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Mucosal leishmaniasis

Claudio Guarneri, Valentina Bevelacqua, James W Patterson, Georgi Tchernev
The long-term use of novel antipsoriatic systemic biotechnological drugs may increase susceptibility to opportunistic infections. Several cases of visceral leishmaniasis have been reported in immunosuppressed individuals, including those who have been treated with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) blocking agents. Simultaneous occurrence of cutaneous and visceral involvement has been more rarely recorded in the medical literature. Herein, we describe a case of mucosal leishmaniasis occurring in a farmer living in an endemic region, who was treated with golimumab because of psoriatic arthritis...
November 10, 2016: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
Priscila Wolf Nassif, Marcela Castilho-Peres, Ana Paula Zanatta Rosa, Aline Laureano da Silva, Sandra Mara Alessi Aristides, Maria Valdrinez Campana Lonardoni, Jorge Juarez Vieira Teixeira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi Silveira
INTRODUCTION: American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is an endemic disease in many regions of Brazil; however, only few reports on the actual epidemiological conditions are available. Here, we aimed to assess the clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory characteristics of ATL patients and their treatment in the 15th Regional Health Division of Paraná State, Maringá, Brazil. METHODS: This epidemiological study included patients diagnosed with ATL from January 2010 to September 2014, from the 15th Regional Health Division database...
September 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Juliana Elena Silveira Pratti, Tadeu Diniz Ramos, Joyce Carvalho Pereira, Alessandra Marcia da Fonseca-Martins, Diogo Maciel-Oliveira, Gabriel Oliveira-Silva, Mirian França de Mello, Suzana Passos Chaves, Daniel Claudio Oliveira Gomes, Bruno Lourenço Diaz, Bartira Rossi-Bergmann, Herbert Leonel de Matos Guedes
BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that intranasal vaccination of highly susceptible BALB/c mice with whole Leishmania amazonensis antigens (LaAg) leads to protection against murine cutaneous leishmaniasis. Here, we evaluate the response of partially resistant C57BL/6 mice to vaccination as a more representative experimental model of human cutaneous leishmaniasis. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice from different animal facilities were infected with L. amazonensis (Josefa strain) to establish the profile of infection...
October 6, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Fernando Cobo, Javier Rodríguez-Granger, Cristina Gómez-Camarasa, Antonio Sampedro, Luis Aliaga-Martínez, José María Navarro, José Gutiérrez Fernández
The clinical, microbiological, and histopathological findings of six patients with mucosal leishmaniasis are reported. Five of these patients were Spanish with no history of travel abroad, while the other was from Bolivia but had lived in Spain for more than 5 years. Two patients had no underlying disease, while the other four had several other medical conditions. Lesions were located in the nose in three patients and in the larynx in the other three. Symptoms included difficulty in swallowing, nasal obstruction, dysphonia, and polypoid lesions mimicking cancer...
September 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Guru R Valicherla, Priyanka Tripathi, Sandeep K Singh, Anees A Syed, Mohammed Riyazuddin, Athar Husain, Deep Javia, Kishan S Italiya, Prabhat R Mishra, Jiaur R Gayen
Miltefosine (MFS) is the first effective oral drug for treatment of visceral, mucosal and cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this study, liquid chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method of MFS was validated in rat plasma and its practical utilization to pharmacokinetic studies in rats for the first time. A rapid, selective and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for MFS in rat plasma was linear over the calibration range of 1-500ng/mL. MFS and Phenacetin (internal standard) were separated on Phenomenex Luna 3μ HILIC 200A (150×4...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Rodrigo Ochoa, Stanley J Watowich, Andrés Flórez, Carol V Mesa, Sara M Robledo, Carlos Muskus
The trypanosomatid protozoa Leishmania is endemic in ~100 countries, with infections causing ~2 million new cases of leishmaniasis annually. Disease symptoms can include severe skin and mucosal ulcers, fever, anemia, splenomegaly, and death. Unfortunately, therapeutics approved to treat leishmaniasis are associated with potentially severe side effects, including death. Furthermore, drug-resistant Leishmania parasites have developed in most endemic countries. To address an urgent need for new, safe and inexpensive anti-leishmanial drugs, we utilized the IBM World Community Grid to complete computer-based drug discovery screens (Drug Search for Leishmaniasis) using unique leishmanial proteins and a database of 600,000 drug-like small molecules...
July 2016: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
Mustafa Aksoy, Nebiye Doni, Hatice Uce Ozkul, Yavuz Yesilova, Nurittin Ardic, Abdullah Yesilova, Jennifer Ahn-Jarvis, Steve Oghumu, Cesar Terrazas, Abhay R Satoskar
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major public health concern in Turkey and Sanliurfa represents the most endemic city in Turkey. Although children are most commonly affected by CL, detailed studies of pediatric CL in Turkey are lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report we retrospectively evaluated clinical and epidemiological data of 8786 pediatric CL cases, and how children respond to antimonial therapy. CL was observed most frequently in children between 6-10 years old...
