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Cornea and external disease

Peiwei Chai, Hongyan Ni, He Zhang, Xianqun Fan
Autophagy plays an adaptive role in cell survival, development, differentiation and intracellular homeostasis. Autophagy is recognized as a 'self-cannibalizing' process that is active during stresses such as starvation, chemotherapy, infection, ageing, and oxygen shortage to protect organisms from various irritants and to regenerate materials and energy. However, autophagy can also lead to a form of programmed cell death distinct from apoptosis. Components of the autophagic pathway are constitutively expressed at a high level in the eye, including in the cornea, lens, retina, and orbit...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Esperanza Pato, Mª Auxiliadora Martin-Martinez, Adela Castelló, Rosalía Méndez-Fernandez, Santiago Muñoz-Fernández, Miguel Cordero-Coma, Lucia Martinez-Costa, Elia Valls, Miguel Reyes, Félix Francisco, Mar Esteban, Alex Fonollosa, Fernando Sanchez-Alonso, Cruz Fernández-Espartero, Teresa Diaz-Valle, José Miguel Carrasco, Emma Beltran-Catalán, Marisa Hernández-Garfella, María Victoria Hernández, Laura Pelegrin, Ricardo Blanco, David Diaz-Valle
To develop a disease activity index for patients with uveitis (UVEDAI) encompassing the relevant domains of disease activity considered important among experts in this field. The steps for designing UVEDAI were: (a) Defining the construct and establishing the domains through a formal judgment of experts, (b) A two-round Delphi study with a panel of 15 experts to determine the relevant items, (c) Selection of items: A logistic regression model was developed that set ocular inflammatory activity as the dependent variable...
November 4, 2016: Rheumatology International
F Scholz, E Fringuelli, M Bolton-Warberg, M Marcos-López, S Mitchell, P Prodhol, D Moffet, P Savage, S Murphy O'Sullivan, I O Connor, E McCarthy, H D Rodger
A microsporidian species with 98.3-98.4% nucleotide identity to Tetramicra brevifilum (Journal of Fish Diseases, 3, 1980, 495) was diagnosed in lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus, L.) broodstock held at a breeding and rearing facility in western Ireland. The fish were wild-caught from the west coast of Ireland, and the first case was diagnosed one year after capture. Clinical signs included severe bloating, lethargy, exophthalmos, anorexia, white patches on the cornea and externally visible parasitic cysts on skin and fins...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
Swapna Vemuri, Murray D Christianson, Hakan Demirci
This article evaluates the "Bobby Pin" procedure in the correction of myogenic ptosis accompanying extraocular muscle weakness. We retrospectively reviewed 26 eyelids of 13 patients who underwent "Bobby Pin" procedure for myogenic ptosis accompanying extraocular muscle weakness. We evaluated the patients' clinical features such as age, etiology of ptosis, symptoms, standard ptosis measurements, associated systemic diseases, additional ophthalmic conditions, complications, and recurrence. Etiology of myogenic ptosis and extraocular muscle weakness was oculopharyngeal dystrophy in 4 (31%) patients, chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia in 4 (31%) patients, myotonic dystrophy in 2 (23%) patients, and idiopathic in 3 (15%) patients...
October 2016: Orbit
Jocelyn Kim, Anagha Medsinge, Bharesh Chauhan, Cara Wiest, Hannah Scanga, Rachael Monaghan, William H Moore, Ken K Nischal
PURPOSE: Corneal involvement in mitochondrial disease is seldom described. Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) is a mitochondrial disorder characterized by retinitis pigmentosa, external ophthalmoplegia, and heart block. We report 2 patients with KSS with corneal lesions involving the endothelium, which improved with Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). Based on recent research regarding the role of dysfunctional oxidative metabolism in Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy (FECD), we propose that mitochondrial diseases and FECD share a final pathway...
September 2016: Cornea
Dagmar Prochazkova, Zuzana Hruba, Petra Konecna, Jarmila Skotakova, Lenka Fajkusova
Wolfram-like syndrome (WFSL) is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterised by congenital progressive hearing loss, diabetes mellitus, and optic atrophy. The patient was a boy with the juvenile form of diabetes mellitus and findings which clinically matched the symptoms of Wolfram syndrome. At the age of 3 1/4 years, diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in this boy who also had severe psychomotor retardation, failure to thrive, a dysmorphic face with Peters anomaly type 3 (i.e. posterior central defect with stromal opacity of the cornea, adhering stripes of the iris, and cataract with corneolenticular adhesion), congenital glaucoma, megalocornea, severe hearing impairment, a one-sided deformity of the auricle with atresia of the bony and soft external auditory canal, non-differentiable eardrum, missing os incus, hypothyreosis, and nephrocalcinosis...
