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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546740/new-developments-in-managing-opioid-addiction-impact-of-a-subdermal-buprenorphine-implant
#1
REVIEW
MariaLisa Itzoe, Michael Guarnieri
Opioid addiction to prescription and illicit drugs is a serious and growing problem. In the US alone, >2.4 million people suffer from opioid use disorder. Government and pharmaceutical agencies have begun to address this crisis with recently released and revised task forces and medication-assisted therapies (MAT). For decades, oral or intravenous (IV) MATs have helped patients in their recovery by administration of opioid agonists (methadone, buprenorphine, oxycodone), antagonists (naltrexone, naloxone), and combinations of the two (buprenorphine/naloxone)...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510996/tramadol-with-or-without-paracetamol-acetaminophen-for-cancer-pain
#2
REVIEW
Philip J Wiffen, Sheena Derry, R Andrew Moore
BACKGROUND: Tramadol is an opioid analgesic licensed for use in moderate to severe pain. It is considered as a low risk for abuse, so control regulations are not as stringent as for 'strong' opioids such as morphine. It has a potential role as a step 2 option of the World Health Organization (WHO) analgesic ladder. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and adverse effects of tramadol with or without paracetamol (acetaminophen) for cancer-related pain. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases using a wide range of search terms: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS...
May 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500879/role-of-forensic-medicine-in-evaluating-non-fatal-physical-violence-against-women-by-their-husbands-in-jordan
#3
Hasan Abedr-Rahman, Hafsah Omar Salameh, Rakiz J Salameh, Laith I Alabdallat, Imad M Al-Abdallat
OBJECTIVE: Intimate partner violence against women is a major health problem in most nations, but to date, there has been little awareness of the extent or seriousness of this issue in Jordan. Forensic medical practitioners play a significant role in diagnosing, evaluating and reporting these cases. The Jordanian judicial system is dependent on forensic reports. This study aims to assess the role of forensic medicine in evaluating the physical injuries sustained by women who are abused by their husbands...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496365/prevalence-and-prognosis-of-stress-disorders-a-review-of-the-epidemiologic-literature
#4
REVIEW
Jaimie L Gradus
Given the ubiquity of traumatic events, it is not surprising that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) - a common diagnosis following one of these experiences - is characterized as conferring a large burden for individuals and society. Although there is recognition of the importance of PTSD diagnoses throughout psychiatry, the literature on other diagnoses one may receive following a stressful or traumatic event is scant. This review summarizes the literature on stress disorders (classified according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition [ICD-10]), including acute stress reaction, PTSD, adjustment disorder and unspecified stress reactions...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492278/direct-and-systemic-administration-of-a-cns-permeant-tamoxifen-analog-reduces-amphetamine-induced-dopamine-release-and-reinforcing-effects
#5
Colleen Carpenter, Alexander G Zestos, Rachel Altshuler, Roderick J Sorenson, Bipasha Guptaroy, Hollis D Showalter, Robert T Kennedy, Emily Jutkiewicz, Margaret E Gnegy
Amphetamines (AMPHs) are globally abused. With no effective treatment for AMPH addiction to date, there is urgent need for the identification of druggable targets that mediate the reinforcing action of this stimulant class. AMPH-stimulated dopamine efflux is modulated by protein kinase C (PKC) activation. Inhibition of PKC reduces AMPH-stimulated dopamine efflux and locomotor activity. The only known CNS-permeant PKC inhibitor is the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen. In this study we demonstrate that a tamoxifen analog, 6c, which more potently inhibits PKC than tamoxifen but lacks affinity for the estrogen receptor, reduces AMPH-stimulated increases in extracellular dopamine and reinforcement-related behavior...
May 11, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481563/mother-child-interactions-at-six-months-postpartum-are-not-predicted-by-maternal-histories-of-abuse-and-neglect-or-maltreatment-type
#6
Minden B Sexton, Margaret T Davis, Rena Menke, Greer A Raggio, Maria Muzik
OBJECTIVE: A history of childhood maltreatment (CM) is associated with increased rates of maternal psychiatric symptoms and other adverse outcomes in adulthood among postpartum women. However, to date only a few studies have examined associations between CM and mother-child interactions among a nonclinical sample of postpartum women, and the specific potential influence of the type of abuse or neglect is poorly understood. This study was an aim to examine the relationships between CM types and observed parenting in a nonclinical group of recently postpartum mothers with maltreatment histories...