July 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Yoshihisa Hashiguchi, Eduardo L Gomez, Hirotomo Kato, Luiggi R Martini, Lenin N Velez, Hiroshi Uezato
BACKGROUND: In Ecuador, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is prevalent countrywide, but only one case of diffuse-CL and two cases of disseminated-CL were experienced during our research activities more than 30 years from 1982 to date. These three patients suffered from multiple lesions distributed at a wide range of the body surface, revealing difficulty to clinically differentiate each other. METHODS: There is a considerable confusion of the use and/or differentiation of the terminologies (terms) between the two disease forms, diffuse-CL and disseminated-CL...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
Raquel Peralva Ribeiro-Romão, Andrea Franco Saavedra, Alda Maria Da-Cruz, Eduardo Fonseca Pinto, Otacilio C Moreira
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected disease with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from small cutaneous nodules to severe mucosal tissue destruction. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the main species attributed to CL in the Americas. However, studies of experimental infection are limited in the murine model due to the self-resolutive pattern of the disease. Previously, our group demonstrated that the hamster model reproduces many of the clinical and histopathological features observed in humans...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Tatiana Fernandes Araujo Almeida, Esmeralda Maria da Silveira, Cássio Roberto Rocha Dos Santos, Jorge Esquiche León, Ana Terezinha Marques Mesquita
A case of oral leishmaniasis without cutaneous involvement affecting the upper alveolar ridge mucosa/gingiva and the hard palate is reported in a 41-year-old Brazilian man. Microscopic examination disclosed scarce amastigotes and the definitive diagnosis was facilitated by immunohistochemical analysis. The clinical presentation of this lesion is unusual and underlies the importance of considering leishmaniasis in the differential diagnosis of oral lesions, especially in endemic areas. A literature review of the cases of mucosal leishmaniasis with exclusive primary lesions of the oral mucosa was also performed...
December 2016: Head and Neck Pathology
Aline Fernanda Cruz, Renata Gonçalves Resende, Daniel Ricaldoni Albuquerque, Júlio César Tanos de Lacerda, Camila Ferreira Leite, Maria Cássia Ferreira Aguiar
Mucosal leishmaniasis is a chronic infection that affects the upper respiratory tract and/or the oral mucosa caused by Leishmania protozoan parasites. We present two cases of oral leishmaniasis and discuss the different diagnostic strategies and treatment. In both cases, the patients were male, 60 and 94 years of age, and presented with lesions on the soft palate. In the first patient, the final diagnosis was made on the basis of histopathologic examination. In the second case, polymerase chain reaction and Montenegro skin test were necessary to confirm the diagnosis...
March 10, 2016: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Andrea Claudia Bekner Silva Fernandes, Raíssa Bocchi Pedroso, Tatiane França Perles de Mello, Lucélia Donatti, Eneide Aparecida Sabaini Venazzi, Izabel Galhardo Demarchi, Sandra Mara Alessi Aristides, Maria Valdrinez Campana Lonardoni, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi Silveira
Leishmaniasis is a group of diseases that presents various clinical manifestations. Many studies have shown that the parasite plays an important role in the clinical manifestations and prognosis of this disease. The cutaneous and mucosal forms of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) are associated with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, which exhibits intraspecific genetic polymorphisms and various clinical manifestations. The present study focused on four different L. braziliensis strains that were isolated from patients with distinct Glucantime(®) treatment responses...
August 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Giorgi Babuadze, Jason Farlow, Harry P de Koning, Eugenia Carrillo, Giorgi Chakhunashvili, Mari Murskvaladze, Merab Kekelidze, Irakli Karseladze, Nora Kokaia, Irine Kalandadze, David Tsereteli, Ivane Markhvashvili, Ketevan Sidamonidze, Gvantsa Chanturia, Ekaterine Adeishvili, Paata Imnadze
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis includes multiple clinical syndromes, most notably visceral, cutaneous, and mucosal forms. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar, is a potentially fatal disease endemic to large parts of Africa and Asia, and in South-Eastern Europe (Greece, Turkey, Georgia). Visceral leishmaniasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by species of the L. donovani complex. In the classical epidemiological model the main reservoir for VL are canines. METHODS: The study included a cohort of 513 individuals of both genders (190 males and 323 females) from the ages of 1 to 70 years that were screened in ten villages across two districts in Kakheti using the Kalazar Detect™ rK39 rapid diagnostic test...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Omar A Saldarriaga, Alejandro Castellanos-Gonzalez, Renato Porrozzi, Gerald C Baldeviano, Andrés G Lescano, Maxy B de Los Santos, Olga L Fernandez, Nancy G Saravia, Erika Costa, Peter C Melby, Bruno L Travi
Cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis is widely distributed in Central and South America. Leishmania of the Viannia subgenus are the most frequent species infecting humans. L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) panamensis are also responsible for metastatic mucosal leishmaniasis. Conventional or real time PCR is a more sensitive diagnostic test than microscopy, but the cost and requirement for infrastructure and trained personnel makes it impractical in most endemic regions. Primary health systems need a sensitive and specific point of care (POC) diagnostic tool...
