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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625767/early-life-stress-perturbs-the-function-of-microglia-in-the-developing-rodent-brain-new-insights-and-future-challenges
#1
REVIEW
Frances K Johnson, Arie Kaffman
The role of the innate immune system in mediating some of the consequences of childhood abuse and neglect has received increasing attention in recent years. Most of the work to date has focused on the role that neuroinflammation plays in the long-term adult psychiatric and medical complications associated with childhood maltreatment. The effects of stress-induced neuroinflammation on neurodevelopment have received little attention because until recently this issue has not been studied systematically in animal models of early life stress...
June 15, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599850/tobacco-and-alcohol-use-during-adolescence-interactive-mechanisms-in-animal-models
#2
REVIEW
Yael Abreu-Villaça, Alex C Manhães, Thomas E Krahe, Claudio C Filgueiras, Anderson Ribeiro-Carvalho
There is a strong association between tobacco smoking and the consumption of alcoholic beverages. When compared to the effects of either drug on its own, the combined use may lead to worsened outcomes, such as less successful quitting attempts and increased likelihood of developing mood disorders. Co-consumption most frequently begins during adolescence, a developmental period that is characterized by an increased risk for substance use disorders. However, to date, most studies that have contributed to the current state of knowledge on the mechanisms that underlie tobacco or alcohol use/abuse, and their consequences, adopted adult animal models...
June 6, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592582/adverse-childhood-or-adult-experiences-and-risk-of-bilateral-oophorectomy-a-population-based-case-control-study
#3
Liliana Gazzuola Rocca, Carin Y Smith, Brandon R Grossardt, Stephanie S Faubion, Lynne T Shuster, Elizabeth A Stewart, Walter A Rocca
OBJECTIVES: Bilateral oophorectomy has commonly been performed in conjunction with hysterectomy even in women without a clear ovarian indication; however, oophorectomy may have long-term deleterious consequences. To better understand this surgical practice from the woman's perspective, we studied the possible association of adverse childhood or adult experiences with the subsequent occurrence of bilateral oophorectomy. DESIGN: Population-based case-control study...
June 7, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582944/good-job-bad-job-the-employment-experiences-of-women-in-recovery-from%C3%A2-substance-abuse
#4
Joyce K Sinakhone, Bronwyn A Hunter, Leonard A Jason
BACKGROUND: Women in metropolitan areas have lower employment participation and employment rates than men. Although women face multiple challenges in the labor market, those who have a history of substance use and are abstinent may have a greater disadvantage in obtaining viable employment opportunities due to factors associated with substance use. No research to date has examined employment experiences among women in recovery from substance use. OBJECTIVE: This study examined employment characteristics and experiences of women who had a history of substance use and lived in sober-living environments in urban areas...
June 1, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582653/gender-matters-experiences-and-consequences-of-digital-dating-abuse-victimization-in-adolescent-dating-relationships
#5
Lauren A Reed, Richard M Tolman, L Monique Ward
Digital dating abuse (DDA) behaviors include the use of digital media to monitor, control, threaten, harass, pressure, or coerce a dating partner. In this study, 703 high school students reported on the frequency of DDA victimization, whether they were upset by these incidents, and how they responded. Results suggest that although both girls and boys experienced DDA at similar rates of frequency (with the exception of sexual coercion), girls reported that they were more upset by these behaviors. Girls also expressed more negative emotional responses to DDA victimization than boys...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581646/triangulation-and-parent-adolescent-relationships-implications-for-adolescent-dating-competence-and-abuse
#6
Gregory M Fosco, Mengya Xia, Mark G Lynn, John H Grych
This study focuses on family predictors of conflict behavior in adolescent dating relationships, drawing on family systems and socialization perspectives. Mother-adolescent, father-adolescent, and triadic relationships each was examined as predictors of adolescent dating outcomes that hold importance for developmental and prevention science (positive conflict resolution, verbal abuse, and physical abuse). We conducted a longitudinal analysis using a 6-month longitudinal design with 236 ethnically diverse high school students...
September 2016: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572731/understanding-the-associations-between-psychosocial-factors-and-severity-of-crime-in-juvenile-delinquency-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Sarper Taşkıran, Tuba Mutluer, Ali Evren Tufan, Bengi Semerci
PURPOSE: Juvenile delinquency is a serious and common problem. To date, several studies have focused on possible psychosocial risk factors for delinquency among youths and on the implications of childhood mental illness on child criminality. However, the literature on prevalence of psychopathology and predictors of crime severity among delinquent youths in Turkey is sparse. Therefore, the aim of this study was to show the associations between crime severity and psychosocial factors such as gender, age, criminal history, concomitant attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other comorbid psychiatric conditions, along with behavioral problem domains of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569089/professionals-awareness-of-sexual-abuse-in-late-life-an-exploratory-survey
#8
Sara Alon, Niva Tuma, Tova Band-Winterstein, Hadass Goldblatt
BACKGROUND: The sexual abuse phenomenon is considered taboo. It has been discussed, to date, mainly in relation to children and young women, with insufficient attention to sexual abuse in a late-life context. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this survey was to explore professionals' awareness of elder sexual abuse (ESA). DESIGN: The survey was conducted among 161 Jewish and Arab professionals from health care and social services, who worked with older adults in Israel...