May 8, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473090/acr-appropriateness-criteria-%C3%A2-suspected-physical-abuse-child
#7
Sandra L Wootton-Gorges, Bruno P Soares, Adina L Alazraki, Sudha A Anupindi, Jeffrey P Blount, Timothy N Booth, Molly E Dempsey, Richard A Falcone, Laura L Hayes, Abhaya V Kulkarni, Sonia Partap, Cynthia K Rigsby, Maura E Ryan, Nabile M Safdar, Andrew T Trout, Roger F Widmann, Boaz K Karmazyn, Susan Palasis
The youngest children, particularly in the first year of life, are the most vulnerable to physical abuse. Skeletal survey is the universal screening examination in children 24 months of age and younger. Fractures occur in over half of abused children. Rib fractures may be the only abnormality in about 30%. A repeat limited skeletal survey after 2 weeks can detect additional fractures and can provide fracture dating information. The type and extent of additional imaging for pediatric patients being evaluated for suspected physical abuse depends on the age of the child, the presence of neurologic signs and symptoms, evidence of thoracic or abdominopelvic injuries, and social considerations...
May 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461713/the-great-recession-and-risk-for-child-abuse-and-neglect
#8
William Schneider, Jane Waldfogel, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn
This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and four measures of the risk for maternal child abuse and neglect: (1) maternal physical aggression; (2) maternal psychological aggression; (3) physical neglect by mothers; and (4) supervisory/exposure neglect by mothers. It draws on rich longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a longitudinal birth cohort study of families in 20 U.S. cities (N = 3,177; 50% African American, 25% Hispanic; 22% non-Hispanic white; 3% other)...
January 2017: Children and Youth Services Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456068/summary-of-comparison-between-fft-cw-%C3%A2-and-usual-care-sample-from-administration-for-children-s-services
#9
Charles W Turner, Michael S Robbins, Sylvia Rowlands, Lisa R Weaver
This evaluation compared the efficiency and effectiveness of Functional Family Therapy-Child Welfare (FFT-CW(®), n=1625) to Usual Care (UC: n=2250) in reducing child maltreatment. FFT-CW(®) is a continuum of care model based on the family's risk status. In a child welfare setting, families received either UC or FFT-CW(®) in a quasi-experimental, stepped wedge design across all five boroughs of New York City. The families were matched using stratified propensity scoring on their pre-service risk status and followed for 16 months...
April 26, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447815/development-of-the-healthcare-triggering-questionnaire-in-adult-sexual-abuse-survivors
#10
Julie B Schnur, William F Chaplin, Kiran Khurshid, Jazmin N Mogavero, Rachel E Goldsmith, Young-Sun Lee, Leib Litman, Guy H Montgomery
OBJECTIVE: One in 4 women and 1 in 10 men in the United States are survivors of sexual abuse (SA). For these survivors, healthcare experiences may trigger memories, thoughts, feelings or sensations related to this past abuse. Such triggering can be associated with negative responses to healthcare (e.g., anxiety, avoidance). However, to date, no healthcare triggering assessment tool exists. Therefore, the study goal was to describe the prevalence of healthcare triggering, to develop a brief Healthcare Triggering Questionnaire (HTQ), and to examine its initial validity...
April 27, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440191/cannabis-a-neurological-remedy-or-a-drug-of-abuse-in-india
#11
Pronit Biswas, Pooja Mishra, Devasish Bose, Abhilasha Durgbanshi
Since ancient times it is well documented the use of cannabis as a medicine due to its potential therapeutic activity while subsequently its use as drug of abuse spread increasingly. The present review sought to give an insight in the history of medical and recreational use of cannabis in India. Indian use of cannabis dates back to Vedic time, mostly for the ritualistic and religious purposed, as documented in the ancient literature. It was India that introduced the medical use of cannabis to neighboring countries...
April 23, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435482/state-emergency-department-opioid-guidelines-current-status
#12
Robert I Broida, Tanner Gronowski, Andrew F Kalnow, Andrew G Little, Christopher M Lloyd
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and categorize current state-sponsored opioid guidelines for the practice of emergency medicine (EM). METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search of EM-specific opioid prescribing guidelines and/or policies in each state to determine current state involvement in EM opioid prescribing, as well as to evaluate some of the specifics of each guideline or policy. The search was conducted using an online query and a follow-up email request to each state chapter of ACEP...
April 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427893/study-of-acetylcholinesterase-activity-and-apoptosis-in-sh-sy5y-cells-and-mice-exposed-to-ethanol
#13
Wenjun Sun, Liangjing Chen, Wei Zheng, Xiaoan Wei, Wenqi Wu, Ellen G Duysen, Wei Jiang
Ethanol is one of the most commonly abused psychotropic substances with deleterious effects on the central nervous system. Ethanol exposure during development results in the loss of neurons in brain regions and when exposed to ethanol cultured cells undergo apoptosis. To date no information is available on whether abnormally high AChE activity is characteristic of apoptosis in animals exposed to ethanol. The aims of the present study were to determine whether induction of AChE activity is associated with ethanol-induced apoptosis and to explore the mechanism of enhanced AChE activity induced by ethanol...
