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Immuno therapy

Kathrin Scheckenbach
Precision medicine is increasingly pushed forward, also with respect to upcoming new targeted therapies. Individual characterization of diseases on the basis of biomarkers is a prerequisite for this development. So far, biomarkers are characterized clinically, histologically or on a molecular level. The implementation of broad screening methods ("Omics") and the analysis of big data - in addition to single markers - allow to define biomarker signatures. Next to "Genomics", "Proteomics", and "Metabolicis", "Radiomics" gained increasing interest during the last years...
March 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
Ruzanna Mnatsakanyan, Gerta Shema, Mark Basik, Gerald Batist, Christoph H Borchers, Albert Sickmann, René P Zahedi
Numerous diseases are caused by changes in post-translational modifications (PTMs). Therefore, the number of clinical proteomics studies that include the analysis of PTMs is increasing. Combining complementary information - e.g., changes in protein abundance, PTM levels, with the genome and transcriptome (proteogenomics) - holds great promise for discovering important drivers and markers of disease, as variations in copy number, expression levels, or mutations without spatial/functional/isoform information is often insufficient or even misleading...
June 12, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Ling-Yu Shen, Cui-Mei Liang, Wen-Jin Yang, Liang Pan, Hua Li, Hui Hu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the therapeutic effect of acupuncture in the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients with abdominal obesity by regulating glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, sex hormones, etc. METHODS: Eligible PCOS volunteers were randomly divided into treatment group( n =30) and control group( n =28). The treatment group received acupuncture therapy three times a week combined with diet control and exercise. EA (2 Hz/100 Hz, 4-8 mA) was applied to bilateral Daimai (GB 26)and Tianshu (ST 25) for 20 min/time, and bilateral Daheng (SP 15), Shenshu (BL 23), Ciliao (BL 32), Guilai (ST 29), Zulinqi (GB 41) and Waiguan (SJ 5) were stimulated with filiform needles, with the needles retained for 20 min...
April 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Anagha Bangalore Kumar, Rachel Maus, Svetomir N Markovic
The concept of exploiting the immune system to treat cancer forms the basis of immuno-oncology. Since its birth in the late 1800s, immuno-oncology, or cancer immunotherapy, has come a long way. With better understanding of the complex relationship between tumor and the immune system, we have been able to explore and develop various modalities of anticancer therapies. In this review, we summarize the main strategies of immunotherapy that are available today: monoclonal antibodies, anticancer vaccines, cytokines, and adoptive T-cell therapy...
June 7, 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Abebe Dires Nega, Mulat Adefris Woldetsadik, Abebaw Addis Gelagay
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of death in women worldwide. Majority of the cases are found in developing countries. The increasing risk of cervical cancer death and the high prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in Human immuno-deficiency virus(HIV) positive women calls for determining the level of premalignant cervical cancer (Ca) screening uptake. So, this study aimed to assess the uptake of cervical cancer screening and its associated factors...
June 7, 2018: BMC Women's Health
Marwa M Afifi, Gehan S Kotry, Gillan I El-Kimary, Hayat A Youssef
BACKGROUND: Management of furcation defects is still a challenging subject in periodontal therapy. Drynaria fortunei (Df) is a common type of traditional Chinese herb in the area of orthopedics and traumatology. In- vitro and tissue engineering studies have shown that Df induces osteoblastic proliferation and promotes the differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells. This study investigated the management of grade II furcation defects in dogs using guided tissue regeneration (GTR) and Df granules mixed with β- tri-calcium phosphate alloplast (β- TCP)...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Sven de Mey, Heng Jiang, Hui Wang, Benedikt Engels, Thierry Gevaert, Inès Dufait, Olivier Feron, Joeri Aerts, Valeri Verovski, Mark De Ridder
The management of locally advanced rectal cancer has passed a long way of developments, where total mesorectal excision and preoperative radiotherapy are crucial to secure clinical outcome. These and other aspects of multidisciplinary strategies are in-depth summarized in the literature, while our mini-review pursues a different goal. From an ethical and medical standpoint, we witness a delayed implementation of novel therapies given the cost/time consuming process of organizing randomized trials that would bridge an already excellent local control in cT3-4 node-positive disease with long-term survival...
