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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213887/rituals-improve-children-s-ability-to-delay-gratification
#1
Veronika Rybanska, Ryan McKay, Jonathan Jong, Harvey Whitehouse
To be accepted into social groups, individuals must internalize and reproduce appropriate group conventions, such as rituals. The copying of such rigid and socially stipulated behavioral sequences places heavy demands on executive function. Given previous research showing that challenging executive functioning improves it, it was hypothesized that engagement in ritualistic behaviors improves children's executive functioning, in turn improving their ability to delay gratification. A 3-month circle time games intervention with 210 schoolchildren (Mage  = 7...
February 18, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212841/persistence-extends-reciprocity
#2
Shun Kurokawa
One key potential explanation for the evolution of cooperation is conditional cooperation. This allows cooperation to evolve for cooperators who switch their behavior on the basis of information about the opponent's behavior or reputation. However, information about the opponent's behavior or reputation is sometimes unavailable, and previous studies have assumed that a player cooperates with some default probability when no information about the opponent's previous behavior or reputation is available. This default probability has been interpreted as the player's "optimism"...
February 14, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212426/sustainability-of-common-pool-resources
#3
Raja Rajendra Timilsina, Koji Kotani, Yoshio Kamijo
Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepalese areas: (i) rural (non-capitalistic) and (ii) urban (capitalistic) areas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212392/what-s-in-a-game-a-systems-approach-to-enhancing-performance-analysis-in-football
#4
Scott McLean, Paul M Salmon, Adam D Gorman, Gemma J M Read, Colin Solomon
PURPOSE: Performance analysis (PA) in football is considered to be an integral component of understanding the requirements for optimal performance. Despite vast amounts of research in this area key gaps remain, including what comprises PA in football, and methods to minimise research-practitioner gaps. The aim of this study was to develop a model of the football match system in order to better describe and understand the components of football performance. Such a model could inform the design of new PA methods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211843/performance-and-metabolic-demand-of-a-new-repeated-sprint-ability-test-in-basketball-players-does-the-number-of-changes-of-direction-matter
#5
Alessandro M Zagatto, Luca P Ardigò, Fabio A Barbieri, Fabio Milioni, Antonio Dello Iacono, Bruno H F Camargo, Johnny Padulo
This study compared two repeated-sprint ability tests in basketball players. Both tests included 10×30-m sprints, with the difference that the previously validated test (RSA2COD) featured two changes of direction (COD) per sprint, while the experimental test (RSA5COD) featured five CODs per sprint. Tests` performances and metabolic demands were specifically assessed in 20 basketball players. Firstly, RSA5COD test-retest reliability was investigated. Then RSA2COD, RSA5COD sprint times, peak speeds, oxygen uptake (VO2) and post-test blood lactate concentration [La] were measured...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210663/maraviroc-in-pml-iris-a-separate-ball-game-under-hiv-infection-and-natalizumab
#6
EDITORIAL
Israel Steiner, Felix Benninger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210348/game-performance-and-length-of-rally-in-professional-padel-players
#7
Javier Courel-Ibáñez, Bernardino Javier Sánchez-Alcaraz Martínez, Jerónimo Cañas
The purpose of this study was to analyse differences in rally length considering attack effectiveness, a players' location and a game outcome in professional padel players. A total of 1527 rallies from 10 male matches of the 2013 Masters Finals of the World Padel Tour were registered through systematic observation. Data treatment included non-parametric mean comparisons (Mann-Withney and Kruskal-Wallis tests), and association analyses (crosstabs and Chi square analysis). In overall, 40% of unforced errors were made within the first 4 s of the rally, over 50% of points were scored between the 5th and 11th s, and 30% of forced errors occurred after the 11th -s of the rally...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210345/the-dutch-technical-tactical-tennis-test-d4t-for-talent-identification-and-development-psychometric-characteristics
#8
Nikki Kolman, Barbara Huijgen, Tamara Kramer, Marije Elferink-Gemser, Chris Visscher
This study examined the test-retest reliability, validity and feasibility of the newly developed Dutch Technical-Tactical Tennis Test (D4T). This new test is relevant for talent identification and development in tennis. Thirty-two youth male tennis players (age 13.4 ± 0.5) were classified as elite (n = 15) or sub-elite (n = 17) according to their position on the national youth ranking list under 15 years (cut-off rank 50) in the Netherlands. Games, rallies and different tactical situations (i.e. offensive, neutral and defensive) were simulated with a ball machine...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210344/differences-in-movement-speed-before-and-after-a-split-step-between-professional-and-junior-tennis-players
#9
Aleš Filipčič, Bojan Leskošek, Goran Munivrana, Gabriela Ochiana, Tjaša Filipčič
This study investigated tennis players' speed before, during and after the split-step, deceleration before and acceleration after the split-step in four different stroke groups in three age categories. Seven male professional, eleven male and ten female junior tennis players were recorded with video cameras at official tournaments. Using the SAGIT system, we gathered data on 8,545 split-steps. Tennis players performed a split-step in 82.9% of cases. A tennis player's speed, deceleration and acceleration were measured 0...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210342/split-step-timing-of-professional-and-junior-tennis-players
#10
Ales Filipcic, Bojan Leskosek, Tjasa Filipcic
The purpose of the study was to determine the timing of a split-step in three categories of tennis players in four groups of strokes. Subjects were divided into three groups: male and female junior, and male professional tennis players. During two tournaments, all matches were recorded with two fixed video cameras. For every stroke, the timing of the split-step between the opponent's impact point when hitting the ball and the player's split-step was measured. A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the differences between groups of strokes, players and the interaction Player x Stroke Group...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210338/influence-of-game-evolution-and-the-phase-of-competition-on-temporal-game-structure-in-high-level-table-tennis-tournaments