1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Mikel Azkargorta, Javier Soria, Arantxa Acera, Ibon Iloro, Felix Elortza
: Tears are a complex biological mixture containing electrolytes, metabolites, lipids, mucins, some small organic molecules, and proteins. The tear film has various roles in the lubrication, protection from the external environment, and nutrition of the cornea; it is also involved in the modulation of the optical properties of the eye. Tear composition reflects the physiological condition of the underlying tissues. Therefore, the tear fluid is useful in the evaluation of health and disease states and it is a valuable source of biomarkers for objective analysis of ocular and systemic diseases...
May 13, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
Daniela Sonja Nosch, Heiko Pult, Julie Albon, Christine Purslow, Paul John Murphy
PURPOSE: To examine the possible role of corneal sensitivity and tear film quality in triggering a blink by investigating the relationship between blink rate, central corneal sensitivity threshold (CST), ocular surface temperature (OST), tear meniscus height (TMH), tear film quality (noninvasive tear break-up time [NIBUT]), and tear film lipid pattern under normal conditions. METHODS: Forty-two volunteers (average age, 27.76 ± 5.36 years; 11 males) with good ocular health (Ocular Surface Disease Index, <15...
May 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Arturo Ramirez-Miranda, Tito Ramirez-Luquin, Alejandro Navas, Enrique O Graue-Hernandez
PURPOSE: To report the complications associated with refractive lenticule extraction (ReLEx) in its 2 modalities: femtosecond lenticule extraction (FLEx) and small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). METHODS: In this retrospective review of a consecutive clinical case series, all patients who had a complicated ReLex FLEx or ReLEx SMILE procedure at the Cornea and External Disease Department at the Instituto de Oftalmologia Fundacion Conde de Valenciana, Mexico City, Mexico, were included...
October 2015: Cornea
Cestmir Cejka, Jitka Cejkova
Oxidative stress is involved in many ocular diseases and injuries. The imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favour of oxidants (oxidative stress) leads to the damage and may be highly involved in ocular aging processes. The anterior eye segment and mainly the cornea are directly exposed to noxae of external environment, such as air pollution, radiation, cigarette smoke, vapors or gases from household cleaning products, chemical burns from splashes of industrial chemicals, and danger from potential oxidative damage evoked by them...
2015: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Xinyu Zhang, Yin Yin, Yanrong Guo, Ning Fan, Haoming Lin, Fulong Liu, Xianfen Diao, Changfeng Dong, Xin Chen, Tianfu Wang, Siping Chen
The viscoelastic properties of the human cornea can provide valuable information for clinical applications such as the early detection of corneal diseases, better management of corneal surgery and treatment and more accurate measurement of intra-ocular pressure. However, few techniques are capable of quantitatively and non-destructively assessing corneal biomechanics in vivo. The cornea can be regarded as a thin plate in which the vibration induced by an external vibrator propagates as a Lamb wave, the properties of which depend on the thickness and biomechanics of the tissue...
May 2015: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Jakob Nikolas Kather, Jens Kroll
Corneal neovascularization (NV) refers to the growth of blood vessels and/or lymphatics into the physiologically avascular cornea, which occurs in several pathological processes. In mouse models, corneal NV can be artificially induced to investigate mechanisms of corneal pathologies. However, mouse models of corneal NV are not restricted to cornea-specific research, but also are widely used to investigate general mechanisms of angiogenesis. Because the cornea is transparent and easily accessible, corneal NV models are among the most useful in vivo models in angiogenesis research...
November 2014: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Z Drahovska, I Balicki, A Trbolova, M Mihalova, M Holickova
Chronic Superficial Keratitis (CSK) is an autoimmune mediated inflammation of the cornea, that is usually bilateral but often with nonsymmetrical manifestation. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and appearance of clinical symptoms of CSK in German Shepherd dogs in Poland and Slovakia. CSK was diagnosed in 308 German Shepherds for a period of 11 years (from 1999 to 2010). The highest incidence of the CSK (p < 0.001) in Slovakia and in Poland was in dogs between the ages of 5-8 years. This study found similarity in gender ratio of affected patients with CSK in two neighboring countries...