May 1, 2017: Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562261/early-puberty-friendship-group-characteristics-and-dating-abuse-in-us-girls
#9
Frances R Chen, Emily F Rothman, Sara R Jaffee
OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between advanced pubertal development and adolescent dating abuse (ADA) and to test if this relationship is moderated by friendship group characteristics in a nationally representative sample of US girls. METHODS: Data were drawn from wave 1 and 2 (1995-1996) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. The sample included 3870 girls aged 13 to 17 years, all of whom were in romantic and/or nonromantic sexual relationships...
May 8, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561637/a-study-to-assess-the-numbers-and-prevalence-of-bacillus-cereus-and-its-toxins-in-pasteurized-fluid-milk
#10
Saleema Saleh-Lakha, Carlos G Leon-Velarde, Shu Chen, Susan Lee, Kelly Shannon, Martha Fabri, Gavin Downing, Bruce Keown
Bacillus cereus is a pathogenic adulterant of raw milk and can persist as spores and grow in pasteurized milk. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of B. cereus and its enterotoxins in pasteurized milk at its best-before date when stored at 4, 7, and 10°C. More than 5.5% of moderately temperature-abused products (stored at 7°C) were found to contain >10(5) CFU/mL B. cereus , and about 4% of them contained enterotoxins at a level that may result in foodborne illness; in addition, more than 31% of the products contained >10(5) CFU/mL B...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560269/fractures-in-indigenous-compared-to-non-indigenous-populations-a-systematic-review-of-rates-and-aetiology
#11
REVIEW
Sharon L Brennan-Olsen, Sara Vogrin, William D Leslie, Rita Kinsella, Maree Toombs, Gustavo Duque, Sarah M Hosking, Kara L Holloway, Brianna J Doolan, Lana J Williams, Richard S Page, Julie A Pasco, Shae E Quirk
BACKGROUND: Compared to non-indigenous populations, indigenous populations experience disproportionately greater morbidity, and a reduced life expectancy; however, conflicting data exist regarding whether a higher risk of fracture is experienced by either population. We systematically evaluate evidence for whether differences in fracture rates at any skeletal site exist between indigenous and non-indigenous populations of any age, and to identify potential risk factors that might explain these differences...
June 2017: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553166/recombinant-aav8-mediated-intrastriatal-gene-delivery-of-cdnf-protects-rats-against-methamphetamine-neurotoxicity
#12
Lizheng Wang, Zixuan Wang, Xiaoyu Xu, Rui Zhu, Jinpeng Bi, Wenmo Liu, Xinyao Feng, Hui Wu, Haihong Zhang, Jiaxin Wu, Wei Kong, Bin Yu, Xianghui Yu
Methamphetamine (METH) exerts significant neurotoxicity in experimental animals and humans when taken at high doses or abused chronically. Long-term abusers have decreased dopamine levels, and they are more likely to develop Parkinson's disease (PD). To date, few medications are available to treat the METH-induced damage of neurons. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been previously shown to reduce the dopamine-depleting effects of neurotoxic doses of METH. However, the effect of cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF), which has been reported to be more specific and efficient than GDNF in protecting dopaminergic neurons against 6-OHDA toxicity, in attenuating METH neurotoxicity has not been determined...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552458/opioid-addiction-who-are-your-real-friends
#13
REVIEW
Shoshana Eitan, Michael A Emery, M L Shawn Bates, Christopher Horrax
Opioid addiction is a chronic and relapsing mental health disorder. However, only some individuals exposed to opioids, either recreationally or during the course of pain management, will develop addiction. The reasons why some individuals develop addiction and some are spared are not fully understood. Studies indicate that it is likely a combination of genetic predispositions and environmental conditions. Given the role of environmental factors in human addiction, this review examines the role of social environments and social interactions in the development of opioid addictive-like behaviors in rodent studies...
