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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450787/a-case-of-small-intestinal-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-diagnosed-using-double-balloon-endoscopy-with-long-term-survival
#1
Seiji Kawano, Yuichi Miyashima, Yoshio Miyabe, Yoshinari Kawai, Toshihiro Murata, Masashi Uda, Toshihiro Inokuchi, Hiroyuki Okada
Neuroendocrine neoplasms, including neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs), are rare epithelial tumors with a predominant neuroendocrine differentiation. Compared with NETs, NECs have been reported to be rarer and have a poorer prognosis. We present a rare case of small bowel NEC diagnosed using double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) and the long-term survival accomplished via intensive therapy. DBE revealed an ulcerative tumor in the deep jejunum, and biopsy specimens showed large and highly dysplastic tumor cells; immuno-histological synaptophysin and chromogranin A tests were positive, and the Ki-67 index was more than 90%...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449867/current-therapies-in-alleviating-liver-disorders-and-cancers-with-a-special-focus-on-the-potential-of-vitamin-d
#2
REVIEW
Shahida Khan, Ashraf Ali, Sarah Khan, Ahmed Bakillah, Ghazi Damanhouri, Aziz Khan, Ahmed Makki, Ibtehal AlAnsari, Naheed Banu
Background: Liver dysfunction is a topic of global concern with many advancing therapies being researched. Though vitamin D takes a center place, other therapies especially nutritional are also gaining ground. Vitamin D has gone beyond its role in skeletal disorders by showcasing its associations in other metabolic dysfunctions too. Result: Epidemiological evidences show a correlation between the status of vitamin D and different forms of cancer. Vitamin D receptors and alterations in gene expression appear decisive in the development of chronic liver disorders...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434145/relapsed-myasthenia-gravis-after-nivolumab-treatment
#3
Ayumi Mitsune, Satoru Yanagisawa, Tatsuro Fukuhara, Eisaku Miyauchi, Mami Morita, Manabu Ono, Yutaka Tojo, Masakazu Ichinose
Nivolumab is a newly introduced promising therapy for treating lung cancer that restores the anti-tumor immunity by disrupting programmed cell death (PD)-1-mediated immuno-suppressive signaling. Although "new-onset" autoimmune diseases are well-known immune-related adverse events (irAEs), whether or not nivolumab exacerbates "pre-existing" autoimmune disease remains unclear. We herein report a patient with "pre-existing" myasthenia gravis (MG) in whom nivolumab was administered that flared up after the treatment with nivolumab...
February 9, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433768/ginger-polyphenols-attenuate-cyclosporine-induced-disturbances-in-kidney-function-potential-application-in-adjuvant-transplant-therapy
#4
Isiaka Ayofe Adekunle, Christian Eseigbe Imafidon, Ayowole Abraham Oladele, Abiodun Oladele Ayoka
Cyclosporine (CYA), a common immuno-suppressant drug that is used in organ transplants, is associated with nephrotoxic effects. Scientific exploration of natural products of plant origin should be considered; especially, in a world with increasing prevalence of kidney diseases. Effects of ginger polyphenols (GP) in Wistar rats with CYA-induced perturbations in electrolyte balance and kidney function was determined. Fifty Wistar rats were recruited for this study such that graded doses of GP were administered following CYA-induced kidney injury and comparisons were made against control and toxic groups at p < 0...
