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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627474/sox9-positive-periosteal-cells-in-fracture-repair-of-the-adult-mammalian-long-bone
#1
Xinjun He, Sofia Bougioukli, Brandon Ortega, Eric Arevalo, Jay R Lieberman, Andrew P McMahon
INTRODUCTION: The phases of fracture healing have been well characterized. However, the exact source and genetic profile of the skeletal progenitors that participate in bone repair is somewhat unclear. Sox9 expression in skeletal elements precedes bone and cartilage formation and a Sox9(+) cell type is retained in the adult periosteum. We hypothesized that Sox9(+) periosteal cells are multipotent skeletal progenitors normally participating in fracture repair. METHODS: To test this hypothesis we used tamoxifen (TM)-mediated lineage tracing of Sox9(+) cells in Sox9CreErt2:Td-Tomato mice...
June 13, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622862/identification-of-lawsonia-intracellularis-putative-hemolysin-protein-a-and-characterization-of-its-immunoreactivity
#2
Jehyung Kim, Gayeon Won, Suyeon Park, John Hwa Lee
Despite the recent global increase in fatal endemic outbreaks of proliferative enteropathy (PE) caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Lawsonia intracelluralis (LI) in the swine industry, development of effective prevention strategies or immunodiagnostic tests has been delayed due to the difficulty of cultivating this pathogen in vitro. Although several genetic analyses have been performed at the level of gene transcription after the complete genome sequence of LI was made available, the mechanism of LI infection and virulence genes remain unidentified...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622858/a-novel-avian-retrovirus-associated-with-lymphocytoma-isolated-from-a-local-chinese-flock-induced-significantly-reduced-growth-and-immune-suppression-in-spf-chickens
#3
Xiaoping Wu, Jinrong Zhao, Yukun Zeng, Yijian Wu, Quanxi Wang, Baocheng Wu, Yifan Huang
Avian Leukosis Viruses (ALVs) are associated with neoplasias, immune suppression and reduced performance in chicken flocks. In the present study, a naturally occurring recombinant strain of ALV (FJ15HT0) was isolated from an infected flock of Chinese "Hetian" chickens, and was subsequently identified as an exogenous ALV by immuno-fluorescence assay (IFA), PCR and following entire proviral DNA nucleotide sequencing. This isolate is revealed as a novel recombinant virus, lacking viral oncogenes, with the gp85 (93...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604122/blood-stage-malaria-vaccines-post-genome-strategies-for-the-identification-of-novel-vaccine-candidates
#4
Edward H Ntege, Eizo Takashima, Masayuki Morita, Hikaru Nagaoka, Tomoko Ishino, Takafumi Tsuboi
An efficacious malaria vaccine is necessary to advance the current control measures towards malaria elimination. To-date, only RTS,S/AS01, a leading pre-erythrocytic stage vaccine completed phase 3 trials, but with an efficacy of 28-36% in children, and 18-26% in infants, that waned over time. Blood-stage malaria vaccines protect against disease, and are considered effective targets for the logical design of next generation vaccines to improve the RTS,S field efficacy. Therefore, novel blood-stage vaccine candidate discovery efforts are critical, albeit with several challenges including, high polymorphisms in vaccine antigens, poor understanding of targets of naturally protective immunity, and difficulties in the expression of high AT-rich plasmodial proteins...
June 19, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598352/uk-pigs-at-the-time-of-slaughter-investigation-into-the-correlation-of-infection-with-prrsv-and-hev
#5
Jean-Pierre Frossard, Sylvia Grierson, Tanya Cheney, Falko Steinbach, Bhudipa Choudhury, Susanna Williamson
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and are both globally prevalent in the pig population. While HEV does not cause clinical disease in pigs, its zoonotic potential has raised concerns in the food safety sector. PRRS has become endemic in the United Kingdom (UK) since its introduction in 1991, and continues to cause considerable economic losses to the swine industry. A better understanding of the current prevalence and diversity of PRRSV and HEV in the UK, and their potential association, is needed to assess risks and target control measures appropriately...
June 9, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587347/effect-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-sj%C3%A3-gren-like-mice-and-the-microrna-expression-profiles-of-splenic-cd4-t-cells
#6
Guang-Feng Ruan, Ling Zheng, Jia-Shu Huang, Wan-Xue Huang, Bang-Dong Gong, Xing-Xing Fang, Xiao-Yu Zhang, Jian-Ping Tang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) serve immuno-regulatory functions and offer a promising novel treatment for certain autoimmune diseases. The present study investigated the therapeutic effect of mice bone marrow (BM)-MSCs on mice with relatively late stage of Sjögren-like disease and the impact of BM-MSCs on the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of splenic CD4+ T cells. Female NOD/Ltj mice were randomized into two groups: The disease group (n=8) and the MSC-treated group (n=8). Female ICR mice served as the healthy control group (n=8)...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583232/effect-of-topical-beclomethasone-on-inflammatory-markers-in-adults-with-eosinophilic-esophagitis-a-pilot-study
#7
Neeti Bhardwaj, Faoud Ishmael, Erik Lehman, Deborah Bethards, Francesca Ruggiero, Gisoo Ghaffari
BACKGROUND: Topical corticosteroids have proven efficacy in the treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and are considered the cornerstone of therapy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of topical beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) therapy on clinical outcomes, esophageal eosinophilia, and other markers of inflammation in patients with EoE. METHODS: Nine subjects with a biopsy-proven diagnosis of EoE were enrolled. In a cross-over design, the subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of BDP and placebo...
