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plantar orthotics children

Sam Khamis, Talia Herman, Sima Krimus, Barry Danino
BACKGROUND: Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a well-known intervention used during walking to improve walking abilities and correct gait deviations by facilitating the proper muscle group at the appropriate timing in the gait cycle. Our aim was to study the types of surface FES currently used in a cerebral palsy (CP) population and examine the evidence of its ability to improve gait deviations, functional ability and therapeutic effects. METHODS: A computerized database search was conducted from inception until 6/2016...
October 14, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Evgenia Manousaki, Tomasz Czuba, Gunnar Hägglund, Louise Mattsson, Hanneke Andriesse
Relapse after successful initial correction of idiopathic clubfoot with the Ponseti method is often related to poor compliance with the foot abduction orthosis (FAO). The aim of this study was to evaluate treatment with custom-made dynamic orthoses. Twenty children with idiopathic clubfoot (30feet) who had been treated with dynamic orthoses after the correction phase according to the Ponseti casting technique were evaluated. Relapse rates during orthotic treatment were registered. A Vicon gait analysis system was used to measure gait parameters at the age of seven years...
October 2016: Gait & Posture
Soo-Kyung Bok, Hyunkeun Lee, Bong-Ok Kim, Soyoung Ahn, Youngshin Song, Insik Park
Although orthotic modification using the inverted technique is available for the treatment of flatfoot, empirical evidence for the biomechanical effects of inverted-angle foot orthoses (FOs) is lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different FO inversion angles on plantar pressure during gait in children with flatfoot. Twenty-one children with flexible flatfeet (mean age 9.9 years) were enrolled in this study. The plantar pressures were measured for the rearfoot; medial and lateral midfoot; and medial, central, and lateral forefoot as participants walked on a treadmill while wearing shoes only and shoes with the following 3 orthotic conditions: (i) orthosis with no inverted angle, (ii) orthosis with a 15° inverted angle, and (iii) orthosis with a 30° inverted angle...
2016: PloS One
Rebecca D Lewis, Paul Wright, Laine H McCarthy
CLINICAL QUESTION: In adults with acute plantar fasciitis whose symptoms have not been relieved with the conventional regimen of NSAIDS, stretching and lifestyle modification, do the addition of orthotics (prefabricated or custom fitted) reduce pain and improve function compared with other non-surgical treatments (manipulative chiropractic, physical therapy and/or heel steroid injections)? ANSWER: Yes. Studies have shown that orthotics, both prefabricated and custom fitted, reduce pain and improve function in adults with acute plantar fasciitis with few risks or side effects...
December 2015: Journal of the Oklahoma State Medical Association
Sam Khamis, Raz Martikaro, Shlomo Wientroub, Yoram Hemo, Shlomo Hayek
BACKGROUND: Crouch gait is a major sagittal plane deviation in children diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP). It is defined as a combination of excessive ankle dorsiflexion and knee and hip flexion throughout the stance phase. To the best of our knowledge, functional electrical stimulation (FES) has not been used to decrease the severity of crouch gait in CP subjects and assist in achieving lower limb extension. PURPOSE: To evaluate the short- and long-term effects of FES to the quadriceps muscles in preventing crouch gait and achieving ankle plantar flexion, knee and hip extension at the stance phase...
April 2015: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
Angeline Nsenga Leunkeu, Thierry Lelard, Roy J Shephard, Pierre-Louis Doutrellot, Said Ahmaidi
BACKGROUND: Information on altered foot pressures during ambulation would clarify how far limb deformities modify walking patterns in cerebral palsy (CP), and whether such data can inform prognosis and guide rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: To compare patterns of plantar pressures during walking between children with CP and their able-bodied (AB) peers. METHODS: Twenty-five children/adolescents (10 with hemiplegia, 5 with diplegia, and 10 AB, respective ages 13...
2014: NeuroRehabilitation
Xue-Cheng Liu, Roger Lyon, John G Thometz, Brian Curtin, Serge Tarima, Channing Tassone
BACKGROUND: In measuring plantar pressures during gait, earlier methods have used a platform system that does not take into account the interactions feet have with orthotics and shoe wearing. The purpose of the study was to provide normal insole plantar pressure parameter data during stance phase using the Pedar pressure insole system. METHODS: Twenty-nine normal children, age 6 to 16 years, were recruited and walked along the 25 m walkway at self-selected speeds...
