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Synthetic Cannabinoid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195831/psychometric-properties-of-the-turkish-versions-of-the-cannabis-use-problems-identi%C3%AF-cation-test-cupit-and-the-adult-cannabis-problems-questionnaire-cpq
#1
Cuneyt Evren, Hanife Yilmaz Cengel, Muge Bozkurt, Bilge Evren, Gokhan Umut, Ruken Agachanli
Cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids are widely used illicit substances in Turkey. The Cannabis Use Problems Identification Test (CUPIT) is a brief self-report screening instrument for detection of problematic cannabis use, whereas the Cannabis Problems Questionnaire (CPQ) is a measure for cannabis treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the CUPIT and CPQ among Turkish male outpatients with cannabis (n = 52) and synthetic cannabinoid (n = 45) use disorder. Participants were evaluated with the CUPIT, the CPQ, and the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale (CWS)...
January 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190538/acute-intoxication-caused-by-synthetic-cannabinoids-5f-adb-and-mmb-2201-a-case-series
#2
Bernardino Barceló, Simona Pichini, Victoria López-Corominas, Isabel Gomila, Christopher Yates, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Manuela Pellegrini
Synthetic cannabinoids are relatively new substances of abuse. Recently, abuse of synthetic cannabinoids has been increasingly reported in the lay press and medical literature. When new compounds are introduced, their use is initially not restricted by prohibition therefore their consumption cannot be verified by standard drug tests. The use of these compounds among adolescents and young adults is constantly growing, making it important for emergency services to be familiar with the signs and symptoms of intoxication present...
February 2, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187774/assessing-the-experience-of-using-synthetic-cannabinoids-by-means-of-interpretative-phenomenological-analysis
#3
Szilvia Kassai, Judit Nóra Pintér, József Rácz, Brigitta Böröndi, Tamás Tóth-Karikó, Kitti Kerekes, V Anna Gyarmathy
BACKGROUND: New psychoactive substances (NPS) have been increasingly consumed by people who use drugs in recent years, which pose a new challenge for treatment services. One of the largest groups of NPS is synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), which are intended as a replacement to cannabis. While there is an increasing body of research on the motivation and the effects associated with SC use, little is known about the subjective interpretation of SC use by the people who use drugs themselves...
February 10, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187296/toxicological-investigation-of-forensic-cases-related-to-the-designer-drug-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-detection-quantification-and-studies-on-human-metabolism-by-gc-ms
#4
Marcel Grapp, Christoph Kaufmann, Martin Ebbecke
3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a synthetic cathinone belonging to the class of α-pyrrolidinophenones that become increasingly popular as a designer psychostimulant. Here, we report a comprehensive collection of MDPV exposure with quantitative serum level confirmation in Germany. During the years 2014-2016, we could proof consumption of MDPV in 23 cases where urine and blood samples were submitted to our laboratory by the police of Lower Saxony. Most of the samples underwent systematic toxicological analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), where MDPV could be detected in urine and/or serum samples...
February 2, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178040/synthetic-cannabinoid-poisoning-a-growing-health-concern
#5
Jeffrey Phillips, Fidelindo Lim, Richard Hsu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Nursing Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169460/alterations-of-the-hematologic-cells-in-synthetic-cannabinoid-users
#6
Derya Guzel, Ahmet Bulent Yazici, Esra Yazici, Atila Erol
BACKGROUND: Functions, morphology, distributions, and index of the circulating cells are the most useful parameters that indicate various inflammatory and toxic conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of these parameters in patients diagnosed with (synthetic) cannabis use disorder. METHODS: This study included a total of 40 patients in the study group (SG) with synthetic cannabis use; and 40 healthy individuals as the control group (CG)...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162792/synthetic-pot-not-your-grandfather-s-marijuana
#7
REVIEW
Benjamin M Ford, Sherrica Tai, William E Fantegrossi, Paul L Prather
In the early 2000s in Europe and shortly thereafter in the USA, it was reported that 'legal' forms of marijuana were being sold under the name K2 and/or Spice. Active ingredients in K2/Spice products were determined to be synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), producing psychotropic actions via CB1 cannabinoid receptors, similar to those of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), the primary active constituent in marijuana. Often abused by adolescents and military personnel to elude detection in drug tests due to their lack of structural similarity to Δ(9)-THC, SCBs are falsely marketed as safe marijuana substitutes...
