the nicotine, alcohol, methamphetamine, cocaine or opioids, what has been scientifically proven after the tests on animals and small groups of people...
July 29, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Xavier Castells, Ruth Cunill, Clara Pérez-Mañá, Xavier Vidal, Dolors Capellà
BACKGROUND: Cocaine dependence is a severe disorder for which no medication has been approved. Like opioids for heroin dependence, replacement therapy with psychostimulants could be an effective therapy for treatment. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of psychostimulants for cocaine abuse and dependence. Specific outcomes include sustained cocaine abstinence and retention in treatment. We also studied the influence of type of drug and comorbid disorders on psychostimulant efficacy...
September 27, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Micaela A Rud, Thao N Do, Jessica A Siegel
Methamphetamine (MA) is an addictive psychomotor stimulant that affects the central nervous system and alters behavior. The effects of MA are modulated by age, and while much research has examined the effects of MA use in adults, relatively little research has examined the effects in adolescents. As the brain is developing during adolescence, it is important that we understand the effects of MA exposure in adolescence. This research examined the effects of acute MA exposure on locomotor and anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and plasma corticosterone levels in adolescent male C57BL/6J mice...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Eugene A Kiyatkin, Hari Sharma
Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful and often abused stimulant with potent addictive and neurotoxic properties. While it is generally believed that structural brain damage induced by METH results from oxidative stress, in this work we present data suggesting robust disruption of blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers (BBB and BSCB) during acute METH intoxication in rats. We demonstrate the relationships between METH-induced brain hyperthermia and widespread but structure-specific barrier leakage, acute glial activation, changes in brain water and ionic homeostasis, and structural damage of different types of cells in the brain and spinal cord...
September 20, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Morteza Danaee-Far, Masoomeh Maarefvand, Hassan Rafiey
UNLABELLED: Methamphetamine, a highly addictive psychostimulant drug, is widely used by substance users who are not motivated to undergo treatment throughout the world, including Iran. This research was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief home-based social work motivational intervention (HSWMI) to encourage male methamphetamine users to participate in a treatment program. METHOD: Fifty-six unmotivated male methamphetamine users participated in a randomized controlled trial...
December 5, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Muhammad A Parvaz, Scott J Moeller, Rita Z Goldstein
Importance: A common trigger for relapse in drug addiction is the experience of craving via exposure to cues previously associated with drug use. Preclinical studies have consistently demonstrated incubation of cue-induced drug-seeking during the initial phase of abstinence, followed by a decline over time. In humans, the incubation effect has been shown for alcohol, nicotine, and methamphetamine addictions, but not for heroin or cocaine addiction. Understanding the trajectory of cue-induced craving during abstinence in humans is of importance for addiction medicine...
September 7, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Nora L Salaberry, Maria Mateo, Jorge Mendoza
Circadian rhythms are strongly affected by drugs. In rodents, chronic methamphetamine (METH) intake changes circadian activity rhythms, mainly by altering light synchronization that generates the expression of a free-running rhythm with a period longer than 24 h and a second behavioral component that is independent of the main suprachiasmatic (SCN) clock. Although a number of clock genes do not appear to be involved in the effects of METH on circadian behavior, the molecular clockwork controlling these changes is still unclear...
September 1, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Bijan Pirnia, Fatemeh Givi, Rasool Roshan, Kambiz Pirnia, Ali Akbar Soleimani
BACKGROUND: Stimulants addition and abuse can cause some functional and morphological changes in the normal function of glands and hormones. Methamphetamine as an addictive stimulant drug affects the Hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and consequently makes some changes in the psychological state of the drug users. The present study aims to examine the relationship between plasma levels of cortisol with depression, stress and anxiety symptoms in chronic methamphetamine-dependent patients and normal individuals who have undergone the inguinal hernia surgery...
2016: Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Di Wen, Meiling An, Hongyan Gou, Xia Liu, Li Liu, Chunling Ma, Bin Cong
As a powerful addictive psychostimulant drug, coupled with its neurotoxicity, methamphetamine (METH) abuse may lead to long-lasting abnormalities in brain structure and function. We found that pretreatment of cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8) inhibited METH-induced brain cellular dopaminergic (DA) damage in the striatum and substantia nigra, and related behavioural deficits and hyperthermia. However, the mechanism of CCK-8 action on METH-induced toxicity is not clear. The aim of this study was to explore whether the possible protective effect of CCK-8 on METH-induced neurotoxicity involved anti-oxidative stress mechanisms...
August 23, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Sarah J Baracz, Jennifer L Cornish
The role of oxytocin in attenuating the abuse of licit and illicit drugs, including the psychostimulant methamphetamine, has been examined with increased ferocity in recent years. This is largely driven by the potential application of oxytocin as a pharmacotherapy. However, the neural mechanisms by which oxytocin modulates methamphetamine abuse are not well understood. Recent research identified an important role for the accumbens core and subthalamic nucleus in this process, which likely involves an interaction with dopamine, glutamate, GABA, and vasopressin...