June 1, 2017: Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579027/molecular-detection-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-the-slaughter-sheep-and-goats-from-north-india
#8
Deepali Kalambhe, J P S Gill, Balbir Bagicha Singh
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that infects almost all the warm blooded animals, including human beings. The disease usually remains asymptomatic but is a serious concern for pregnant women, developing foetus and immuno-compromised individuals. We collected 400 cardiac/skeletal muscle tissue samples from slaughter sheep (177) and goat (223) intended for human consumption from Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Chandigarh states/union territory in North India. The samples were pepsin-HCl digested and DNA was extracted from all the digested samples...
July 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559890/unexpected-transcripts-in-tn7-orf19-2646-c-albicans-mutant-lead-to-low-fungal-burden-phenotype-in-vivo
#9
Aude Pierrehumbert, Françoise Ischer, Alix T Coste
The commensal fungus Candida albicans is the major cause of fungal systemic infection in immuno-compromised patients, with a mortality rate approaching 50% in the case of bloodstream infections. There is therefore a clear need to better understand fungal biology during infection to improve treatment. One of the particularities of C. albicans is its capacity to adapt to drastically diverse environments such as brain, bloodstream or gut. Adaptations to environmental change are mediated by transcription factors (TF) that modulate the expression of their target genes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553699/generation-of-cmahko-gtko-shtnfri-fc-ho-1-quadruple-gene-modified-pigs
#10
Geon A Kim, Eun Mi Lee, Jun-Xue Jin, Sanghoon Lee, Anukul Taweechaipaisankul, Jong Ik Hwang, Zahid Alam, Curie Ahn, Byeong Chun Lee
As an alternative source of organs for transplantation into humans, attention has been directed to pigs due to their similarities in biological features and organ size. However, severe immune rejection has prevented successful xenotransplantation using pig organs and tissues. To overcome immune rejection, recently developed genetic engineering systems such as TALEN coupled with somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to make embryos could be used to produce pigs compatible with xenotransplantation. We used the TALEN system to target the non-Gal antigen cytidine monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) gene in pigs that is naturally deleted in humans...
May 28, 2017: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553275/host-immune-selection-of-rumen-bacteria-through-salivary-secretory-iga
#11
Janelle M Fouhse, Luke Smiegielski, Melanie Tuplin, Le Luo Guan, Benjamin P Willing
The rumen microbiome is integral to efficient production in cattle and shows strong host specificity, yet little is known about what host factors shape rumen microbial composition. Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) is produced in large amounts in the saliva, can coat both commensal and pathogenic microbes within the gut, and presents a plausible mechanism of host specificity. However, the role salivary SIgA plays in commensal bacteria selection in ruminants remains elusive. The main objectives of this study were to develop an immuno-affinity benchtop method to isolate SIgA-tagged microbiota and to determine if salivary SIgA preferentially binds selected bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542811/integrative-analyses-reveal-biological-pathways-and-key-genes-in-psoriasis
#12
J Dou, L Zhang, X Xie, L Ye, C Yang, L Wen, C Shen, C Zhu, S Zhao, Z Zhu, B Liang, Z Wang, H Li, X Fan, S Liu, X Yin, X Zheng, L Sun, S Yang, Y Cui, F Zhou, X Zhang
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a complex disease that is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors with abnormal gene expression in lesional skin. However, no studies are available on genome-scale gene expression of psoriatic lesions in the Chinese population. In addition, systematic studies on the biological pathways, pathogenicity and interaction networks of psoriasis-related genes with abnormal expression profiles require further investigation. OBJECTIVES: To further explore the associated pathways in psoriasis by functional analysis and to identify the key genes by gene pathogenicity analysis...
May 25, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538705/uk-pigs-at-the-time-of-slaughter-investigation-into-the-correlation-of-infection-with-prrsv-and-hev
#13
Jean-Pierre Frossard, Sylvia Grierson, Tanya Cheney, Falko Steinbach, Bhudipa Choudhury, Susanna Williamson
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and are both globally prevalent in the pig population. While HEV does not cause clinical disease in pigs, its zoonotic potential has raised concerns in the food safety sector. PRRS has become endemic in the United Kingdom (UK) since its introduction in 1991, and continues to cause considerable economic losses to the swine industry. A better understanding of the current prevalence and diversity of PRRSV and HEV in the UK, and their potential association, is needed to assess risks and target control measures appropriately...
May 24, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527491/development-of-live-attenuated-bacterial-vaccines-targeting-escherichia-coli-heat-labile-and-heat-stable-enterotoxins
#14
Chengru Zhu, Prashanth Setty, Edgar C Boedeker
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), defined by the production of heat labile (LT) and/or heat stable (ST) toxins, are major causes of diarrhea in animals, children in developing countries and to travelers. No broadly protective ETEC vaccine is available, largely because of the difficulty in inducing immunity to the small ST molecule. To take advantage of the demonstration (Liu et al., 2011; Zhang et al., 2013, 2010) that genetically produced fusions of mutant ST with LT subunits can induce effective immunity against both toxins, we engineered a live attenuated vaccine vector strain of E...
