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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938897/consequences-of-child-emotional-abuse-emotional-neglect-and-exposure-to-intimate-partner-violence-for-eating-disorders-a-systematic-critical-review
#1
Melissa Kimber, Jill R McTavish, Jennifer Couturier, Alison Boven, Sana Gill, Gina Dimitropoulos, Harriet L MacMillan
BACKGROUND: Child maltreatment and eating disorders are significant public health problems. Yet, to date, research has focused on the role of child physical and sexual abuse in eating-related pathology. This is despite the fact that globally, exposure to emotional abuse, emotional neglect and intimate partner violence are the three of the most common forms of child maltreatment. The objective of the present study is to systematically identify and critically review the literature examining the association between child emotional abuse (EA), emotional neglect (EN), and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and adult eating-disordered behavior and eating disorders...
September 22, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935381/-sexist-attitudes-and-recognition-of-abuse-in-young-couples
#2
Vanesa García-Díaz, Alberto Lana-Pérez, Ana Fernández-Feito, Carolina Bringas-Molleda, Luis Rodríguez-Franco, F Javier Rodríguez-Díaz
AIM: To explore the association between gender-role attitudes and the recognition of abuse among adolescents and young adults during dating relationships. DESIGN: Cross-correlation study. LOCATION: 57 schools of secondary education, vocational education and university in five provinces of Spain (Huelva, Seville, A Coruña, Pontevedra and Asturias). PARTICIPANTS: 4,337 students aged between 15 and 26 years (40.6% males and 59...
September 18, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923605/microbial-pathogenicity-and-virulence-mediated-by-integrons-on-gram-positive-microorganisms
#3
REVIEW
Yanmei Li, Ling Yang, Jie Fu, Muxia Yan, Dingqiang Chen, Li Zhang
Gram-positive microorganisms are one of leading pathogenic microorganisms in public health, including several typical "Super Bugs" as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, which caused a increasement of infections, clinical failures and expenses. Regarded as a common genetic element responsible for horizontal gene transfer, integrons are widely distributed in various pathogens considered as a determinant in the acquisition and evolution of antibiotic resistance...
September 18, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923034/an-implementation-science-protocol-of-the-women-s-health-coop-in-healthcare-settings-in-cape-town-south-africa-a-stepped-wedge-design
#4
Wendee M Wechsberg, Jacqueline W Ndirangu, Ilene S Speizer, William A Zule, Winnifred Gumula, Courtney Peasant, Felicia A Browne, Laura Dunlap
BACKGROUND: HIV persists as a public health emergency in South Africa, especially among women of childbearing age. In response to the HIV epidemic, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS has put forth the 90-90-90 global goals to achieve an AIDS-free generation by 2020. This goal aspires to have 90% of people living with HIV diagnosed; 90% of those who test positive on sustained antiretroviral therapy (ART); and 90% of those on ART be virally suppressed. Ensuring access to ART is an important first step in reducing HIV incidence, especially among vulnerable populations such as women who use substances and bear the burden of HIV in South Africa...
September 18, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920456/child-sexual-abuse-prevention-opportunities-parenting-programs-and-the-reduction-of-risk
#5
Julia Rudolph, Melanie J Zimmer-Gembeck, Dianne C Shanley, Russell Hawkins
To date, child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention has relied largely on child-focused education, teaching children how to identify, avoid, and disclose sexual abuse. The purpose of this article is to explore how prevention opportunities can include parents in new and innovative ways. We propose that parents can play a significant role as protectors of their children via two pathways: (i) directly, through the strong external barriers afforded by parent supervision, monitoring, and involvement; and (ii) indirectly, by promoting their children's self-efficacy, competence, well-being, and self-esteem, which the balance of evidence suggests will help them become less likely targets for abuse and more able to respond appropriately and disclose abuse if it occurs...
January 1, 2017: Child Maltreatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918668/current-status-and-future-prospects-for-the-development-of-substance-abuse-vaccines
#6
Thomas R Kosten, Daryl Shorter, David Heekin
Substance use disorders (SUD) are a significant threat to both individual and public health. To date, SUD pharmacotherapy has focused primarily on agonist medications (i.e., nicotine replacement therapy for tobacco use disorder; methadone and buprenorphine for opioid use disorder), antagonist medications (i.e., naltrexone for opioid use disorder), and aversive therapy (i.e., disulfiram for alcohol use disorder). Pharmacotherapeutic approaches utilizing an immunological framework for medication development represent an important focus of study for treatment of these illnesses...
September 18, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904078/towards-a-systems-approach-to-human-cytochrome-p450-ensemble-interactions-between-cyp2d6-and-cyp2e1-and-their-functional-consequences
#7
Dmitri R Davydov, Nadezhda Y Davydova, John T Rodgers, Thomas H Rushmore, Jeffrey P Jones
Functional cross-talk among human drug-metabolizing cytochromes P450 through their association is a topic of emerging importance. Here we studied the interactions of human CYP2D6, a major metabolizer of psychoactive drugs, with one of the most prevalent human P450 enzymes, ethanol-inducible CYP2E1. Detection of P450-P450 interactions was accomplished through luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) between labeled proteins incorporated into human liver microsomes and the microsomes of insect cells containing NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase...