2014: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Ilida Ortega, Farshid Sefat, Pallavi Deshpande, Thomas Paterson, Charanya Ramachandran, Anthony J Ryan, Sheila MacNeil, Frederik Claeyssens
Corneal problems affect millions of people worldwide reducing their quality of life significantly. Corneal disease can be caused by illnesses such as Aniridia or Steven Johnson Syndrome as well as by external factors such as chemical burns or radiation. Current treatments are (i) the use of corneal grafts and (ii) the use of stem cell expanded in the laboratory and delivered on carriers (e.g., amniotic membrane); these treatments are relatively successful but unfortunately they can fail after 3-5 years. There is a need to design and manufacture new corneal biomaterial devices able to mimic in detail the physiological environment where stem cells reside in the cornea...
2014: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Alfonso Iovieno, Seema Anand, John K Dart
PURPOSE: To report delayed-onset peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK) following alkali injury. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: setting: Single institution (Cornea and External Disease Service, Moorfields Eye Hospital). participants: Six eyes of 5 patients with PUK and associated anterior scleritis that had a history of ocular alkali injury. observationprocedure: Patients were identified among PUK patients seen at Moorfields Eye Hospital over a 20-year period...
December 2014: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Keunsoo Kim, Brian Alder, Gargi K Vora, Alan N Carlson, Natalie A Afshari, Anthony N Kuo, Terry Kim
PURPOSE: To describe cases of interface haze, also known as textural interface opacity, after Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK). SETTING: Department of Cornea, External Disease, and Refractive Surgery Service, Duke Eye Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Patients' clinical and demographic characteristics, cornea donor information, surgical technique, histopathology, and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) were reviewed retrospectively and clinical outcomes reported...
September 2014: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
G Broniek, E Langwińska-Wośko, J Szaflik, M Wróblewska
Rods of the Acinetobacter genus are present mainly in the external environment (e.g. water, soil) and in animals, while in humans they may comprise physiological flora. The main pathogenic species is Acinetobacter baumannii complex, which constitutes a common cause of nosocomial infections, particularly in patients with underlying diseases and risk factors (e.g. prior broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, malignancy, central venous catheter, mechanical ventilation); however, infections of the eye caused by strains of Acinetobacter spp...
December 2014: Infection
Anastasios J Kanellopoulos, George Asimellis
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of very high-fluence collagen crosslinking (CXL) as a means of achieving increased corneal rigidity and reduced enzymatic digestion in the vehicle cornea of Boston keratoprosthesis (KPro) type 1. METHODS: Eleven consecutive patients fitted with a KPro (5 with a previous repeat cornea graft failure, 4 with ocular cicatricial pemphigoid, and 2 with chemical burn) underwent donor vehicle cornea pretreatment with very high-fluence prophylactic CXL in a 2-step procedure...
September 2014: Cornea
Walter Lisch, Mark J Mannis
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to recount the immense and abrupt change in the private and professional life of a prominent German-Jewish ophthalmologist in the transition from democracy to dictatorship in Germany during the first half of the 20th century. METHODS: This involves a Retrospective analysis of Fehr's clinical and scientific work as the first assistant of Julius Hirschberg's world-famous eye clinic in Berlin; evaluation of Fehr's successful tenure as a chair of Virchow's Eye Hospital; the catastrophic influence of Hitler's seizure of power on the private and professional lives of German-Jewish physicians; and an analysis of Fehr's personal and professional will to continue the practice of medicine in England...
August 2014: Cornea
Javed Ali, Mohd Fazil, Mohd Qumbar, Nazia Khan, Asgar Ali
CONTEXT: The ocular perceivers are the most voluntarily accessible organs in terms of location in the body, yet drug distribution to these tissues is one of the most intriguing and challenging endeavors and problematic to the pharmaceutical scientist. The most of ocular diseases are treated with topical application of conventional formulation, i.e. solutions, suspensions and ointment. Typically on installation of these conventional formulations, only <5% of the applied dose penetrates the cornea and reaches intraocular tissues, while a major fraction of the instilled dose is wastage due to the presence of many ocular barriers like external barriers, rapid loss of the instilled solution from the precorneal area and nasolacrimal drainage system...
2016: Drug Delivery
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