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parasite, parasitic, cestode, nematode, trematode

Patricio D Carrera-Játiva, Eric R Morgan, Michelle Barrows, Torsten Wronski
Gastrointestinal parasites are commonly reported in wild birds, but transmission amongst avifauna in zoological settings, and between these captive birds and wild birds in surrounding areas, remains poorly understood. A survey was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in captive and free-ranging birds at Bristol Zoo Gardens between May and July 2016. A total of 348 fecal samples from 32 avian species were examined using the Mini-FLOTAC flotation method. Parasites were detected in 31% (45/145) of samples from captive birds and in 65...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Ralph Vanstreels, Chris H Gardiner, Michael J Yabsley, Liandrie Swanepoel, Cristiane K M Kolesnikovas, Rodolfo P Silva-Filho, Ana C Ewbank, José L Catão-Dias
The Magellanic Penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) is native to Argentina, Chile and the Falkland/Malvinas islands and is a regular winter migrant in Uruguayan and Brazilian coastal waters. The species is known to be susceptible to a variety of gastrointestinal nematodes, cestodes, trematodes and acanthocephalans, as well as renal trematodes and pulmonary nematodes. Schistosomes (Platyhelminthes, Trematoda, Schistosomatidae) and microfilariae (Nematoda, Secernentea, Onchocercidae) were histologically identified in Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) that died while under care at rehabilitation centers in southern Brazil...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
Elizabeth M Warburton, Maarten J Vonhof
In most host-parasite systems, variation in parasite burden among hosts drives transmission dynamics. Heavily infected individuals introduce disproportionate numbers of infective stages into host populations or surrounding environments, causing sharp increases in frequency of infection. Parasite aggregation within host populations may result from variation among hosts in exposure to infective propagules and probability of subsequent establishment of parasites in the host. This is because individual host heterogeneities contribute to a pattern of parasite overdispersion that emerges at the population level...
January 26, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
V Núñez, F Drago, S Jones, L Lunaschi
In March 2011, a predator killed 33 hooded grebes, Podiceps gallardoi Rumboll (Podicipedidae), a critically endangered species, in a nesting colony at El Cervecero Lake, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. The viscera of ten birds were examined for helminths. Two new species of Trematoda were recovered from the intestines. The plagiorchid Plagiorchis patagonensis n. sp. is mainly characterized by the larger size of the oral sucker relative to the ventral sucker, and by the distribution of the vitellarium in two lateral fields, confluent between the caecal bifurcation and the ventral sucker...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
Silvia Rondón, Mario Ortiz, Cielo León, Nelson Galvis, Andrés Link, Camila González
Studies on parasites infecting non-human primates are essential to better understand the potential threat to humans of zoonoses transmission, particularly under the current processes of pervasive land use change and biodiversity loss. The natural ecosystems in the Middle Magdalena river basin in Colombia have suffered a dramatic reduction and transformation into pastures and agroindustrial monocultures, threatening their biodiversity, and probably affecting the dynamics between parasites and their hosts, as well as altering the disease transmission cycles between wild populations and humans...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
S Umair, C L G Bouchet, J S Knight, A Pernthaner, H V Simpson
A 1023 bp full length cDNA encoding Teladorsagia circumcincta GAPDH (TeciGAPDH) was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein purified and its kinetic properties determined. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using helminth GAPDH sequences. The predicted protein consisted of 341 amino acids and was present as a single band of about 38 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Multiple alignments of the protein sequence of TeciGAPDH with homologues from other helminths showed that the greatest similarity (93%) to the GAPDH of Haemonchus contortus and Dictyocaulus viviparus, 82-86% similarity to the other nematode sequences and 68-71% similarity to cestode and trematode enzymes...
October 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Matthew R McLennan, Hideo Hasegawa, Massimo Bardi, Michael A Huffman
Monitoring health in wild great apes is integral to their conservation and is especially important where they share habitats with humans, given the potential for zoonotic pathogen exchange. We studied the intestinal parasites of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) inhabiting degraded forest fragments amid farmland and villages in Bulindi, Uganda. We first identified protozoan and helminth parasites infecting this population. Sixteen taxa were demonstrated microscopically (9 protozoa, 5 nematodes, 1 cestode, and 1 trematode)...
