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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042875/current-challenges-and-future-opportunities-for-child-and-adolescent-psychiatry-in-japan
#1
REVIEW
Masaru Tateno, Takahiko Inagaki, Takuya Saito, Anthony P S Guerrero, Norbert Skokauskas
Japan has been facing a serious shortfall of child and adolescent psychiatric workforce relative to increasing service needs. Likely because of a combination of limited workforce supply and limited trust or perception of effectiveness, mental health services are under-utilized by the educational and child welfare systems. Child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) has not been a formally established specialty in Japan. The lack of basic structure in the specialty most likely contributes to a lack of training facilities, limited exposure to and interest in the specialty, and hence an inadequate workforce...
September 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037330/waist-circumference-shows-the-highest-predictive-value-for-metabolic-syndrome-and-waist-to-hip-ratio-for-its-components-in-spanish-adolescents
#2
Javier S Perona, Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle, Blanca Rueda-Medina, María Correa-Rodríguez, Emilio González-Jiménez
Both waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) have been proposed as predictors of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents, but no consensus has been reached to date. This study hypothesizes that WC provides a greater predictive value for MetS in Spanish adolescents than WHR. A cross-sectional study was performed on 1001 adolescents (13.2 ± 1.2 years) randomly recruited from schools in southeast Spain. Anthropometric measures were correlated with the components of MetS (triglycerides, glucose, blood pressure, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) as well as inflammation markers (interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha , C-reactive protein, and ceruloplasmin)...
September 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035733/how-does-parental-cancer-affect-adolescent-and-young-adult-offspring-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Adam Walczak, Fiona McDonald, Pandora Patterson, Katherine Dobinson, Kimberley Allison
OBJECTIVES: To i) identify and synthesise evidence published since 2007 regarding the impact of parental cancer on adolescent and young adult offspring, ii) identify methodological and evidence gaps addressed during this period and iii) highlight those requiring further attention. DESIGN: A systematic review and thematic synthesis of peer reviewed literature regarding the impact of parental cancer upon AYA offspring. DATA SOURCES: Online searches of CINAHL, Embase, Medline, PsychInfo and Scopus databases were conducted...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034280/ameloblastic-fibro-odontoma-in-a-7-month-old-infant-a-case-report
#4
Fatemeh Mashhadiabba, Nafiseh Shamloo, Mehdi Jafari, Shahla Vafadar
Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma is a relatively rare, benign odontogenic tumor that usually occurs in children and adolescents with unerupted teeth. This article reports an ameloblastic fibro-odontoma in the anterior mandible as a "bump on her gum" in a 7-month-old girl. This is the first case under 9 months old reported to date. Radiographic and histologic findings as well as the treatment are discussed.
September 2017: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025501/promoting-the-well-being-of-urban-youth-through-drama-based-peer-education
#5
He Len Chung, André Monday, Alexus Perry
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine youths' perceptions of a drama-based peer education approach to promote adolescent well-being. METHODS: High school students facilitated workshops on one of 7 topics (eg, dating violence) for 4733 urban elementary, middle, and high school students. Audience members' perceptions of workshop content and implementation were examined. RESULTS: Analyses suggest that the peer-led workshops addressed important problems for youth in the community, were an effective way to deliver information about the topics to children and teens, and helped audience members to learn more about the topics and how to make responsible decisions...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021116/efficacy-of-a-technology-based-integrated-smoking-cessation-and-alcohol-intervention-for-smoking-cessation-in-adolescents-results-of-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Severin Haug, Raquel Paz Castro, Tobias Kowatsch, Andreas Filler, Michael P Schaub
OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy of a technology-based integrated smoking cessation and alcohol intervention versus a smoking cessation only intervention in adolescents. METHODS: This was a two-arm, parallel-group, cluster-randomised controlled trial with assessments at baseline and six months follow-up. Subjects in both groups received tailored mobile phone text messages to support smoking cessation for 3months, and the option of registering for a program incorporating strategies for smoking cessation centred around a self-defined quit date...