September 13, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894996/the-relationship-between-parents-intimate-partner-victimization-and-youths-adolescent-relationship-abuse
#8
Weiwei Liu, Elizabeth A Mumford, Bruce G Taylor
Witnessing inter-parental intimate partner violence has been found to be associated with adolescents' own relationship abuse. This study investigates the relationship between patterns of inter-parental intimate partner verbal and physical violence victimization reported by parents and their children's reports of dating abuse experiences and behavior. Latent class analysis was performed on a sample of 610 parents (42% male and 67% white) and their dating adolescent children (ages 12-21 years; 52% male). Parents reported five types of victimization by their partners in the past year, while youth concurrently reported their own victimization and perpetration within their dating relationships...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893747/the-health-and-well-being-of-australia-s-future-medical-doctors-protocol-for-a-5-year-observational-cohort-study-of-medical-trainees
#9
Erin Cvejic, Gordon Parker, Samuel B Harvey, Zachery Steel, Dusan Hadzi-Pavlovic, Claire L Macnamara, Uté Vollmer-Conna
INTRODUCTION: Clinical training in the undergraduate medical course places multiple stressors on trainees, which have been held to lead to heightened distress, depression, suicide, substance misuse/abuse and poor mental health outcomes. To date, evidence for morbidity in trainees is largely derived from cross-sectional survey-based research. This limits the accuracy of estimates and the extent to which predispositional vulnerabilities (biological and/or psychological), contextual triggers and longer-term consequences can be validly identified...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885952/military-sexual-trauma-in-female-veterans-is-associated-with-chronic-pain-conditions
#10
Sara B Cichowski, Rebecca G Rogers, Elizabeth A Clark, Erin Murata, Allison Murata, Glen Murata
INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the impact of MST on chronic pain conditions among female Veterans. The primary objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of chronic pain conditions among U.S. female veterans with a history of military sexual trauma (MST) to those without a history of MST. We anticipated that female Veterans with a history of MST would have higher associations with chronic pain conditions than the female Veterans without a history of MST. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a large-scale, retrospective study using the Veterans' Health Administration Corporate Data Warehouse with institutional approval (15-H175)...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865661/methods-to-assess-adverse-childhood-experiences-of-children-and-families-toward-approaches-to-promote-child-well-being-in-policy-and-practice
#11
Christina D Bethell, Adam Carle, James Hudziak, Narangerel Gombojav, Kathleen Powers, Roy Wade, Paula Braveman
BACKGROUND: Advances in human development sciences point to tremendous possibilities to promote healthy child development and well-being across life by proactively supporting safe, stable and nurturing family relationships (SSNRs), teaching resilience, and intervening early to promote healing the trauma and stress associated with disruptions in SSNRs. Assessing potential disruptions in SSNRs, such as adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), can contribute to assessing risk for trauma and chronic and toxic stress by asking about ACEs can help with efforts to prevent and attenuate negative impacts on child development and both child and family well-being...
September 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865399/the-child-abuse-potential-inventory-development-of-an-arabic-version
#12
Jumana Al Abduwani, Peter Sidebotham, Muna Al Saadoon, Mohammed Al Lawati, Jane Barlow
The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) is a well-validated screening tool for assessing potential for child physical abuse, and has been translated into many different languages. To date the CAPI has not been translated into Arabic or used in any studies in Arabic-speaking populations. This study reports on the process of adapting the CAPI into Arabic Language which was undertaken following the International Society of Pharma-economics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) guidelines. The translation/adaptation process was multi-stage, and involved the use of a Delphi process, cognitive debriefing, back translation, and a pilot testing of the Arabic CAPI at two primary health care centers with a population of pregnant women (n=60)...
August 30, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864538/hospital-costs-and-charges-of-discharge-delays-in-children-hospitalized-for-abuse-and-neglect
#13
Michael Lee, Angela Bachim, Carolyn Smith, Elizabeth A Camp, Marcella Donaruma-Kwoh, Binita Patel
OBJECTIVES: Hospitalizations for child maltreatment cases are longer and costlier than hospitalizations for medically similar nonabuse cases. Some discharges are delayed despite medical clearance because of a lack of safe disposition, increasing the cost of hospitalization. We aim to quantify the additional charges and costs of these delays. METHODS: A retrospective chart review evaluated the dates of medical clearance and clinical characteristics of child protection team inpatient consults from 2012 to 2014 at a 595-bed quaternary-care urban hospital...
