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fat embolism syndrome

Amanda N Fletcher, Agostino Molteni, Rakesh Ponnapureddy, Chirag Patel, Mark Pluym, Alan M Poisner
BACKGROUND: Fat embolism (FE) and the consequent fat embolism syndrome (FES) occurring after trauma or surgery can lead to serious pulmonary injury, including ARDS and death. Current treatment of FES is limited to supportive therapy. We have shown in a rat model that the renin angiotensin system (RAS) plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of FE since drugs interfering with the RAS, captopril and losartan, reduce the histopathologic pulmonary damage. The purpose of the current study was to determine if inhibition of renin by aliskiren, an FDA-approved drug for treating hypertension, would produce effective protection in the same model...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Ahmad S Alobaidi, Ammar Al-Hassani, Ayman El-Menyar, Husham Abdelrahman, Mazin Tuma, Hassan Al-Thani, Mohammed A Aldosari
BACKGROUND: Femur fracture (FF) is a common injury, and intramedullary nailing (IMN) is the standard surgical fixation. However, the time of intervention remains controversial. We aimed to describe the reamed IMN (rIMN) timing and hospital outcomes in trauma patients presenting with FF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted for all patients admitted with FF and they underwent fixation at level 1 trauma unit between January 2010 and January 2012...
July 2016: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
RoseMarie Kearsley, John Galbraith, David Dalton, Catherine Motherway
Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a rare and potentially fatal complication occurring most often after long bone or pelvic fractures and orthopaedic procedures. It can consist of pulmonary, central nervous system and cutaneous manifestations. The exact pathophysiology of emboli reaching the arterial circulation is poorly understood.1 It is suggested that this may occur by either 'paradoxical' embolism or microembolism.2 3 Its true incidence is unknown but increases in the presence of multiple closed fractures...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Radhika Gangaraju, Vishnu V B Reddy, Marisa B Marques
Bone marrow necrosis with subsequent embolization of the fat and necrotic tissues into the systemic circulation causing fat embolism syndrome and multiorgan failure is a rare complication of patients with hemoglobinopathies. The exact etiology of this condition is not known. Because it occurs more often in patients with compound heterozygous conditions than in sickle cell disease, some patients are unaware of their predisposition. The initial symptoms are nonspecific, such as back and/or abdominal pain, fever, and fatigue, which may rapidly progress to respiratory failure and severe neurologic compromise...
September 2016: Southern Medical Journal
Christopher J Bugnitz, Linda H Cripe, Warren D Lo, Kevin M Flanigan
BACKGROUND: Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy have an increased risk of long bone fractures. Such fractures are sometimes associated with brain dysfunction due to fat embolism syndrome, although this syndrome has seldom been documented in muscular dystrophy patients. PATIENT DESCRIPTION: We describe a child with Duchenne muscular dystrophy who developed fat embolism syndrome with neurological dysfunction following multiple long bone fractures. He experienced recurrent cerebral infarctions that probably resulted from embolization through a patent foramen ovale...
October 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Yiwei Zhang, Kun Tian, Yan Wang, Rong Zhang, Jiawei Shang, Wei Jiang, Aizhong Wang
This study was designed to investigate the role of aquaporin1 (AQP1) in the pathologic process of pulmonary edema induced by fat embolism syndrome (FES) and the effects of a free fatty acid (FFA) mixture on AQP1 expression in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs). In vivo, edema was more serious in FES mice compared with the control group. The expression of AQP1 and the wet-to-dry lung weight ratio (W/D) in the FES group were significantly increased compared with the control group. At the same time, inhibition of AQP1 decreased the pathological damage resulting from pulmonary edema...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
B Banskota, S Shrestha, R K Chaudhary, T Rajbhandari, S Rijal, B K Shrestha, A K Banskota
BACKGROUND: The anecdotal burden of morbidity secondary to motorbike accidents is thought to enormous by personnel involved in trauma care. The objective of the present study is to ascertain patterns and association of injuries and causes of mortality in a cohort of motorbike accident victims. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 1337 motorbike accident admissions B and B Hospital in Kathmandu between January 2009 and December 2010 was undertaken. RESULTS: Majority of victims were between 20 to 50 years [1230 (92%) males]...