June 2, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Claudia Geismann, Wiebke Erhart, Frauke Grohmann, Stefan Schreiber, Günter Schneider, Heiner Schäfer, Alexander Arlt
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal malignant neoplasms and registers rising death rates in western countries. Due to its late detection in advanced stages, its extremely aggressive nature and the minimal effectiveness of currently available therapies, PDAC is a challenging problem in the clinical field. One characteristic of PDAC is a distinct desmoplasia consisting of fibroblasts, endothelial and immune cells as well as non-cellular components, contributing to therapy resistance...
June 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Anastasia Z Kalea, Konstantinos Drosatos, Jessica L Buxton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We present a current perspective of epigenetic alterations that can lead to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the potential of dietary factors to counteract their actions. In addition, we discuss the challenges and opportunities of dietary treatments as epigenetic modifiers for disease prevention and therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent epigenome-wide association studies along with candidate gene approaches and functional studies in cell culture and animal models have delineated mechanisms through which nutrients, food compounds and dietary patterns may affect the epigenome...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Palamadai Krishnan Suresh
Breast cancer (BC) is a widely prevalent form of neoplasia in women with fairly alarming mortality statistics. This aspect may be attributed, in part, to the current spatial and temporal heterogeneity-based limitations in therapies with possible recurrence of this tumour at primary and/or secondary sites. Such an extensive phenotypic heterogeneity in breast cancer is unlikely to be adequately or completely comprehended by an immuno-histopathology-based classification alone. This finding has warranted research and development in the area of microarray-based methods (i...
October 2018: Cell Journal
Maha M Eissa, Cherine A Ismail, Mervat Z El-Azzouni, Amany A Ghazy, Mona A Hadi
Considerable evidence indicates a negative correlation between the prevalence of some parasitic infections and cancer and their interference with tumor growth. Therefore, parasitic antigens seem to be promising candidates for cancer immunotherapy. In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of autoclaved Schistosoma mansoni and Trichinella spiralis antigens against a colon cancer murine model was investigated. Both antigens showed immunomodulatory potential, as evidenced by a significant decrease in serum IL-17, a significant increase in serum IL-10, and the percentage of splenic CD4+ T-cells and intestinal FoxP3+ Treg cells...
May 28, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Carla Alvarez, Carolina Rojas, Leticia Rojas, Emilio A Cafferata, Gustavo Monasterio, Rolando Vernal
Periodontitis is a chronic immuno-inflammatory disease in which the disruption of the balance between host and microbiota interactions is key to the onset and progression of the disease. The immune homeostasis associated with periodontal health requires a regulated immuno-inflammatory response, during which the presence of regulatory T cells (Tregs) is essential to ensure a controlled response that minimizes collateral tissue damage. Since Tregs modulate both innate and adaptive immunity, pathological conditions that may resolve by the acquisition of immuno-tolerance, such as periodontitis, may benefit by the use of Treg immunotherapy...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Kinjal K Gajjar, Hemangini H Vora, Toral P Kobawala, Trupti I Trivedi, Nandita R Ghosh
INTRODUCTION: 5-flourouracil (5-FU) is one of the standard chemotherapeutic drugs used today in the treatment of colorectal cancer patients. Disruption of 5-FU metabolic pathway may contribute to altered effectiveness towards 5-FU-based therapy. Hence, the study of 5-FU metabolizing enzymes might have the potential efficacy to predict survival and response to treatment in colorectal cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical localization of 5-FU metabolic enzymes (TS, MTHFR, DPYD, and TP) was evaluated in 143 untreated patients with colorectal cancer; their prognostic and predictive values were also evaluated...
May 2018: International Journal of Biological Markers
N Moore, D Doty, M Zielstorff, I Kariv, L Y Moy, A Gimbel, J R Chevillet, N Lowry, J Santos, V Mott, L Kratchman, T Lau, G Addona, H Chen, J T Borenstein
Recapitulation of the tumor microenvironment is critical for probing mechanisms involved in cancer, and for evaluating the tumor-killing potential of chemotherapeutic agents, targeted therapies and immunotherapies. Microfluidic devices have emerged as valuable tools for both mechanistic studies and for preclinical evaluation of therapeutic agents, due to their ability to precisely control drug concentrations and gradients of oxygen and other species in a scalable and potentially high throughput manner. Most existing in vitro microfluidic cancer models are comprised of cultured cancer cells embedded in a physiologically relevant matrix, collocated with vascular-like structures...