September 1, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861656/an-opportune-and-unique-research-to-evaluate-the-public-health-impact-of-electronic-cigarettes
#14
Ahmad Besaratinia, Stella Tommasi
In response to the growing public health concern regarding the risks or benefits of electronic cigarettes (e-cig) use relative to smoking, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has recently introduced the first standardized- and well- characterized e-cig device to the research community (see, https://www.drugabuse.gov/funding/supplemental-information-nida-e-cig ). E-cig are promoted as safe alternatives to conventional tobacco cigarettes and/or as aides to smoking cessation. E-cig are highly popular among cigarette smokers who are unable/unwilling to quit but are willing to switch to putatively less-harmful tobacco substitutes...
August 31, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846939/ptsd-symptom-presentation-among-people-with-alcohol-and-drug-use-disorders-comparisons-by-substance-of-abuse
#15
Emily R Dworkin, Sonya Wanklyn, Paul R Stasiewicz, Scott F Coffey
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) commonly co-occur, and there is some evidence to suggest that PTSD symptom clusters are differentially related to various substances of abuse. However, few studies to date have compared PTSD symptom patterns across people with different types of SUDs, and fewer still have accounted for the presence of comorbidity across types of SUDs in understanding symptom patterns. Thus, in the current study, we use a treatment-seeking sample of people with elevated symptoms of PTSD and problem alcohol use to explore differential associations between past-year SUDs with active use and PTSD symptoms, while accounting for the presence of multiple SUDs...
August 18, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844851/synergistic-interactions-between-mirtazapine-and-prazosin-prevent-the-induction-and-expression-of-behavioral-sensitization-to-cocaine-in-rats
#16
Susana Barbosa-Méndez, Maura Matus-Ortega, Alberto Salazar-Juárez
Cocaine abuse and dependence are a global public health problem. To date, no effective therapy has been established to treat cocaine dependence but mirtazapine-as well as prazosin used in preclinical and clinical trials-has been shown to decrease cocaine behavioral effects. Therefore, our hypothesis was that the effectiveness of mirtazapine might improve when used in combination with prazosin. This study investigated the combined effect of mirtazapine and prazosin on cocaine-induced locomotor activity impairment in rats subjected to locomotor sensitization testing...
August 24, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832785/prevalence-of-physical-intimate-partner-violence-in-the-first-six-months-after-childbirth-in-the-city-of-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#17
Claudia Leite de Moraes, Aline Gaudard E Silva de Oliveira, Michael Eduardo Reichenheim, Silvana Granado Nogueira da Gama, Maria do Carmo Leal
The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of physical intimate partner violence in the first six months after childbirth among women attending primary care clinics (UBS) for the infant's follow-up in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This is the first study on the theme using a representative sample of primary care clinics in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The study used a cross-sectional design from June to September 2007 and included 927 mothers/infants seen at 27 UBS, selected by complex sampling, geographically representative of the city...
August 21, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830758/the-medicinal-chemistry-and-neuropharmacology-of-kratom-a-preliminary-discussion-of-a-promising-medicinal-plant-and-analysis-of-its-potential-for-abuse
#18
REVIEW
Andrew C Kruegel, Oliver Grundmann
The leaves of Mitragyna speciosa (commonly known as kratom), a tree endogenous to parts of Southeast Asia, have been used traditionally for their stimulant, mood-elevating, and analgesic effects and have recently attracted significant attention due to increased use in Western cultures as an alternative medicine. The plant's active alkaloid constituents, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, have been shown to modulate opioid receptors, acting as partial agonists at mu-opioid receptors and competitive antagonists at kappa- and delta-opioid receptors...
August 19, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816587/dna-methylation-independent-growth-restriction-and-altered-developmental-programming-in-a-mouse-model-of-preconception-male-alcohol-exposure
#19
Richard C Chang, William M Skiles, S Chronister Sarah, Haiqing Wang, Gabrielle I Sutton, Yudhishtar S Bedi, Matthew Snyder, Charles R Long, Michael C Golding
The preconception environment is a significant modifier of dysgenesis and the development of environmentally-induced disease. To date, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) have been exclusively associated with maternal exposures, yet emerging evidence suggests male-inherited alterations in the developmental program of sperm may be relevant to the growth-restriction phenotypes of this condition. Using a mouse model of voluntary consumption, we find chronic preconception male ethanol exposure associates with fetal growth restriction, decreased placental efficiency, abnormalities in cholesterol trafficking, sex-specific alterations in the genetic pathways regulating hepatic fibrosis, and disruptions in the regulation of imprinted genes...
August 17, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768409/opiates-and-plasticity-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area
#20
Ludovic D Langlois, Fereshteh S Nugent
Opioids are among the most effective pain relievers; however, their abuse has been on the rise worldwide evident from an alarming increase in accidental opioid overdoses. This demands for an urgent increase in scientific endeavors for better understanding of main cellular mechanisms and circuits involved in opiate addiction. Preclinical studies strongly suggest that memories associated with positive and negative opioid experiences are critical in promoting compulsive opiate-seeking and opiate-taking behaviors, and relapse...
August 16, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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