January 2016: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
Manickam Niraimathi, Rakhee Kar, Sajini Elizabeth Jacob, Debdatta Basu
Vaso-occlusive crisis in sickle cell anaemia is one of the commonest presentations and a leading cause of death. Death can be sudden and unexpected. Herein we present three cases of sickle cell anaemia with sudden death within 3 days of hospitalisation. All the three cases presented with fever and jaundice. Two cases presented consecutively in the same year within a span of 5 months while the other case had presented 2 years prior to these two cases. Infection was the precipitating event in two cases and pregnancy with infection in one...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
Roger W Byard
The corpus callosum is a large central white matter tract that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres. It permits placental mammals to have a more sophisticated interhemispheric integration of sensory cortices and allows communication between cortical and subcortical neurons. Search of the literature and the pathology archives at The University of Adelaide was undertaken to identify lesions and injuries within the corpus callosum that may have forensic significance. These include developmental/congenital lesions with agenesis/dysgenesis, vascular malformations, and lipomas; inherited syndromes such as neurofibromatosis; and acquired lesions involving trauma, neoplasia, demyelination, vascular conditions, infections, fat embolism, aging/dementia, and the effects of toxins...
July 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Dareen S Al-Shaer, Omar Ayoub, Naushad A Ahamed, Amro M Al-Hibshi, Saleh S Baeesa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
Xiao-Yuan Liu, Meng Jiang, C-L Yi, Xiang-Jun Bai, David-J Hak
PURPOSE: Early intramedullary nailing (IMN) within the first 24 h for multiply injured patients with femoral fracture and concomitant thoracic trauma is controversial. Previously published studies have been limited in size and their outcomes have been inconclusive. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the available data in order to guide care and help improve the outcomes for these patients. METHODS: We searched the literature up to December 2011 in the main medical search engines and identified 6 retrospective cohort studies that explored the safety of early IMN in patients with both femoral fracture and chest injury...
June 1, 2016: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
Rodrigo de Lima E Souza, Bruno Tavares Apgaua, João Daniel Milhomens, Francisco Tadeu Motta Albuquerque, Luiz Antônio Carneiro, Márcio Henrique Mendes, Tiago Carvalho Garcia, Clerisson Paiva, Felipe Ladeia, Deiler Célio Jeunon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fat embolism syndrome may occur in patients suffering from multiple trauma (long bone fractures) or plastic surgery (liposuction), compromising the circulatory, respiratory and/or central nervous systems. This report shows the evolution of severe fat embolism syndrome after liposuction and fat grafting. CASE REPORT: SSS, 42 years old, ASA 1, no risk factors for thrombosis, candidate for abdominal liposuction and breast implant prosthesis...
May 2016: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Anna N Miller, Dwight Deal, James Green, Timothy Houle, William Brown, Clara Thore, David Stump, Lawrence X Webb
BACKGROUND: Approximately 2 million patients in the United States annually undergo total joint arthroplasty with reaming and placement of intramedullary nails, resulting in extravasation of bone marrow and fat into the circulatory system and potentially causing fat embolism syndrome. Acute and chronic changes in mental status documented after these procedures may be related to embolic events. The Reamer/Irrigator/Aspirator (RIA) device has been shown to decrease intramedullary pressure during reaming...
April 20, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Bryan D Hayes, Sophie Gosselin, Diane P Calello, Nicholas Nacca, Carol J Rollins, Daniel Abourbih, Martin Morris, Andrea Nesbitt-Miller, José A Morais, Valéry Lavergne
BACKGROUND: Intravenous lipid emulsions (ILEs) were initially developed to provide parenteral nutrition. In recent years, ILE has emerged as a treatment for poisoning by local anesthetics and various other drugs. The dosing regimen for the clinical toxicology indications differs significantly from those used for parenteral nutrition. The evidence on the efficacy of ILE to reverse acute toxicity of diverse substances consists mainly of case reports and animal experiments. Adverse events to ILE are important to consider when clinicians need to make a risk/benefit analysis for this therapy...