April 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Lourena E Costa, Beatriz C S Salles, Patrícia T Alves, Ana C S Dias, Emília R Vaz, Fernanda F Ramos, Daniel Menezes-Souza, Mariana C Duarte, Bruno M Roatt, Miguel A Chávez-Fumagalli, Carlos A P Tavares, Denise U Gonçalves, Manoel O C Rocha, Luiz Ricardo Goulart, Eduardo A F Coelho
Human tegumentary leishmaniasis (HTL), characterized by skin ulcers that may spread and cause dreadful and massive tissue destruction of the nose and mouth, is considered a neglected tropical disease, and it is a serious threat to global health due to its continuous expansion, favored by the lifecycle of its causative organism that is maintained in domestic animal reservoirs and anthropophilic sand fly species. Serodiagnosis of HTL is a great challenge due to many biological factors, including hampered specificity and/or sensitivity...
July 2016: Journal of Immunological Methods
Clayson M Gomes, Lucilla R Ávila, Jéssica C Santos, Pollyana G Oliveira, Fernanda D Tomé, Ledice I A Pereira, Miriam L Dorta, Ruy S Lino, Fátima Ribeiro-Dias, Milton A P Oliveira
Mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) caused by Leishmania (Vianna) braziliensis usually appears after the healing of the primary lesion when amastigotes disseminate from the infection site to the mucosal area. Here, we investigated murine infection with amastigotes obtained from patients with ML or localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL). Amastigotes were used to infect wild type, IFN-γ KO and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) KO mice. Amastigotes from patients with LCL induced lesions that appeared earlier in IFN-γ KO than parasites from ML...
June 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Vincent Mosimann, Claudia Blazek, Heini Grob, Matthew Chaney, Andreas Neumayr, Johannes Blum
Complicated Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis (OWCL) and Old World mucosal leishmaniasis (OWML) constitute an indication for systemic treatment. To date, there no controlled clinical studies that compare treatment options for these diseases. We compiled a case series of 24 cases successfully treated with miltefosine. We conclude that oral miltefosine is an effective treatment option for both OWCL and OWML.
January 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Cecilia Parodi, María F García Bustos, Alejandra Barrio, Federico Ramos, Ana G González Prieto, María C Mora, Patricia Baré, Miguel A Basombrío, María M de Elizalde de Bracco
American tegumentary leishmaniasis displays two main clinical forms: cutaneous (CL) and mucosal (ML). ML is more resistant to treatment and displays a more severe and longer evolution. Since both forms are caused by the same Leishmania species, the immunological response of the host may be an important factor determining the evolution of the disease. Herein, we analyzed the differentiation and memory profile of peripheral CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes of patients with CL and ML and their Leishmania-T. cruzi co-infected counterparts...
August 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Diogo Tiago Silva, Maria Francisca Neves, Nina Mari Gual Pimenta de Queiroz, Julio Cesar Pereira Spada, Maria Luana Alves, Marina Flóro e Silva, Willian Marinho Dourado Coelho, Alan Rodrigo Panosso, Antonio Carlos Faconti Noronha Junior, Wilma Aparecida Starke-Buzetti
The aim of this work was a correlation study and histopathological description of alterations associated with the presence of Leishmania infantumamastigote in the intestinal wall of dogs infected with canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Three groups were used: G1 (n = 8), comprising naturally infected dogs with CVL with amastigotes of L. infantum in the small and large intestines; G2 (n = 9), infected dogs with CVL, without intestinal amastigotes; and G3 (n = 3), uninfected dogs. Histochemistry and immunohistochemistry methods were used for histopathology and amastigotes identification...
January 2016: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Eduardo Antonio Ferraz Coelho, Lourena Emanuele Costa, Daniela Pagliara Lage, Vívian Tamietti Martins, Esther Garde, Nathália Cristina de Jesus Pereira, Eliane Gonçalves Paiva Lopes, Luiz Felipe Nunes Menezes Borges, Mariana Costa Duarte, Daniel Menezes-Souza, Danielle Ferreira de Magalhães-Soares, Miguel Angel Chávez-Fumagalli, Manuel Soto, Carlos Alberto Pereira Tavares
Serological diagnostic tests for canine and human leishmaniasis present problems related with their sensitivity and/or specificity. Recently, an immunoproteomic approach performed with Leishmania infantum proteins identified new parasite antigens. In the present study, the diagnostic properties of two of these proteins, cytochrome c oxidase and IgE-dependent histamine-releasing factor, were evaluated for the serodiagnosis of canine visceral (CVL) and human tegumentary (HTL) leishmaniasis. For the CVL diagnosis, sera samples from non-infected dogs living in an endemic or non-endemic area of leishmaniasis, sera from asymptomatic or symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) dogs, from Leish-Tec(®)-vaccinated dogs, and sera from animals experimentally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi or Ehrlichia canis were used...
January 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
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