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Spinal injury

Ryan M Moore, Jonathan Rimler, Brian R Smith, Garrett A Wirth, Keyianoosh Z Paydar
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolic events result in significant morbidity, mortality, and costly therapeutic interventions. As medical resource allocation strategies are becoming more pervasive, appropriate risk stratification and prophylactic regimens are essential. Previous studies have shown a decreased incidence of perioperative venous thromboembolism in the chronic spinal cord injury population. The question remains of whether chronic spinal cord injury is protective against venous thromboembolism...
November 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Ben-Gang Qin, Jian-Tao Yang, Yi Yang, Hong-Gang Wang, Guo Fu, Li-Qiang Gu, Ping Li, Qing-Tang Zhu, Xiao-Lin Liu, Jia-Kai Zhu
Three-dimensional diffusion-weighted steady-state free precession (3D DW-SSFP) of high-resolution magnetic resonance has emerged as a promising method to visualize the peripheral nerves. In this study, the application value of 3D DW-SSFP brachial plexus imaging in the diagnosis of brachial plexus injury (BPI) was investigated. 33 patients with BPI were prospectively examined using 3D DW-SSFP MR neurography (MRN) of brachial plexus. Results of 3D DW-SSFP MRN were compared with intraoperative findings and measurements of electromyogram (EMG) or somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) for each injured nerve root...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
J-N Goubier, F Teboul
Recovery of shoulder function is a real challenge in cases of partial brachial plexus palsy. Currently, in C5-C6 root injuries, transfer of the long head of the triceps brachii branch is done to revive the deltoid muscle. Spinal accessory nerve transfer is typically used for reanimation of the suprascapular nerve. We propose an alternative technique in which the nerve of the rhomboid muscles is transferred to the suprascapular nerve. A 33-year-old male patient with a C5-C6 brachial plexus injury with shoulder and elbow flexion palsy underwent surgery 7 months after the injury...
October 2016: Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation
Staci Sue Reynolds, Laura L Murray, Susan M McLennon, Patricia R Ebright, Tamilyn Bakas
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a bundle of implementation strategies (local opinion leaders, printed educational materials, and educational outreach) to increase neurocritical care nurses' knowledge of and adherence to spinal cord injury guidelines. DESIGN: A preprogram, postprogram, and follow-up design was used to evaluate outcomes. METHODS: Adherence was measured via self-reported anticipatory adherence; knowledge was measured by an author-developed assessment...
October 26, 2016: Rehabilitation Nursing: the Official Journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses
Mathias S Æsøy, Stein-Erik H Solvang, Marit Grønning, Tiina Rekand
OBJECTIVES: Iatrogenic spinal cord injuries (SCIs) caused by invasive procedures or surgical interventions have previously been reported as case studies. The primary objective of this study was to investigate and analyze the incidence, etiology, and prognosis of iatrogenic SCI in Western Norway. METHODS: Medical records of all 183 patients admitted to the SCU between 01.01.2004 and 31.12.2013 were reviewed. Gender, age, diagnosis, iatrogenic medical procedure, symptoms and findings before and after injury, mechanism of injury, level of injury, and ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS) score prior iatrogenic SCI, at admittance and discharge were recorded, as were the length of the period prior to admittance and the length of stay...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
Zhonghui Guan, Judith Hellman, Mark Schumacher
Tissue injury, whether by trauma, surgical intervention, metabolic dysfunction, ischemia, or infection, evokes a complex cellular response (inflammation) that is associated with painful hyperalgesic states. Although in the acute stages it is necessary for protective reflexes and wound healing, inflammation may persist well beyond the need for tissue repair or survival. Prolonged inflammation may well represent the greatest challenge mammalian organisms face, as it can lead to chronic painful conditions, organ dysfunction, morbidity, and death...