June 2016: Clinical Toxicology
Marco Piolanti, Giorgia Dalpiaz, Mariano Scaglione, Carlo Coniglio, Marco Miceli, Sara Violini, Rocco Trisolini, Libero Barozzi
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lung computed tomography (CT) findings in fat embolism (FE) syndrome. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 19 CT examinations of 18 patients with FE syndrome, diagnosed clinically using the Gurd and Wilson criteria. RESULT: Fat embolism syndrome showed 3 patterns: negative examination, bilateral interstitial-alveolar involvement, and adult respiratory distress syndrome like. Frequent findings included consolidations (17 patients), mostly with gravity dependent distribution, and ground-glass opacities (17 patients), mostly with patchy distribution...
May 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Loretta Stein, Richard Herold, Andrea Austin, William Beer
BACKGROUND: Fat embolism syndrome is the result of systemic manifestations of fat emboli in the microcirculation. Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a condition that increases the risk of fracture resulting in fat emboli. CASE REPORT: We describe a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy who exhibited cardiopulmonary, neurologic, and ophthalmologic sequelae consistent with fat emboli syndrome after minor trauma. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Fat embolism syndrome is a rare but important consideration with significant morbidity and risk of mortality in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy after even minor trauma...
May 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
N Healy, K Billington, N Sheehy
Fat embolism syndrome usually occurs following trauma where fat globules from long bone fractures produce pulmonary, cerebral or cutaneous effects. This case illustrates the presence of macroscopic fat in the right common femoral vein secondary to a long bone fracture. This finding is rare but should be looked for on cross-sectional imaging to allow early, aggressive treatment of fat embolism syndrome.
November 2015: Irish Medical Journal
R K Sen, S Prakash, S K Tripathy, A Agarwal, I M Sen
BACKGROUND: Many studies have established intravenous corticosteroid as an effective prophylactic therapy in fat embolism syndrome (FES). However, its use is limited among surgeons because of systemic side effects. Inhalational steroids have least systemic effects and are widely used for several chest conditions (i.e., asthma), but their effectiveness in FES has not been established. QUESTION/PURPOSE: This study was sought to evaluate the (1) efficacy and (2) safety of inhalational Ciclesonide (CIC) in prevention of FES and treatment of hypoxemia in isolated skeletal trauma victims...
January 18, 2016: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Katrina Newbigin, Carolina A Souza, Mitchel Armstrong, Elena Pena, Joao Inacio, Ashish Gupta, Kawan Rakhra
OBJECTIVE: Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is rare and diagnosis is challenging. Clinical manifestations are non-specific and no biochemical tests are reliable for diagnosis, highlighting the importance of thoracic CT. Our goal was to describe the CT manifestations of FES and assess whether imaging findings, time of onset of symptoms and time of surgery correlate with clinical course and severity of the disease. METHODS: Retrospective review of 49 patients with respiratory distress after trauma/intramedullary nail fixation over a 10 year period; 12 patients met clinical criteria and were categorized as non-fulminant (NF-FES) or fulminant FES (F-FES)...
February 2016: European Journal of Radiology
Filippo Randelli, Paolo Capitani, Fabrizio Pace, Sara Favilla, Claudio Galante, Pietro Randelli
A 25-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of pulmonary embolism and suspected fat embolism after sustaining bilateral femoral shaft fracture. A left arm weakness, tachycardia and sudden hemoglobin drop delayed his definitive fixation with intramedullary nailing. His clinical course was further complicated by bleeding from the pin sites of the external fixators which had initially been used to temporarily stabilize his femoral fractures (clotting disturbances). A lower leg Doppler ultrasound and a new pelvic-chest CT angiography excluded any remaining thrombus, meanwhile the embolus had broken in smaller pieces, more distally...
December 2015: Injury
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