#11
Jorge Vieira de Mello Leite, Fabio Augusto Barbieri, Willian Miyagi, Elvis de Souza Malta, Alessandro Moura Zagatto
The aims of this study were: a) to investigate the game temporal structure in high-level table tennis competitions; b) to verify the influence of game evolution in international competitions from 2009 to 2012 (World Table Tennis Championships and the Olympic Games) on game temporal structure; c) to compare game temporal structure according to the phase of competition. Comparisons between the three international tournaments demonstrated that rally duration decreased significantly (p < 0.05) during the analyzed period (2009-2012), while the rest time increased (p < 0...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210333/the-fastest-ball-games-from-the-viewpoint-of-science
#12
Miran Kondrič
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209413/the-impact-of-choice-on-young-children-s-prosocial-motivation
#13
Diotima J Rapp, Jan M Engelmann, Esther Herrmann, Michael Tomasello
The current study explored how freedom of choice affects preschoolers' prosocial motivation. Children (3- and 5-year-olds) participated in either a choice condition (where they could decide for themselves whether to help or not) or a no-choice condition (where they were instructed to help). Prosocial motivation was subsequently assessed by measuring the amount children helped an absent peer in the face of an attractive alternative game. The 5-year-olds provided with choice helped more than the children not provided with choice, and this effect was stronger for girls than for boys...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209344/a-mathematical-view-for-ordinary-differential-equation-models-comment-on-epigenetic-game-theory-how-to-compute-the-epigenetic-control-of-maternal-to-zygotic-transition-by-qian-wang-et-al
#14
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208682/new-approaches-to-exciting-exergame-experiences-for-people-with-motor-function-impairments
#15
Martina Eckert, Ignacio Gómez-Martinho, Juan Meneses, José-Fernán Martínez
The work presented here suggests new ways to tackle exergames for physical rehabilitation and to improve the players' immersion and involvement. The primary (but not exclusive) purpose is to increase the motivation of children and adolescents with severe physical impairments, for doing their required exercises while playing. The proposed gaming environment is based on the Kinect sensor and the Blender Game Engine. A middleware has been implemented that efficiently transmits the data from the sensor to the game...
February 12, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208593/context-sensing-system-analysis-for-privacy-preservation-based-on-game-theory
#16
Shengling Wang, Luyun Li, Weiman Sun, Junqi Guo, Rongfang Bie, Kai Lin
In a context sensing system in which a sensor-equipped mobile phone runs an unreliable context-aware application, the application can infer the user's contexts, based on which it provides personalized services. However, the application may sell the user's contexts to some malicious adversaries to earn extra profits, which will hinder its widespread use. In the real world, the actions of the user, the application and the adversary in the context sensing system affect each other, so that their payoffs are constrained mutually...
February 10, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208502/separation-of-cyclic-and-starlike-hierarchical-dominance-in-evolutionary-matrix-games
#17
György Szabó, Kinga S Bodó, Keivan Aghababaei Samani
We study antisymmetric components of matrices characterizing pair interactions in multistrategy evolutionary games. Based on the dyadic decomposition of matrices we distinguish cyclic and starlike hierarchical dominance in the appropriate components. In the symmetric matrix games the strengths of these elementary components are determined. The general features and intrinsic symmetries of these interactions are represented by directed graphs. It is found that the variation of a single matrix component modifies simultaneously the strengths of two starlike hierarchical basis games and many other independent rock-paper-scissors type cyclic basis games...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208500/sign-changes-as-a-universal-concept-in-first-passage-time-calculations
#18
Wilhelm Braun, Rüdiger Thul
First-passage-time problems are ubiquitous across many fields of study, including transport processes in semiconductors and biological synapses, evolutionary game theory and percolation. Despite their prominence, first-passage-time calculations have proven to be particularly challenging. Analytical results to date have often been obtained under strong conditions, leaving most of the exploration of first-passage-time problems to direct numerical computations. Here we present an analytical approach that allows the derivation of first-passage-time distributions for the wide class of nondifferentiable Gaussian processes...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208366/evolutionary-games-with-coordination-and-self-dependent-interactions
#19
Balázs Király, György Szabó
Multistrategy evolutionary games are studied on a square lattice when the pair interactions are composed of coordinations between strategy pairs and an additional term with self-dependent payoff. We describe a method for determining the strength of each elementary coordination component in n-strategy potential games. Using analytical and numerical methods, the presence and absence of Ising-type order-disorder phase transitions are studied when a single pair coordination is extended by some types of self-dependent elementary games...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207926/alcohol-mixed-with-energy-drinks-daily-context-of-use
#20
Ashley N Linden-Carmichael, Cathy Lau-Barraco
The link between use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) and alcohol-related harms is well established, but limited research has examined the context in which AmEDs are consumed. Identifying the social and environmental characteristics of use may illuminate whether AmEDs are used in settings that could increase the likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors or experiencing harms. The present study used a two-week daily diary assessment to compare days in which AmEDs were consumed ("AmED days") and days where other types of alcohol were used ("non-AmED days") on where, when, and with whom drinking occurred METHODS: Participants were 122 (90 women) heavy drinking college students who reported mixing caffeine with alcohol at least once in the past week...
February 16, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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