February 7, 2018: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433542/smurf1-facilitates-estrogen-receptor-%C3%A9-signaling-in-breast-cancer-cells
#5
Huijie Yang, Na Yu, Juntao Xu, Xiaosheng Ding, Wei Deng, Guojin Wu, Xin Li, Yingxiang Hou, Zhenhua Liu, Yan Zhao, Min Xue, Sifan Yu, Beibei Wang, Xiumin Li, Gang Niu, Hui Wang, Jian Zhu, Ting Zhuang
BACKGROUND: Estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) is expressed in the majority of breast cancers and promotes estrogen-dependent cancer progression. ER alpha positive breast cancer can be well controlled by ER alpha modulators, such as tamoxifen. However, tamoxifen resistance is commonly observed by altered ER alpha signaling. Thus, further understanding of the molecular mechanisms, which regulates ER alpha signaling, is important to improve breast cancer therapy. METHODS: SMURF1 and ER alpha protein expression levels were measured by western blot, while the ER alpha target genes were measured by real-time PCR...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424324/nano-medicine-as-a-newly-emerging-approach-to-combat-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv
#6
Muthupandian Saravanan, Tsehaye Asmalash, Atsebaha Gebrekidan, Dawit Gebreegziabiher, Tadele Araya, Haftamu Hilekiros, Hamed Barabadi, Kumaresan Ramanathan
BACKGROUND: Human Immuno deficiency Virus (HIV) infection has attained pandemic level due to its complexity on both the HIV infection cycle and on the targets for drug delivery. This limits medication and consequently requires prominent and promising drug delivery systems to be invented. Notably, various nanomaterial have been studied to enhance effective delivery of the antiretroviral drugs for HIV prevention, diagnosis and cure. Some of these nanomaterials are liposomes, dendrimers, inorganic nanoparticles (NPs), polymeric micelles, natural and synthetic polymers...
February 8, 2018: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417397/cancer-immunotherapy-factors-important-for-the-evaluation-of-safety-in-nonclinical-studies
#7
Danuta J Herzyk, Helen G Haggerty
The development of novel therapies that can harnass the immune system to eradicate cancer is an area of intensive research. Several new biopharmaceuticals that target the immune system rather than the tumor itself have recently been approved and fundamentally transformed treatment of many cancer diseases. This success has intensified the search for new targets and modalities that could be developed as even more effective therapeutic agents either as monotherapy or in combination. While great benefits of novel immunotherapies in oncology are evident, the safety of these therapies has to also be addressed as their desired pharmacology, immune activation, can lead to "exaggerated" effects and toxicity...
February 7, 2018: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405579/a-cisplatin-loaded-immuno-chemotherapeutic-nanohybrid-bearing-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-for-enhanced-cervical-cancer-therapy
#8
Na Wang, Zhigang Wang, Zoufeng Xu, Xianfeng Chen, Guangyu Zhu
The efficacy of conventional chemotherapy is hindered by cancer cells' escape from the immune system. Herein, we report a multifunctional nanohybrid system for effective immuno-chemotherapy against cervical cancer. This nanohybrid contains both immune checkpoint inhibitor and cisplatin anticancer prodrug, showing improved cellular accumulation and increased binding of Pt to DNA and resulting in elevated apoptosis than using cisplatin alone when tested in cervical cancer cells. Intriguingly, the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors enables the inhibition of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase and reverses immunosuppressive T cells to recognize cancer cells, leading to T cell proliferation and activation, cancer cell cycle arrest, and ultimately increased cancer cell death...
February 5, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399401/a-safe-and-highly-efficient-tumor-targeted-type-i-interferon-immunotherapy-depends-on-the-tumor-microenvironment
#9
Anje Cauwels, Sandra Van Lint, Geneviève Garcin, Jennyfer Bultinck, Franciane Paul, Sarah Gerlo, José Van der Heyden, Yann Bordat, Dominiek Catteeuw, Lode De Cauwer, Elke Rogge, Annick Verhee, Gilles Uzé, Jan Tavernier
Despite approval for the treatment of various malignancies, clinical application of cytokines such as type I interferon (IFN) is severely impeded by their systemic toxicity. AcTakines (Activity-on-Target cytokines) are optimized immunocytokines that, when injected in mice, only reveal their activity upon cell-specific impact. We here show that type I IFN-derived AcTaferon targeted to the tumor displays strong antitumor activity without any associated toxicity, in contrast with wild type IFN. Treatment with CD20-targeted AcTaferon of CD20+ lymphoma tumors or melanoma tumors engineered to be CD20+, drastically reduced tumor growth...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393888/bringing-the-next-generation-of-immuno-oncology-biomarkers-to-the-clinic
#10
REVIEW
Alessandra Cesano, Sarah Warren
The recent successes in the use of immunotherapy to treat cancer have led to a multiplicity of new compounds in development. Novel clinical-grade biomarkers are needed to guide the choice of these agents to obtain the maximal likelihood of patient benefit. Predictive biomarkers for immunotherapy differ from the traditional biomarkers used for targeted therapies: the complexity of the immune response and tumour biology requires a more holistic approach than the use of a single analyte biomarker. This paper reviews novel biomarker approaches for the effective development of immune-oncology therapies, highlighting the promise of the advances in next-generation gene expression profiling that allow biologic information to be efficiently organized and interpreted for a maximum predictive value at the individual patient level...