2017: PloS One
María Eugenia Ancarola, Antonio Marcilla, Michaela Herz, Natalia Macchiaroli, Matías Pérez, Sebastián Asurmendi, Klaus Brehm, Carolina Poncini, Mara Rosenzvit, Marcela Cucher
Intercellular communication is crucial in multiple aspects of cell biology. This interaction can be mediated by several mechanisms including extracellular vesicle (EV) transfer. EV secretion by parasites has been reported in protozoans, trematodes and nematodes. Here we report that this mechanism is present in three different species of cestodes, Taenia crassiceps, Mesocestoides corti and Echinococcus multilocularis. To confirm this we determined, in vitro, the presence of EVs in culture supernatants by transmission electron microscopy...
June 29, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
J M Schurer, E Mosites, C Li, S Meschke, P Rabinowitz
The One Health (OH) concept provides an integrated framework for observing and improving health issues involving human, animal, and environmental factors, and has been applied in particular to zoonotic disease problems. We conducted a systematic review of English and Chinese language peer-reviewed and grey literature databases to identify zoonotic endoparasite research utilizing an OH approach in community-based settings. Our review identified 32 articles where specimens collected simultaneously from all three OH domains (people, animals, and the environment) were assessed for endoparasite infection or exposure...
December 2016: One Health
V V Shimalov
The result of helminthological investigation of 25 Eurasian water shrews during 1996-2011 in South-West Belarus is presented. Sixteen species of helminths (8 species of trematodes, 3 species of cestodes and 5 species of nematodes) were discovered in 92.0 % of animals (23 infected individuals). The most common species is the trematode Neoglyphe locellus (Kossack, 1910). The cestode Triodontolepis sumavensis (Prokopič, 1957), nematodes Capillaria konstantini Romashov, 1999 and Longistriata neomi Lubarskaja, 1962 is specified in Belarus for the first time...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Naina Arora, Shweta Tripathi, Aloukick K Singh, Prosenjit Mondal, Amit Mishra, Amit Prasad
Helminthic infections fall under neglected tropical diseases, although they inflict severe morbidity to human and causes major economic burden on health care system in many developing countries. There is increased effort to understand their immunopathology in recent days due to their immuno-modulatory capabilities. Immune response is primarily controlled at the transcriptional level, however, microRNA-mediated RNA interference is emerging as important regulatory machinery that works at the translation level...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Horacio Lozano-Cobo, Jaime Gómez-Gutiérrez, Carmen Franco-Gordo, María Del Carmen Gómez Del Prado-Rosas
A comprehensive literature review shows that 12 types of pathogens, micropredators and parasites are reported to interact with chaetognaths, mostly digenean trematodes, cestodes and nematodes larval stages. Through analysis of 78,152 chaetognaths from a monthly zooplankton time series (Jan 1996-Dec 1998) collected in the Mexican Central Pacific twelve acanthocephalan larvae parasitizing chaetognaths were discovered. This is the first record of an acanthocephalan parasitizing chaetognaths, raising to 13 the types of symbionts known to interact with them (excluding predators)...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
Emilio Clarke-Crespo, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce de León, Salvador Montiel-Ortega, Miguel Rubio-Godoy
Bats are recognized as potential hosts of pathogens exploiting the food chain to reach them as definitive hosts. However, very little is known about their endoparasites, especially for Neotropical bats. In this study, we assessed the helminth fauna associated with 3 insectivorous bat species roosting in the same single hot cave in central Veracruz, México: Mormoops megalophylla, Pteronotus davyi, and Pteronotus personatus. During a period of 1 yr (April 2007-2008), 135 mormoopid bats in total were collected and examined for helminths...
August 2017: Journal of Parasitology
Ryuichi Doi, Makoto Itoh, Somchai Chakhatrakan, Shoji Uga
We conducted an epidemiological study of intestinal parasitic infection in 572 schoolchildren aged 4 to 12 years old from six elementary schools in Sakon Nakhon Province, Thailand from June 2013 to August 2014. We collected fecal, blood, and urine samples to investigate parasitic infection and conducted a questionnaire survey. Soil samples were examined for egg contamination. Fecal examination, using the formalin-ether sedimentation method, revealed that 39% of schoolchildren were infected with eight genera and eight species of parasites; three nematodes, two trematodes, one cestode, and two protozoa...