2016: F1000Research
Jakub Smolar, Souzan Salemi, Maya Horst, Tullio Sulser, Daniel Eberli
Conditions impairing bladder function in children and adults, such as myelomeningocele, posterior urethral valves, bladder exstrophy or spinal cord injury, often need urinary diversion or augmentation cystoplasty as when untreated they may cause severe bladder dysfunction and kidney failure. Currently, the gold standard therapy of end-stage bladder disease refractory to conservative management is enterocystoplasty, a surgical enlargement of the bladder with intestinal tissue. Despite providing functional improvement, enterocystoplasty is associated with significant long-term complications, such as recurrent urinary tract infections, metabolic abnormalities, stone formation, and malignancies...
September 2016: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
Kaila A Holtz, Rachel Lipson, Vanessa K Noonan, Brian K Kwon, Patricia B Mills
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and impact of spasticity following traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of the Rick Hansen Spinal Cord Injury Registry (RHSCIR) and retrospective review of inpatient medical charts. SETTING: Quaternary trauma centre, rehabilitation centre, and community settings in British Columbia, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with a traumatic SCI between 2005 and 2014 prospectively enrolled in the Vancouver site RHSCIR were eligible for inclusion...
October 22, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Ying Chen, Shuyan Cao, Pingping Xu, Wei Han, Tiankai Shan, Jingying Pan, Weiwei Lin, Xue Chen, Xiaodong Wang
BACKGROUND Results from DNA microarray experiments have shown that the expression of miR-34s undergoes significant changes following spinal cord injury (SCI). The present study was designed to detect changes in the expression of miR-34s and its target genes during the acute and sub-acute stages of SCI. MATERIAL AND METHODS Luxol fast blue (LFB) staining for myelin was used to observe the differences in the general morphology of the spinal cord after SCI in a contusion model in rats. qPCR was carried out to determine the expression variation of miR-34s and its target genes during the acute and sub-acute stages of SCI...
October 25, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Suzanne E Geerlings
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections, and the incidence in women is much higher than in men. The diagnosis of a UTI can be made based on a combination of symptoms and a positive urine analysis or culture. Most UTIs are uncomplicated UTIs, defined as cystitis in a woman who is not pregnant, is not immunocompromised, has no anatomical and functional abnormalities of the urogenital tract, and does not exhibit signs of tissue invasion and systemic infection. All UTIs that are not uncomplicated are considered to be complicated UTIs...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
D G Chang, R M Healey, A J Snyder, J V Sayson, B R Macias, D G Coughlin, J F Bailey, S E Parazynski, J C Lotz, A R Hargens
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective case series. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate lumbar paraspinal muscle (PSM) cross-sectional area and intervertebral disc (IVD) height changes induced by a 6-month space mission on the International Space Station (ISS). The long-term objective of this project is to promote spine health and prevent spinal injury during space missions as well as here on Earth. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND: NASA crewmembers have a 4.3 times higher risk of herniated IVDs, compared to the general and military aviator populations...
October 25, 2016: Spine
D-X Ban, Y Liu, T-W Cao, S-J Gao, S-Q Feng
STUDY DESIGN: The rat's acellular spinal cord scaffold (ASCS) and spinal cord neurons were prepared in vitro to explore their biocompatibility. OBJECTIVES: The preparation of ASCS and co-culture with neuron may lay a foundation for clinical treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, ChinaMethods:ASCS was prepared by chemical extraction method. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), myelin staining and scanning electron microscope were used to observe the surface structure of ASCS...
October 25, 2016: Spinal Cord
Jean-Jacques Wyndaele
The management of patients with neurogenic bladder has changed substantially over the past decades. Obtaining balanced lower urinary tract function has become possible in most patients, although, urological complications remain among the most serious complications these patients are likely to have and, even today, these can have a negative effect on quality of life. To this extent, patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) are likely to develop neurogenic bladder, and data are available on most aspects of neurogenic bladder in these patients...
October 25, 2016: Nature Reviews. Urology
Naoki Wada, Takahiro Shimizu, Shun Takai, Nobutaka Shimizu, Anthony J Kanai, Pradeep Tyagi, Hidehiro Kakizaki, Naoki Yoshimura
AIMS: To examine the effects of a different number of daily bladder squeezes on bladder dysfunction in mice with spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Spinal cord was transected at the Th8/9 in female C57BL/6N mice. Their bladders were manually squeezed to eliminate urine inside every day for 4 weeks. The mice were divided into three groups depending on the number of bladder squeezes; A: once daily, B: twice daily, C: three times daily. Four weeks after transection, single-filling cystometry were performed under an awake condition...