August 18, 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Lu Li, Chuchu Qiao, Gang Chen, Hongyan Qian, Ying Hou, Tao Li, Xinshe Liu
Chronic discontinuous use of many psychomotor stimulants leads to behavioral sensitization and, owing to it shares common mechanisms with relapse, most researchers use its animal model to explore the neurobiological mechanisms of addiction. Recent studies have proved that N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are implicated in psychomotor stimulant-induced behavioral sensitization. However, the function of GluN2B-containing NMDARs and their potential downstream cascade(s) in the acquisition and expression of behavioral sensitization to methamphetamine (METH) have not been explored...
October 29, 2016: Neuroscience
Kristen Ann Stout, Amy R Dunn, Kelly M Lohr, Shawn P Alter, Rachel A Cliburn, Thomas S Guillot, Gary W Miller
Drugs of abuse induce sensitization, which is defined as enhanced response to additional drug following a period of withdrawal. Sensitization occurs in both humans and animal models of drug reinforcement and contributes substantially to the addictive nature of drugs of abuse, as it is thought to represent enhanced motivational wanting for drug. The ventral pallidum, a key member of the reward pathway, contributes to behaviors associated with reward, such as sensitization. Dopamine inputs to the ventral pallidum have not been directly characterized...
August 8, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Yusuf S Althobaiti, Youssef Sari
Alcohol consumption with psychostimulants is very common among drug addicts. There is little known about the possible pharmacological interactions between alcohol and psychostimulants. Among most commonly co-abused psychostimulants with alcohol are methamphetamine, cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetaminen, and nicotine. Co-abuse of alcohol with psychostimulants can lead to several neurophysiological dysfunctions such as decrease in brain antioxidant enzymes, disruption of learning and memory processes, cerebral hypo-perfusion, neurotransmitters depletion as well as potentiation of drug seeking behaviour...
June 2016: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
Marco Pravetoni
Biologics (vaccines, monoclonal antibodies (mAb), and genetically modified enzymes) offer a promising class of therapeutics to treat substance use disorders (SUD) involving abuse of opioids and stimulants such as nicotine, cocaine, and methamphetamine. In contrast to small molecule medications targeting brain receptors, biologics for SUD are larger molecules that do not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), but target the drug itself, preventing its distribution to the brain and blunting its effects on the central nervous system (CNS)...
July 21, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Anna Shmagel, Erin Krebs, Kristine Ensrud, Robert Foley
STUDY DESIGN: A population-based cross-sectional survey. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of illicit drug use among US adults with and without chronic low back pain (cLBP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although addictive medications, such as opioids and benzodiazepines, are frequently prescribed to patients with cLBP, little is known about illicit drug use among Americans with cLBP. METHODS: We used data from the back pain survey, administered to a representative sample of US adults aged 20 to 69 years (N = 5103) during the 2009 to 2010 cycle of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)...
September 2016: Spine
Jie Zhu, Na Zhao, Yanjiong Chen, Li Zhu, Qing Zhong, Jian Liu, Teng Chen
Previous studies demonstrated that histone acetylation modulated the transcription of associated gene expression and thus contributed to the persistence of addictive behaviors and neuroplasticity. Nonetheless, the roles of histone acetylation in distinct phases of methamphetamine (METH)-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) remain unclear. The current study examines the effects of the histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaB) on the acquisition, extinction, and reinstatement of METH-induced CPP in mice...
July 18, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Hannah W Jones, Andy C Dean, Kimberly A Price, Edythe D London
BACKGROUND: Impulsivity has been proposed as an important factor in the initiation and maintenance of addiction. Indirect evidence suggests that some methamphetamine users report less impulsivity when they are using methamphetamine compared to when abstaining from drug use, but this hypothesis has not been directly tested. OBJECTIVES/METHODS: In this study, self-reports of impulsivity were obtained from 32 methamphetamine-dependent (DSM-IV) research participants and 41 healthy control subjects, using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11...
July 11, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Vinita Batra, Thanh Lam N Tran, Jessica Caputo, Glenn F Guerin, Nicholas E Goeders, Jessica Wilden
OBJECTIVE There is increasing interest in neuromodulation for addiction. Methamphetamine abuse is a global health epidemic with no proven treatment. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of intermittent nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) deep brain stimulation (DBS) on operant methamphetamine intake and on methamphetamine seeking when stimulation is delivered in an environment different from that of drug use. METHODS Eighteen rats were implanted with intravenous (IV) catheters and bilateral AcbSh electrodes and subsequently underwent daily sessions in 2-lever (active/methamphetamine and inactive/no reward) operant chambers to establish IV methamphetamine self-administration...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
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