November 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020056/differences-in-change-blindness-to-real-life-scenes-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-conditions
#7
Chris Ashwin, Sally Wheelwright, Simon Baron-Cohen
People often fail to detect large changes to visual scenes following a brief interruption, an effect known as 'change blindness'. People with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have superior attention to detail and better discrimination of targets, and often notice small details that are missed by others. Together these predict people with autism should show enhanced perception of changes in simple change detection paradigms, including reduced change blindness. However, change blindness studies to date have reported mixed results in ASC, which have sometimes included no differences to controls or even enhanced change blindness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019916/an-overview-of-recent-findings-on-social-anxiety-disorder-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#8
REVIEW
Maria Pontillo, Silvia Guerrera, Ornella Santonastaso, Maria Cristina Tata, Roberto Averna, Stefano Vicari, Marco Armando
BACKGROUND: Some studies have shown that anxiety is particularly frequent in the Clinical High Risk (CHR) for psychosis population. Notably, social anxiety disorder is identified as one of the most common anxiety disorders in CHR adolescents and young adults. Despite this, the frequency and the clinical significance of social anxiety in this population have been underestimated. METHODS: A selective review of literature published between 2011 and 2017 on social anxiety disorder in CHR adolescents and young adults...
October 11, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018387/the-role-of-attention-shifting-in-orthographic-competencies-cross-sectional-findings-from-1st-3rd-and-8th-grade-students
#9
Antje von Suchodoletz, Anika Fäsche, Irene T Skuballa
Attention shifting refers to one core component of executive functions, a set of higher-order cognitive processes that predict different aspects of academic achievement. To date, few studies have investigated the role of attention shifting in orthographic competencies during middle childhood and early adolescence. In the present study, 69 first-grade, 121 third-grade, and 85 eighth-grade students' attention shifting was tested with a computer version of the Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS; Zelazo, 2006)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017389/the-canadian-laboratory-initiative-on-pediatric-reference-intervals-a-caliper-white-paper
#10
Khosrow Adeli, Victoria Higgins, Karin Trajcevski, Nicole White-Al Habeeb
Laboratory investigations provide physicians with objective data to aid in disease diagnosis, clinical decision making, and patient follow up. Clinical interpretation of laboratory test results relies heavily on the availability of appropriate population-based reference intervals (i.e. normative values) or decision limits developed through clinical outcome studies. Although reference intervals are fundamental to accurate laboratory test interpretation, and thus critically important to healthcare, the need for sound evidence-based reference intervals has been largely overlooked, particularly in the pediatric population...
October 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988001/prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-non-suicidal-self-injury-in-rural-china-results-from-a-nationwide-survey-in-china
#11
Jie Tang, Guowei Li, Baoxin Chen, Zhijie Huang, Yanmei Zhang, Hongjuan Chang, Chunxia Wu, Xiaoguang Ma, Jiaji Wang, Yizhen Yu
BACKGROUND: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a highly prevalent and serious public health problem among adolescents worldwide. However, to date there were no studies assessing the prevalence of NSSI defined by suggested DSM-5 criteria among Chinese adolescents. We aimed to conduct a nationwide survey to explore the prevalence of and risk factors for NSSI among school-based adolescents in rural China. METHODS: A total sample of 15,623 adolescents in rural China were enrolled by using a multistage sampling method...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987333/age-of-onset-for-physical-and-sexual-teen-dating-violence-perpetration-a-longitudinal-investigation
#12
Ryan C Shorey, Joseph R Cohen, Yu Lu, Paula J Fite, Gregory L Stuart, Jeff R Temple
Teen dating violence (TDV) is a serious and prevalent public health problem. TDV is associated with a number of negative health consequences for victims and predicts violence in adult relationships. Thus, efforts should be devoted to the primary prevention of TDV. However, only a few studies have examined when the risk for the first occurrence of TDV is greatest. Continued research in this area would inform the timing of, as well as developmentally appropriate strategies for, TDV primary prevention efforts...
October 5, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985694/domestic-violence-and-the-victim-offender-overlap-across-the-life-course
#13
Amaia Iratzoqui
The current article examined the overlap of domestic violence across the life course, connecting childhood abuse and adolescent dating victimization to adult intimate partner victimization, and the connection between these behaviors and adult domestic violence perpetration against partners and children. Using three waves of Add Health data, the study found that childhood and adolescent domestic victimization were directly and indirectly linked to adult intimate partner victimization and that domestic violence perpetration also played a role...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979965/concurrent-and-longitudinal-contribution-of-exposure-to-bullying-in-childhood-to-mental-health-the-role-of-vulnerability-and-resilience
#14
Timothy Singham, Essi Viding, Tabea Schoeler, Louise Arseneault, Angelica Ronald, Charlotte M Cecil, Eamon McCrory, Frülhing Rijsdijk, Jean-Baptiste Pingault
Importance: Exposure to bullying is associated with poor mental health. However, the degree to which observed associations reflect direct detrimental contributions of exposure to bullying to mental health remains uncertain, as noncausal relationships may arise from genetic and environmental confounding (eg, preexisting vulnerabilities). Determining to what extent exposure to bullying contributes to mental health is an important concern, with implications for primary and secondary interventions...