May 25, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550953/perinatal-risk-and-protective-factors-for-pediatric-abusive-head-trauma-a-multicenter-case-control-study
#14
Patrick Kelly, John M D Thompson, Jean Koh, Shanthi Ameratunga, Timothy Jelleyman, Teuila M Percival, Hinemoa Elder, Edwin A Mitchell
OBJECTIVE: To estimate associations between factors recorded in pregnancy and the first week of life and subsequent abusive head trauma. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter, retrospective case-control study of perinatal records from 142 cases of abusive head trauma and 550 controls, matched by date and hospital of birth from 1991 to 2010. Multiple logistic regression assessed the relationship between perinatal exposures and abusive head trauma. RESULTS: The risk of abusive head trauma decreased with increasing maternal age (OR, 0...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546740/new-developments-in-managing-opioid-addiction-impact-of-a-subdermal-buprenorphine-implant
#15
REVIEW
MariaLisa Itzoe, Michael Guarnieri
Opioid addiction to prescription and illicit drugs is a serious and growing problem. In the US alone, >2.4 million people suffer from opioid use disorder. Government and pharmaceutical agencies have begun to address this crisis with recently released and revised task forces and medication-assisted therapies (MAT). For decades, oral or intravenous (IV) MATs have helped patients in their recovery by administration of opioid agonists (methadone, buprenorphine, oxycodone), antagonists (naltrexone, naloxone), and combinations of the two (buprenorphine/naloxone)...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510996/tramadol-with-or-without-paracetamol-acetaminophen-for-cancer-pain
#16
REVIEW
Philip J Wiffen, Sheena Derry, R Andrew Moore
BACKGROUND: Tramadol is an opioid analgesic licensed for use in moderate to severe pain. It is considered as a low risk for abuse, so control regulations are not as stringent as for 'strong' opioids such as morphine. It has a potential role as a step 2 option of the World Health Organization (WHO) analgesic ladder. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and adverse effects of tramadol with or without paracetamol (acetaminophen) for cancer-related pain. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases using a wide range of search terms: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS...
May 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500879/role-of-forensic-medicine-in-evaluating-non-fatal-physical-violence-against-women-by-their-husbands-in-jordan
#17
Hasan Abedr-Rahman, Hafsah Omar Salameh, Rakiz J Salameh, Laith I Alabdallat, Imad M Al-Abdallat
OBJECTIVE: Intimate partner violence against women is a major health problem in most nations, but to date, there has been little awareness of the extent or seriousness of this issue in Jordan. Forensic medical practitioners play a significant role in diagnosing, evaluating and reporting these cases. The Jordanian judicial system is dependent on forensic reports. This study aims to assess the role of forensic medicine in evaluating the physical injuries sustained by women who are abused by their husbands...
July 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496365/prevalence-and-prognosis-of-stress-disorders-a-review-of-the-epidemiologic-literature
#18
REVIEW
Jaimie L Gradus
Given the ubiquity of traumatic events, it is not surprising that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) - a common diagnosis following one of these experiences - is characterized as conferring a large burden for individuals and society. Although there is recognition of the importance of PTSD diagnoses throughout psychiatry, the literature on other diagnoses one may receive following a stressful or traumatic event is scant. This review summarizes the literature on stress disorders (classified according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition [ICD-10]), including acute stress reaction, PTSD, adjustment disorder and unspecified stress reactions...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492278/direct-and-systemic-administration-of-a-cns-permeant-tamoxifen-analog-reduces-amphetamine-induced-dopamine-release-and-reinforcing-effects
#19
Colleen Carpenter, Alexander G Zestos, Rachel Altshuler, Roderick J Sorenson, Bipasha Guptaroy, Hollis D Showalter, Robert T Kennedy, Emily Jutkiewicz, Margaret E Gnegy
Amphetamines (AMPHs) are globally abused. With no effective treatment for AMPH addiction to date, there is urgent need for the identification of druggable targets that mediate the reinforcing action of this stimulant class. AMPH-stimulated dopamine efflux is modulated by protein kinase C (PKC) activation. Inhibition of PKC reduces AMPH-stimulated dopamine efflux and locomotor activity. The only known CNS-permeant PKC inhibitor is the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen. In this study we demonstrate that a tamoxifen analog, 6c, which more potently inhibits PKC than tamoxifen but lacks affinity for the estrogen receptor, reduces AMPH-stimulated increases in extracellular dopamine and reinforcement-related behavior...
May 11, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481563/mother-child-interactions-at-six-months-postpartum-are-not-predicted-by-maternal-histories-of-abuse-and-neglect-or-maltreatment-type
#20
Minden B Sexton, Margaret T Davis, Rena Menke, Greer A Raggio, Maria Muzik
OBJECTIVE: A history of childhood maltreatment (CM) is associated with increased rates of maternal psychiatric symptoms and other adverse outcomes in adulthood among postpartum women. However, to date only a few studies have examined associations between CM and mother-child interactions among a nonclinical sample of postpartum women, and the specific potential influence of the type of abuse or neglect is poorly understood. This study was an aim to examine the relationships between CM types and observed parenting in a nonclinical group of recently postpartum mothers with maltreatment histories...
May 8, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
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