September 2011: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Tara O'Reilly, Adrienne Hunt, Bronwyn Thomas, Lynne Harris, Joshua Burns
PURPOSE: To compare the effects of a leaf spring ankle-foot orthosis (LAFO) and a hinged AFO with plantar flexion stop with that of shoe only on weight-bearing and function in children with hemiplegia. METHODS: The study used an experimental single-subject alternating treatment design with replication. Outcomes measured were weight-bearing symmetry, weight-bearing on the hemiplegic rear foot compared with that of the forefoot, functional ability, and child and parent preference...
2009: Pediatric Physical Therapy
P Laudrin, P Wicart, R Seringe
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The navicular bone lies at the apex of the deformity in severe talipes planovalgus with forefoot abductus, in the residual cavus of congenital talipes equinovarus, in certain cases of congenital convexity, and in certain types of neurological equinovarus. Resection of the navicular bone can be proposed to correct certain deformities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This series included 15 feet operated on in 13 children from 1980 to 2003. The deformity to be corrected was a residual cavus after surgery for congenital talipes equinovarus (five feet), plantar and medial dislocation of the navicular bone on an acquired equinovarus in non-walking children (three feet), planovalgus with major forefoot abductus in non-walking children (four feet)...
September 2007: Revue de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Réparatrice de L'appareil Moteur
Kaat Desloovere, Guy Molenaers, Leen Van Gestel, Catherine Huenaerts, Anja Van Campenhout, Barbara Callewaert, Patricia Van de Walle, J Seyler
Several studies indicated that walking with an ankle foot orthosis (AFO) impaired third rocker. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of two types of orthoses, with similar goal settings, on gait, in a homogeneous group of children, using both barefoot and shoe walking as control conditions. Fifteen children with hemiplegia, aged between 4 and 10 years, received two types of individually tuned AFOs: common posterior leaf-spring (PLS) and Dual Carbon Fiber Spring AFO (CFO) (with carbon fibre at the dorsal part of the orthosis)...
October 2006: Gait & Posture
Ilona Autti-Rämö, Jutta Suoranta, Heidi Anttila, Antti Malmivaara, Marjukka Mäkelä
The objective of this overview is to summarize from systematic reviews the evidence on the effectiveness of using upper and lower limb casting or orthoses in children with cerebral palsy. We used computerized bibliographic databases to search for systematic reviews without any language restrictions. Identification, selection, quality assessment, and data extraction were performed independently by two investigators. Of the 40 identified reviews, 23 were selected for closer consideration, and five reviews met the inclusion criteria...
January 2006: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Sandra A Radtka, Stephen R Skinner, M Elise Johanson
This study compared the effects of solid and hinged ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) on the gait of children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (CP) who ambulate with excessive ankle plantar flexion during stance. Twelve children with spastic diplegic CP wore no AFOs for an initial 2-week period, solid AFOs for 1 month, no AFOs for 2 weeks, and hinged AFOs for 1 month. Lower extremity muscle timing, knee and ankle joint motions, moments and powers, and temporal-distance characteristics were measured during ambulation for an initial barefoot baseline test, and with solid and hinged AFOs for the other two tests...
April 2005: Gait & Posture
P S Fairburn, B Panagamuwa, A Falkonakis, S Osborne, R Palmer, B Johnson, T R Southwood
BACKGROUND: It is difficult to identify the range of gait deviations associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) using simple clinical observations. AIMS: To use objective gait analysis to accurately describe biomechanical gait abnormalities in JIA and to search for common patterns, which may subsequently serve as a basis for therapeutic intervention. METHODS: Children with persistent polyarticular arthritis and symmetrical joint involvement were referred to the Gait Analysis Laboratory and independently assessed by a multidisciplinary team...