January 27, 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161577/motivations-for-new-psychoactive-substance-use-among-regular-psychostimulant-users-in-australia
#8
Rachel Sutherland, Raimondo Bruno, Amy Peacock, Simon Lenton, Allison Matthews, Caroline Salom, Paul Dietze, Kerryn Butler, Lucinda Burns, Monica J Barratt
BACKGROUND: Examine the motivations for new psychoactive substance (NPS) use amongst a sample of regular psychostimulant users (RPU) in Australia, and determine whether motivations differ across substances. METHOD: Data were obtained from 419 RPU interviewed for the 2014 Ecstasy and related Drugs Reporting System who reported lifetime NPS use. Based on the most recent NPS used, motivations for use were rated on an 11-point scale (0 'no influence'-10 'maximum influence')...
February 2, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160217/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-nabilone-for-the-prevention-of-acute-postoperative-nausea-and-vomiting-in-elective-surgery
#9
David Neville Levin, Zachary Dulberg, An-Wen Chan, Gregory M T Hare, C David Mazer, Aaron Hong
PURPOSE: Nabilone is a synthetic cannabinoid with properties that make it an appealing candidate as a postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) prophylactic adjunct. Nabilone has proven clinical utility in chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting but has not been adequately tested for PONV. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a single dose of nabilone for the prevention of PONV. METHODS: This was a pragmatic single-centre randomized-controlled trial comparing oral nabilone vs placebo for the prevention of PONV...
February 3, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160034/the-effects-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-on-executive-function
#10
K Cohen, M Kapitány-Fövény, Y Mama, M Arieli, P Rosca, Z Demetrovics, A Weinstein
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is a growing use of novel psychoactive substances (NPSs) including synthetic cannabinoids. Synthetic cannabinoid products have effects similar to those of natural cannabis but the new synthetic cannabinoids are more potent and dangerous and their use has resulted in various adverse effects. The purpose of the study was to assess whether persistent use of synthetic cannabinoids is associating with impairments of executive function in chronic users. METHODS: A total of 38 synthetic cannabinoids users, 43 recreational cannabis users, and 41 non-user subjects were studied in two centers in Hungary and Israel...
February 3, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159624/phenotypic-screening-of-cannabinoid-receptor-2-ligands-shows-different-sensitivity-to-genotype
#11
Julia M Hillger, Beau le Roy, Zi Wang, Thea Mulder-Krieger, Dorret I Boomsma, P Eline Slagboom, Erik H J Danen, Adriaan P IJzerman, Laura H Heitman
The Cannabinoid Receptor 2 (CB2R) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) investigated intensively as therapeutic target, however no drug has reached the market yet. We investigated personal differences in CB2R drug responses using a label-free whole-cell assay (xCELLigence) combined with cell lines (Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines) from individuals with varying CB2R genotypes. Responses to agonists, partial agonists and antagonists of various chemical classes were characterized. Endogenous cannabinoids such as 2-AG induced cellular effects vastly different from all synthetic cannabinoids, especially in their time-profile...
January 31, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156305/clinical-characteristics-of-synthetic-cannabinoid-use-in-a-large-urban-psychiatric-emergency-setting
#12
Marc W Manseau, Amit Rajparia, Adriana Joseph, Sarah Azarchi, Donald Goff, Ritvij Satodiya, Crystal Fuller Lewis
BACKGROUND: Increasing reports of synthetic cannabinoid (SC)-related adverse events have largely comprised case reports and analyses of calls to poison control centers. Existing studies have also mostly involved white male populations. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to systematically describe clinical characteristics of SC use in a relatively large, diverse, urban sample presenting to a psychiatric emergency setting. METHODS: SC users (n = 110) were identified by reviewing charts (n = 948) from the psychiatric emergency service of a large, urban public hospital in the United States for November 2014, which was randomly selected from the 12 months of that year...
February 3, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150924/schedules-of-controlled-substances-extension-of-temporary-placement-of-thj-2201-ab-pinaca-and-ab-chminaca-in-schedule-i-of-the-controlled-substances-act-temporary-order
#13
(no author information available yet)
The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration is issuing this temporary order to extend the temporary schedule I status of three synthetic cannabinoids pursuant to the temporary scheduling provisions of the Controlled Substances Act. The substances are: [1-(5-Fluoropentyl)-1H-indazol-3-yl](naphthalen-1-yl)methanone (THJ-2201); N-1-Amino-3-methyl-1-oxo-2-butanyl]-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (AB-PINACA); N-[1-Amino-3-methyl-1-oxo-2-butanyl]-1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (AB-CHMINACA), including their optical, positional and geometric isomers, salts, and salts of isomers...
27, 2017: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148842/real-life-zombie-apocalypse-in-new-york-city
#14
J Mark Brown
Synthetic cannabinoid use elicits "zombie-like" symptoms in New York.