February 2, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393868/galectin-3-the-impact-on-the-clinical-management-of-patients-with-thyroid-nodules-and-future-perspectives
#11
REVIEW
Armando Bartolazzi, Salvatore Sciacchitano, Calogero D'Alessandria
Galectins (S-type lectins) are an evolutionarily-conserved family of lectin molecules, which can be expressed intracellularly and in the extracellular matrix, as well. Galectins bind β-galactose-containing glycoconjugates and are functionally active in converting glycan-related information into cell biological programs. Altered glycosylation notably occurring in cancer cells and expression of specific galectins provide, indeed, a fashionable mechanism of molecular interactions able to regulate several tumor relevant functions, among which are cell adhesion and migration, cell differentiation, gene transcription and RNA splicing, cell cycle and apoptosis...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391703/natural-killer-cell-an-immuno-oncology-novel-target-for-cancer-therapy
#12
H R Shwetha, T Smitha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385852/clinical-trial-of-mgmt-p140k-gene-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-paediatric-patients-with-brain-tumours
#13
Belinda Kramer, Radhika Singh, Jessica Wischusen, Rebecca Velickovic, Amanda Rush, Shiloh Middlemiss, Yu-Wooi Ching, Ian Edward Alexander, Geoffrey B McCowage
Gene transfer targeting haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in children has shown sustained therapeutic benefit in the treatment of genetic diseases affecting the immune system, most notably in the severe combined immuno-deficiencies affecting T cell function. The HSC compartment has also been successfully targeted using gene transfer in children with genetic diseases affecting the central nervous system, such as metachromatic leukodystrophy and adrenoleukodystrophy. The HSC is also a target for genetic modification in strategies aiming to confer drug resistance to chemotherapy agents so as to reduce off-target toxicity, and to allow for chemotherapy dose escalation with the possibility of enhanced therapeutic benefit...
January 31, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385739/precision-immuno-oncology-prospects-of-individualized-immunotherapy-for-pancreatic-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Jiajia Zhang, Christopher L Wolfgang, Lei Zheng
Pancreatic cancer, most commonly referring to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), remains one of the most deadly diseases, with very few effective therapies available. Emerging as a new modality of modern cancer treatments, immunotherapy has shown promises for various cancer types. Over the past decades, the potential of immunotherapy in eliciting clinical benefits in pancreatic cancer have also been extensively explored. It has been demonstrated in preclinical studies and early phase clinical trials that cancer vaccines were effective in eliciting anti-tumor immune response, but few have led to a significant improvement in survival...
January 30, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382133/early-and-late-onset-side-effects-of-photodynamic-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Francesco Borgia, Roberta Giuffrida, Emanuela Caradonna, Mario Vaccaro, Fabrizio Guarneri, Serafinella P Cannavò
Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive treatment successfully used for neoplastic, inflammatory and infectious skin diseases. One of its strengths is represented by the high safety profile, even in elderly and/or immuno-depressed subjects. PDT, however, may induce early and late onset side effects. Erythema, pain, burns, edema, itching, desquamation, and pustular formation, often in association with each other, are frequently observed in course of exposure to the light source and in the hours/days immediately after the therapy...