April 17, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424379/-risk-factors-of-eating-disorders-in-the-narratives-of-fashion-models
#14
Nikolett Bogár, Ferenc Túry
INTRODUCTION: The risk of eating disorders is high in populations who are exposed to slimness ideal, so among fashion models. The present qualitative study evaluates the risk factors of eating disorders in a group of fashion models with semistructured interview. Moreover, the aim of the study was to examine the impact of professional requirements on the health of models. METHODS: The study group was internationally heterogeneous. The models were involved by personal professional relationship...
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422795/trial-design-and-endpoint-evaluation-in-clinical-studies-addressing-chronic-back-pain
#15
Peter Staats
STUDY DESIGN: A review of the literature evaluating clinical trials of chronic back pain. OBJECTIVE: To assist physicians in assessing the quality of clinical trial data to make the most informed treatment decisions. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Chronic pain is a tremendous public health issue, affecting close to 100 million adults in the United States, and costs the American people billions of dollars. One traditional treatment approach, the long-term use of opiate medications, has recently come under intense scrutiny for problems with complications, diversion, abuse, addiction and lack of efficacy...
April 18, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414591/violence-victimization-social-support-and-papanicolaou-smear-outcomes-a-longitudinal-study-from-adolescence-to-young-adulthood
#16
Hsing-Fang Hsieh, Justin E Heinze, Ian Lang, Ritesh Mistry, Anne Buu, Marc A Zimmerman
BACKGROUND: African American youth are among those at greatest risk for experiencing violence victimization. Notably, the mortality rate of cervical cancer for African American women is also twice that of white women. To date, we know of no literature using longitudinal data to examine how violence victimization relates to Papanicolaou (Pap) smear results or cervical cancer in this population. Our study examines how violence victimization during adolescence (age 15 to 18) influences psychological distress, perceived social support, heavy substance abuse, and sexual risk behaviors during emerging adulthood (age 20 to 23), and subsequent Pap smear outcomes during young adulthood (age 29 to 32)...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413921/preventing-the-onset-of-child-sexual-abuse-by-targeting-young-adolescents-with-universal-prevention-programming
#17
Elizabeth J Letourneau, Cindy M Schaeffer, Catherine P Bradshaw, Kenneth A Feder
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a serious public health problem that increases risk for physical and mental health problems across the life course. Young adolescents are responsible for a substantial portion of CSA offending, yet to our knowledge, no validated prevention programs that target CSA perpetration by youth exist. Most existing efforts to address CSA rely on reactive criminal justice policies or programs that teach children to protect themselves; neither approach is well validated. Given the high rates of desistance from sexual offending following a youth's first CSA-related adjudication, it seems plausible that many youth could be prevented from engaging in their first offense...
May 2017: Child Maltreatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410916/chronic-alcohol-abuse-in-men-alters-bone-mechanical-properties-by-affecting-both-tissue-mechanical-properties-and-microarchitectural-parameters
#18
M Cruel, M Granke, C Bosser, M Audran, T Hoc
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: Alcohol-induced secondary osteoporosis in men has been characterized by higher fracture prevalence and a modification of bone microarchitecture. Chronic alcohol consumption impairs bone cell activity and results in an increased fragility. A few studies highlighted effects of heavy alcohol consumption on some microarchitectural parameters of trabecular bone. But to date and to our knowledge, micro- and macro-mechanical properties of bone of alcoholic subjects have not been investigated...
April 11, 2017: Morphologie: Bulletin de L'Association des Anatomistes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395469/-the-situation-and-associated-factors-of-facility-based-hiv-testing-among-men-who-sex-with-men-in-beijing
#19
X L Ren, G D Mi, Y Zhao, K M Rou, D P Zhang, L Geng, Z H Chen, Z Y Wu
Objective: To understand the prevalence of facility-based HIV testing and its associated factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beijing city. Methods: An application-based cross-sectional survey was employed to understand HIV site test situation and associated factors. The survey was carried out from May 14(th) to 21(st), 2016. Users of a smart phone application for gay dating were recruited and those eligible for this survey were investigated with an online self-administered questionnaire. Information of demographics, sexual behaviors, facility-based HIV testing history and recreational drug abuses were collected...
April 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385299/kick-the-bucket-one-hospital-system-s-journey-to-reduce-clostridium-difficile
#20
Molly Bridget Delaney
PROBLEM: Albert Einstein defines insanity as doing the same thing over again but expecting different results. Although the United States claims to reduce antibiotic abuse, practice strict isolation, and clean meticulously, the burden of Clostridium difficile outpaces goals. Unless innovative approaches are tried, we risk culling elderly, immunosuppressed, and otherwise debilitated populations. Emergency departments are a primary access point for patients who are unable to wait for primary care...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
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