February 15, 2017: Kobe Journal of Medical Sciences
G Pérez-Ponce de León, R Poulin
Cryptic parasite diversity is a major issue for taxonomy and systematics, and for attempts to control diseases of humans, domestic animals and wildlife. Here, we re-examine an earlier report that, after correcting for sampling effort, more cryptic species of trematodes are found per published study than for other helminth taxa. We performed a meta-analysis of 110 studies that used DNA sequences to search for cryptic species in parasitic helminth taxa. After correcting for study effort and accounting for the biogeographical region of origins, we found that more cryptic species tend to be uncovered among trematodes, and fewer among cestodes and animal-parasitic nematodes, than in other helminth groups...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
Ines Lesniak, Ilja Heckmann, Emanuel Heitlinger, Claudia A Szentiks, Carsten Nowak, Verena Harms, Anne Jarausch, Ilka Reinhardt, Gesa Kluth, Heribert Hofer, Oliver Krone
The recent recolonisation of the Central European lowland (CEL) by the grey wolf (Canis lupus) provides an excellent opportunity to study the effect of founder events on endoparasite diversity. Which role do prey and predator populations play in the re-establishment of endoparasite life cycles? Which intrinsic and extrinsic factors control individual endoparasite diversity in an expanding host population? In 53 individually known CEL wolves sampled in Germany, we revealed a community of four cestode, eight nematode, one trematode and 12 potential Sarcocystis species through molecular genetic techniques...
January 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Akira Shiozaki, Masao Amano
A survey of helminths and ectoparasites, including epizoits, was conducted in narrow-ridged finless porpoises (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis) from Japanese five populations using dead stranded or incidentally caught animals. In total, 13 helminth species were found (6 nematodes, 4 trematodes, 2 cestodes and 1 acanthocephalan) in 137 porpoises. A new location record of Stenurus nanjingensis and a new host record of Tetrabothrius sp. were obtained. Eight species of helminth were considered common in the Japanese populations of the finless porpoise: Pharurus sunameri, Pharurus asiaeorientalis, Nasitrema spathulatum, Nasitrema sunameri, Halocercus pingi, Halocercus sunameri, Campula oblonga and Synthesium elongatum...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Krzysztof Korzeniewski, Agata Smoleń, Alina Augustynowicz, Anna Lass
OBJECTIVES: The Afghans, living in poor socioeconomic conditions, are estimated to be a community with a high rate of intestinal parasitic infections. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and species of intestinal parasites among children's population in eastern Afghanistan and to present the methods of optimizing the techniques for identification of pathogens in light microscopy. The research was carried out as a part of humanitarian project Capacity building of health care system in Ghazni Province...
December 23, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Guillermo Salgado-Maldonado, María Teresa Novelo-Turcotte, Juan Manuel Caspeta-Mandujano, Gabriela Vazquez-Hurtado, Benjamin Quiroz-Martínez, Norman Mercado-Silva, Mario Favila
In a tropical locality of Río La Antigua, Veracruz, Mexico, 11 fish species, represented by 244 individual fish from six freshwater fish families living sympatrically and synchronically, were examined for helminth parasites. A total of 36 taxa of helminths were recorded, 24 autogenic and 12 allogenic forms, including 6 monogeneans, 14 trematodes, 1 cestode, and 15 nematodes. Most helminth taxa were recovered for 10/11 of the component communities we analyzed. The results contribute empirical evidence that host specificity is an important force in the development of helminth communities of freshwater fishes...
2016: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
S Umair, C L G Bouchet, J S Knight, A Pernthaner, H V Simpson
A 1299 bp full length cDNA encoding Teladorsagia circumcincta enolase (TeciENO) was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein purified and its kinetic properties determined. Helminth enolase sequences were used to construct a phylogenetic tree. The predicted protein consisted of 433 amino acids and was present as a single band of about 50 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Multiple alignments of the protein sequence of TeciENO with homologues from other helminths showed 98% similarity with Haemonchus contortus enolase, 78-95% similarity to other nematode sequences and 72-75% similarity to cestode and trematode enolases...
January 2017: Experimental Parasitology
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