February 1, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130989/comparison-of-the-discriminative-stimulus-and-response-rate-effects-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-and-synthetic-cannabinoids-in-female-and-male-rats
#15
Jenny L Wiley, Timothy W Lefever, Julie A Marusich, Rebecca M Craft
BACKGROUND: Women report greater sensitivity to the subjective effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Similarly, female rodents tend to be more sensitive to some pharmacological effects of THC and synthetic cannabinoids. This study examined sex differences in discriminative stimulus and response rate effects of THC and synthetic cannabinoids in rats. METHODS: A cumulative dosing THC discrimination procedure was utilized to evaluate sex differences in the discriminative stimulus effects of THC and three synthetic cannabinoids: CP47,497, WIN55,212-2, and JWH-018...
March 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130957/immunoassay-screening-in-urine-for-synthetic-cannabinoids-an-evaluation-of-the-diagnostic-efficiency
#16
Florian Franz, Verena Angerer, Hanna Jechle, Melanie Pegoro, Harald Ertl, Georg Weinfurtner, David Janele, Christian Schlögl, Matthias Friedl, Stefan Gerl, Reinhard Mielke, Ralf Zehnle, Matthias Wagner, Bjoern Moosmann, Volker Auwärter
BACKGROUND: The abuse of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) as presumed legal alternative to cannabis poses a great risk to public health. For economic reasons many laboratories use immunoassays (IAs) to screen for these substances in urine. However, the structural diversity and high potency of these designer drugs places high demands on IAs regarding cross-reactivity of the antibodies used and detection limits. METHODS: Two retrospective studies were carried out in order to evaluate the capability of two homogenous enzyme IAs for the detection of currently prevalent SCs in authentic urine samples...
January 28, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127409/analysis-of-62-synthetic-cannabinoids-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-with-photoionization
#17
Mamoru Akutsu, Ken-Ichi Sugie, Koichi Saito
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in electron ionization (EI) mode is one of the most commonly used techniques for analysis of synthetic cannabinoids, because the GC-EI-MS spectra contain characteristic fragment ions for identification of a compound; however, the information on its molecular ions is frequently lacking. To obtain such molecular ion information, GC-MS in chemical ionization (CI) mode is frequently used. However, GC-CI-MS requires a relatively tedious process using reagent gas such as methane or isobutane...
2017: Forensic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127408/analytical-differentiation-of-quinolinyl-and-isoquinolinyl-substituted-1-5-fluoropentyl-1h-indole-3-carboxylates-5f-pb-22-and-its-ten-isomers
#18
Erina Kohyama, Takao Chikumoto, Hiroyuki Tada, Kiyoyuki Kitaichi, Tetsuro Ito
Differentiation among regioisomers of synthetic cannabinoids in forensic drug analysis is a crucial issue, since all isomers are not regulated by law. New equivalent analogs obtained via minor modification of their preexisting molecules keep on emerging. Isomers formed via substitutional exchange are also a cause for concern. This study is focused on the isomeric molecules that stem from minor modifications of 5F-PB-22. The analytical properties of these molecules and methods of differentiation are reported...
2017: Forensic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110689/cannabinoids-possible-agents-for-treatment-of-psoriasis-via-suppression-of-angiogenesis-and-inflammation
#19
Amir Hossein Norooznezhad, Fatemeh Norooznezhad
Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease also affecting other sites such as joints. This disease highly depends on inflammation and angiogenesis as well as other pathways. At each step of the psoriasis molecular pathway, different inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic growth factors are involved such as hypoxia inducible factor-1 α (HIF-1 α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalo proteinases (MMPs), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), Angiopoitin-2, interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-17, and IL-2. Beside the mentioned growth factors and cytokines, cellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) which play roles in both angiogenesis and inflammation are also involved in the pathogenesis...
February 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107947/surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy-sers-as-a-method-for-the-toxicological-analysis-of-synthetic-cannabinoids
#20
Thaddeus Mostowtt, Bruce McCord
Synthetic cannabinoids (K2, spice) present problems in forensic investigations because standard presumptive methods, such as immunoassays, are insufficiently specific for the wide range of potential target compounds. This issue can lead to problems with low sensitivity and yield false negative results. A potential solution to this problem is surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). In this study we demonstrate the analysis of a set of structurally similar synthetic cannabinoids using SERS. The procedure involves mixing the analyte with gold nanoparticles prepared in a solution containing alkali or alkaline earth salt solutions...
March 1, 2017: Talanta
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