January 29, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371832/xenogeneic-cell-therapy-provides-a-novel-potential-therapeutic-option-for-cancers-by-restoring-tissue-function-repairing-cancer-wound-and-reviving-anti-tumor-immune-responses
#16
Chi-Ping Huang, Chi-Cheng Chen, Chih-Rong Shyr
Conventional cancer treatments such as surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapy, not only destruct tumors, but also injure the normal tissues, resulting in limited efficacy. Recent advances in cancer therapy have aimed at changing the host milieu of cancer against its development and progression by targeting tumor microenvironment and host immune system to eradicate tumors. To the host body, tumors arise in tissues. They impair the normal healthy tissue physiological function, become chronically inflamed and develop non-healing or overhealing wounds as well as drive immuno-suppressive activity to escape immunity attack...
2018: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371215/targeting-chondroitin-sulfate-glycosaminoglycans-to-treat-cardiac-fibrosis-in-pathological-remodeling
#17
Rong-Rong Zhao, Matthew Ackers-Johnson, Justus Stenzig, Chen Chen, Tao Ding, Yue Zhou, Peipei Wang, Shi Ling Ng, Peter Y Li, Gavin Teo, Pauline M Rudd, James W Fawcett, Roger S Y Foo
Background -Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity, and the search for novel therapeutic approaches continues. In the monogenic disease mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VI, loss of function mutations in arylsulfatase B (ASB) leads to myocardial accumulation of chondroitin sulfate (CS) glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), manifesting as a myriad of cardiac symptoms. Here, we studied changes in myocardial CS in non-MPS failing hearts, and assessed its generic role in pathological cardiac remodeling...
January 25, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369169/primary-spinal-mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-a-case-report
#18
Rongrong Dong, Jiali Ji, Hong Liu, Jue Wang, Xuexin He
RATIONALE: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is an indolent B-cell lymphoma which occurs mainly in the organs having mucosal layer and owns a fairly good prognosis. To date, 7 cases of spinal primary MALT has been reported before. However, there is no consensus on the optimal adjuvant treatment modalities for primary spinal MALT. The aim of this study was to add a new case of MALT which responded well to systemic therapy to the literature and to review the current literature...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367096/molecular-imaging-of-platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-alpha-pdgfr%C3%AE-in-papillary-thyroid-cancer-using-immuno-pet
#19
Michael Wagner, Melinda Wuest, Ingrit Hamann, Ana Lopez-Campistrous, Todd P W McMullen, Frank Wuest
INTRODUCTION: Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFRα) was recently identified as a molecular switch for dedifferentiation in thyroid cancer that predicts resistance to therapy as well as recurrence of disease in papillary thyroid cancer. Here we describe the radiolabeling and functional characterization of an imaging probe based on a PDGFRα-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) for immuno-PET imaging of PDGFRα in papillary thyroid cancer. METHODS: Antibody D13C6 (Cell Signaling) was decorated with chelator NOTA using bioconjugation reaction with 2-(p-NCS-Bz)-NOTA...
December 27, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359790/pre-and-post-transplant-minimal-residual-disease-predicts-relapse-occurrence-in-children-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia
#20
Federica Lovisa, Marco Zecca, Bartolomeo Rossi, Mimma Campeggio, Elisa Magrin, Emanuela Giarin, Barbara Buldini, Simona Songia, Giovanni Cazzaniga, Tommaso Mina, Gloria Acquafredda, Paola Quarello, Franco Locatelli, Franca Fagioli, Giuseppe Basso
Relapse remains the leading cause of treatment failure in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We retrospectively investigated the prognostic role of minimal residual disease (MRD) before and after HSCT in 119 children transplanted in complete remission (CR). MRD was measured by polymerase chain reaction in bone marrow samples collected pre-HSCT and during the first and third trimesters after HSCT (post-HSCT1 and post-HSCT3)...
January 23, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
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