October 4, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979702/chikusetsu-saponin-iva-attenuates-isoflurane-induced-neurotoxicity-and-cognitive-deficits-via-sirt1-erk1-2-in-developmental-rats
#15
Xi Fang, Qiang Han, Shiyong Li, Yilin Zhao, Ailin Luo
Inhalation anesthetics isoflurane may increase the risk of neurotoxicity and cognitive deficiency at postnatal and childhood. Chikusetsu saponin IVa (chIV) is a plant extract compound, which could possessed extensive pharmacological actions of central nervous system, cardia-cerebrovascular system, immunologic system and treatment and prevention of tumor. In our study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of chIV on isoflurane-induced hippocampal neurotoxicity and cognitive function impairment in neonatal rats...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978861/acute-leukemia-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#16
Daisuke Tomizawa
Both acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are common malignant diseases in adolescents and young adults (AYAs). Recent advances in genomic studies have helped us understand the biological nature of acute leukemia in AYAs; higher frequency of Ph-like ALL and rearrangements in DUX4, ERG, MEF2D, and ZNF384 genes in AYAs with ALL and higher frequency of FLT3-ITD, NPM1, IDH1/2, DNMT3A, ASXL1, TET2, and CEBPA mutations in AYAs with AML than that in children. The pediatric-inspired regimen has become a standard treatment approach for AYAs with ALL, but optimal treatment strategy for AYAs with AML is not yet established to date...
2017: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972652/shared-decision-making-for-people-with-asthma
#17
REVIEW
Kayleigh M Kew, Poonam Malik, Krishnan Aniruddhan, Rebecca Normansell
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the airways and is common in both adults and children. It is characterised by symptoms including wheeze, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and cough. People with asthma may be helped to manage their condition through shared decision-making (SDM). SDM involves at least two participants (the medical practitioner and the patient) and mutual sharing of information, including the patient's values and preferences, to build consensus about favoured treatment that culminates in an agreed action...
October 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971223/differential-effects-of-age-and-sex-on-insulin-sensitivity-and-body-composition-in-adolescent-offspring-of-women-with-type-1-diabetes-results-from-the-epicom-study
#18
Zuzana Lohse, Sine Knorr, Birgitte Bytoft, Tine D Clausen, Rikke B Jensen, Peter Oturai, Henning Beck-Nielsen, Claus H Gravholt, Peter Damm, Kurt Højlund, Dorte M Jensen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of age and sex on insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in the adolescent offspring of women with type 1 diabetes, compared with the background population. METHODS: This was a prospective nationwide follow-up study (Epigenetic, Genetic and Environmental Effects on Growth, Cognitive Functions and Metabolism in Offspring of Women with Type 1 Diabetes [EPICOM]) in a Danish population. We examined 278 offspring of women with type 1 diabetes from the Danish Diabetes Association Register born during 1993-1999 (index offspring) and 303 control offspring, identified through the Danish Central Office of Civil Registration and matched to the index offspring with respect to date of birth, sex and postal code...
October 3, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970130/lead-exposure-in-late-adolescence-through-adulthood-impairs-short-term-spatial-memory-and-the-neuronal-differentiation-of-adult-born-cells-in-c57bl-6-male-mice
#19
Anna K Engstrom, Zhengui Xia
Lead is a neurotoxicant of immense public health importance. Epidemiology studies suggest that heavy metal exposure may be associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline, yet few studies to date have assessed the effect of adult lead exposure on cognitive behavior in animal models. Here, we exposed 6-week-old male C57BL/6 mice to 0.2% lead acetate via drinking water for 12 weeks starting at 6 weeks of age and then assessed for deficits in hippocampus-dependent spatial memory and impairment of adult hippocampal neurogenesis...
September 29, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967092/dicentric-translocation-9-12-in-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-a-chromosomal-abnormality-with-an-excellent-prognosis
#20
Laura Illade, Victoria Fioravantti, Maitane Andion, Carmen Hernandez-Marques, Luis Madero, Alvaro Lassaletta
PURPOSE: Recurrent chromosomal abnormalities present in the leukemic cells of pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) often allow us to classify patients according to their prognosis, in order to establish further treatment. The dicentric translocation (9;12) consists of the rearrangement of the short arms of chromosomes 9 and 12 generating a dicentric chromosome (9;12). Patients with this alteration present a very good response to treatment and an excellent prognosis...
September 19, 2017: Tumori
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