October 24, 2016: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Jörg Krebs, Jens Wöllner, Dennis Grasmücke, Jürgen Pannek
AIMS: To investigate the long-term course of the detrusor pressure during sacral anterior root stimulation in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation of 111 patients who had undergone sacral deafferentation and implantation of an anterior root stimulator at a single SCI rehabilitation center with a minimum follow-up time of 5 years. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 11.7 years (range 5.0-24.9 years). The maximum detrusor pressure (Pdet_max) during stimulation was higher in men compared to women (P = 0...
October 24, 2016: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Dorota Tassigny, Basel Abu-Serieh, Daniella Tsague Fofe, Jacques Born, Germain Milbouw
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Syringomyelia is a progressive cerebrospinal fluid disorder which can lead to irreversible spinal cord injury. To date, the optimal management of syringomyelic cavities remains controversial. Multiple studies have emphasized the importance of the cranio-cervical decompression or shunting procedures. However, excepted for syrinx related to Arnold Chiari malformation, nearly half of patients need to be re-operated. The purpose of the present study was to describe a simple and efficient surgical technique and to report the long-term radio-clinical outcomes...
October 21, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Carola Vogel, Roman Rukwied, Lenka Stockinger, Marcus Schley, Martin Schmelz, Wolfgang Schleinzer, Christoph Konrad
: At-level and above-level hypersensitivity was assessed in patients with chronic complete thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI). Patients were classified by somatosensory mapping (brush, cold, pinprick) and assigned into two groups, i.e. patients i) with at-level hypersensitivity (SCIHs, n=8) and ii) without at-level hypersensitivity (SCINHs, n=7). Gender and age-matched healthy subjects served as controls. Quantitative sensory testing (QST), electrically- and histamine-induced pain and itch, laser Doppler imaging and laser-evoked potentials (LEP) were recorded at-level and above-level in SCI-patients...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
S Fukui, H Tanaka, K Kobayashi, T Kajiyama, M Mitsuno, M Yamamura, M Ryomoto, Y Miyamoto
OBJECTIVES: In thoracic and thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, spinal cord injury (SCI) is devastating. Detection of the Adamkiewicz artery might be important for preventing SCI. Although thoracic endovascular stent grafts often occlude the segmental artery, the incidence of SCI in thoracic endovascular aortic repair is thought to be low compared with open repair. This study aimed to evaluate how the Adamkiewicz artery is supplied after segmental arteries are occluded by stent grafts...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Qingde Wang, Kezheng Mao, Chunli Wang, Wei Mei
Background Prior studies have mainly assessed transoral odontoidectomy for basilar invagination with irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation. However, studies evaluating transoral release and posterior reduction with occipitocervical fixation in this setting are scarce. Methods From 2008 to 2013, 11 patients (6 men and 5 women; 23-67 years of age) with basilar invagination and irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation underwent surgery. They presented signs and symptoms of myelopathy or significant spinal cord injury, and were treated by transoral soft tissue release without odontoidectomy, under skull traction with heavy weight and by posterior reduction with occipitocervical plate fixation...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
Lourdes Mateos-Hernández, Margarita Villar, Ernesto Doncel-Pérez, Marco Trevisan-Herraz, Ángel García-Forcada, Francisco Romero Ganuza, Jesús Vázquez, José de la Fuente
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune-mediated peripheral neuropathy of unknown cause. However, about a quarter of GBS patients have suffered a recent bacterial or viral infection, and axonal forms of the disease are especially common in these patients. Proteomics is a good methodological approach for the discovery of disease biomarkers. Until recently, most proteomics studies of GBS and other neurodegenerative diseases have focused on the analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, serum represents an attractive alternative to CSF because it is easier to sample and has potential for biomarker discovery...
October 20, 2016: Oncotarget
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