August 2002: Archives of Disease in Childhood
S Crenshaw, R Herzog, P Castagno, J Richards, F Miller, G Michaloski, E Moran
This study analyzed the effects of tone-reducing features in ankle-foot orthotics (AFOs) on the gait of eight children (ages 4-11 years) with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. A standard gait analysis was performed on each subject in each of three trial orthotics and in a baseline shoes-only condition. A 4-week accommodation period was allotted for each of the three devices: a standard hinged AFO, an AFO with tone-reducing features, and a supramalleolar orthotic with tone-reducing features. Most significant differences were at the ankle, between free-ankle and plantar flexion-limiting conditions...
March 2000: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
A García-Rodríguez, F Martín-Jiménez, M Carnero-Varo, E Gómez-Gracia, J Gómez-Aracena, J Fernández-Crehuet
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of flexible flat feet in the provincial population of 4- to 13-year-old schoolchildren and the incidence of treatments considered unnecessary. SETTING: Province of Málaga, Spain. METHODS: We examined and graded by severity a sample of 1181 pupils taken from a total population of 198 858 primary schoolchildren (CI: 95%; margin of error: 5%). The sample group was separated into three 2-year age groups: 4 and 5 years, 8 and 9 years, and 12 and 13 years...
June 1999: Pediatrics
J D Thomson, S Ounpuu, R B Davis, P A DeLuca
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) on gait patterns in patients with low-level myelomeningocele and to identify any abnormal gait patterns that may lead to future knee instability and pain. A total of 28 children (26 L4-level sides, 18 L5-level sides, and 10 S1-2-level sides) underwent a three-dimensional gait analysis when ambulating barefoot and with AFOs. Results show significant improvements in sagittal plane function with reductions in excessive ankle dorsiflexion, increases in peak plantar flexor moment, and reductions in crouch and knee extensor moment in the L4 and L5 groups...
January 1999: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
M F Abel, G A Juhl, C L Vaughan, D L Damiano
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) in spastic diplegic cerebral palsy patients for whom orthoses were indicated to control equinus or pes planovalgus deformities. DESIGN: A retrospective, cross-sectional assessment was performed on diplegic subjects who had suitable barefoot and AFO gait trials on the same day. PATIENTS: Thirty-five subjects with a mean age of 8.7 yrs were included. Eighteen wore braces to control equinus and 17 to control pes planovalgus and crouch...
February 1998: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
L S Krivickas
Overuse injuries develop when repetitive stress to bone and musculotendinous structures damages tissue at a greater rate than that at which the body can repair itself. A combination of extrinsic factors, such as training errors and environmental factors, and intrinsic or anatomical factors, such as bony alignment of the extremities, flexibility deficits and ligamentous laxity, predispose athletes to develop overuse injuries. Malalignant of the lower extremity, including excess femoral anteversion, increased Q angle, lateral tibial torsion, tibia vara, genu varum or valgum, subtalar varus and excessive pronation are frequently cited as predisposing to knee extensor mechanism overuse injuries...
August 1997: Sports Medicine
W E Carlson, C L Vaughan, D L Damiano, M F Abel
Orthoses are the primary conservative treatment option for control of dynamic equinus in spastic cerebral palsy. Our purpose was to compare the effects of a fixed ankle-foot orthosis (AFO), a supramalleolar orthosis (SMO), and a no-brace condition, but including shoes. Gait analyses were performed on 11 children with spastic diplegia, using a system with four cameras and two concealed force plates. Ensemble averages of time-distance, kinematic, and kinetic parameters were obtained for each condition, and a repeated measures analysis of variance was performed (P < 0...
May 1997: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
S A Radtka, S R Skinner, D M Dixon, M E Johanson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study compared the effects of dynamic ankle-foot orthoses (DAFOs) with a plantar-flexion stop, polypropylene solid ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs), and no AFOs on the gait of children with cerebral palsy (CP). These orthoses were used to reduce the excessive ankle plantar flexion during the stance phase of gait. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ten children with spastic CP (6 with diplegia and 4 with hemiplegia) were tested after wearing no AFOs for an initial 2-week period, solid AFOs for 1 month, no AFOs for an additional 2 weeks, and DAFOs for 1 month...
April 1997: Physical Therapy
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