April 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457123/simultaneous-catabolite-identification-and-quantitation-of-large-therapeutic-protein-at-the-intact-level-by-immunoaffinity-capture-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#15
Lijuan Kang, Raul C Camacho, Wenyu Li, Katharine D'Aquino, Seohee You, Vanessa Chuo, Naidong Weng, Wenying Jian
As therapeutic recombinant fusion proteins become more widely applicable for the treatment of various types of diseases, there is an increased demand for universal methods such as liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS) for the determination of their pharmacokinetic properties, particularly their catabolism. The most common approach of analyzing proteins by LC-MS is to digest them into peptides, which can serve as surrogates of the protein. Alternatively, we have developed a novel high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) based approach for analyzing large-molecule proteins at the intact level in biological samples without digestion...
June 6, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450853/micromanagement-of-immune-system-role-of-mirnas-in-helminthic-infections
#16
REVIEW
Naina Arora, Shweta Tripathi, Aloukick K Singh, Prosenjit Mondal, Amit Mishra, Amit Prasad
Helminthic infections fall under neglected tropical diseases, although they inflict severe morbidity to human and causes major economic burden on health care system in many developing countries. There is increased effort to understand their immunopathology in recent days due to their immuno-modulatory capabilities. Immune response is primarily controlled at the transcriptional level, however, microRNA-mediated RNA interference is emerging as important regulatory machinery that works at the translation level...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449085/guanine-quadruplex-monoclonal-antibody-1h6-cross-reacts-with-restrained-thymidine-rich-single-stranded-dna
#17
Hinke G Kazemier, Katrin Paeschke, Peter M Lansdorp
Previously we reported the production and characterization of monoclonal antibody 1H6 raised against (T4G4)2 intermolecular guanine quadruplex (G4) DNA structures (Henderson A. et al. (2014) Nucleic Acids Res., 42, 860-869; Hoffmann R.F. et al. (2016) Nucleic Acids Res., 44, 152-163). It was shown that 1H6 strongly stains nuclei and has exquisite specificity for heterochromatin by immuno-electron microscopy. Here we extend our studies of 1H6 reactivity using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and microscale thermophoresis (MST)...
June 2, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446565/murinization-and-h-chain-isotype-matching-of-the-anti-gitr-antibody-dta-1-reduces-immunogenicity-mediated-anaphylaxis-in-c57bl-6-mice
#18
Nicole A Belmar, Sarah W Chan, Melvin I Fox, Josue A Samayoa, Marcia M Stickler, Ninian N Tran, Yoshiko Akamatsu, Diane Hollenbaugh, Fiona A Harding, Hamsell M Alvarez
Recent advances in immuno-oncology have shown that the immune system can be activated to induce long-term, durable antitumor responses. For immuno-oncology drug development, immune activation is often explored using rat Abs in immunocompetent mouse models. Although these models can be used to show efficacy, antidrug immune responses to experimental protein-based therapeutics can arise. Immunogenicity of surrogate Abs may therefore represent an important obstacle to the evaluation of the antitumor efficacy of immunomodulator Abs in syngeneic models...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435428/in-silico-cd4-cd8-t-cell-and-b-cell-immunity-associated-immunogenic-epitope-prediction-and-hla-distribution-analysis-of-zika-virus
#19
Essam Mohammed Janahi, Anupam Dhasmana, Vandana Srivastava, Aditya Narayan Sarangi, Sana Raza, Jamal M Arif, Madan Lal Bramha Bhatt, Mohtashim Lohani, Mohammed Yahya Areeshi, Anand Murari Saxena, Shafiul Haque
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus distributed all over Africa, South America and Asia. The infection with the virus may cause acute febrile sickness that clinically resembles dengue fever, yet there is no vaccine, no satisfactory treatment, and no means of evaluating the risk of the disease or prognosis in the infected people. In the present study, the efficacy of the host's immune response in reducing the risk of infectious diseases was taken into account to carry out immuno-informatics driven epitope screening strategy of vaccine candidates against ZIKV...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419269/dual-genotype-diffuse-low-grade-glioma-is-it-really-time-to-abandon-oligoastrocytoma-as-a-distinct-entity
#20
Valeria Barresi, Simona Lionti, Laura Valori, Giovanna Gallina, Maria Caffo, Sabrina Rossi
We report a unique case of dual-genotype oligoastrocytoma characterized by IDH2 gene mutation. The tumor was resected from the temporal lobe of a 25-year-old man. At histological examination with hematoxylin and eosin stain, it showed distinct oligodendroglial and astrocytic areas. The former retained alpha-thalassaemia/mental retardation X-linked (ATRX) immuno-expression and had absent staining for p53, while the latter had ATRX loss and p53 over-expression. Molecular analyses were separately assessed in the 2 tumor components...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
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