May 25, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Sonia Ahlawat, Surekha Dabla, Vinay Kumar, Machiavelli Singh, Kiran Bala, Promod K Mehta
BACKGROUND Tuberculoma and neurocysticercosis (NCC) often show similar clinical and neuroimaging features. Differential diagnosis of these 2 diseases is imperative, as tuberculoma is an active infection that requires immediate anti-tubercular therapy (ATT). CASE REPORT We present the case of a 17-year-old Indian girl with fever, severe headache, and right 6th cranial nerve palsy. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed multiple tiny ring-enhancing lesions in bilateral cerebral parenchyma with mild perilesional edema, which were initially thought to be NCC, but subsequently were diagnosed as brain tuberculomas...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Ligia Kerr, Carl Kendall, Mark Drew Crosland Guimarães, Rosa Salani Mota, Maria Amélia Veras, Inês Dourado, Ana Maria de Brito, Edgar Merchan-Hamann, Alexandre Kerr Pontes, Andréa Fachel Leal, Daniela Knauth, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta Castro, Raimunda Hermelinda Maia Macena, Luana Nepomuceno Costa Lima, Lisangela Cristina Oliveira, Maria do Socorro Cavalcantee, Adele Schwartz Benzaken, Gerson Pereira, Cristina Pimenta, Ana Roberta Pati Pascom, Ximena Pamela Diaz Bermudez, Regina Célia Moreira, Luis Fernando Macedo Brígido, Ana Cláudia Camillo, Willi McFarland, Lisa G Johnston
This paper reports human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in the 2nd National Biological and Behavioral Surveillance Survey (BBSS) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in 12 cities in Brazil using respondent-driven sampling (RDS).Following formative research, RDS was applied in 12 cities in the 5 macroregions of Brazil between June and December 2016 to recruit MSM for BBSS. The target sample size was 350 per city. Five to 6 seeds were initially selected to initiate recruitment and coupons and interviews were managed online...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Aren Bezdjian, Hanneke Bruijnzeel, Julia Pagel, Sam J Daniel, Hans G X M Thomeer
INTRODUCTION: Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is an autosomal recessive disease affecting the cytotoxic pathway. Due to the recent advances in molecular diagnosis, immuno-chemo therapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation treatment, FHL survival rates have drastically increased. CASE PRESENTATION: Herein, we describe a case of FHL type 5 presenting with low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. Alongside our reported case, 6 additional patients were identified in the literature...
June 2018: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
Jianyong Xu
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been intensively studied and applied in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Recently, their immune modulation functions make them as attractive potential approaches for autoimmune disease treatment. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is one type of chronic autoimmune diseases with multi-organ damaged by the immune system. Although current available treatments are effective for some patients, others are refractory for these therapies. The immuno-modulatory and regenerative characteristics of MSCs make them as one promising candidate for treating SLE...
May 17, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
James T Harvey
Actinium-225, and its daughter bismuth-213, have great promise in alpha immuno therapy (AIT) for treatment of various disease modalities. Unfortunately, current production levels of actinium-225 that are commercially available do not support broad use of either actinium-225 or bismuth-213 in development or use for disease treatment. Further, the current cost per millicurie is much too high to be sustainable long term in the market. Resolution of both supply and cost issues allows clinical research to proceed through clinical trials and potentially produce one or more effective therapies for cancer or infectious diseases that could benefit the public...
May 15, 2018: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
Tira J Tan, Jack J Chan, Sulastri Kamis, Rebecca Alexandra Dent
The immune system plays a complex role in the recognition/prevention, early eradication as well as progression of cancer. Recently, we have witnessed great momentum in the field of immuno-oncology. Checkpoint inhibitors and chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy have now entered the clinic, with impressive and durable clinical responses seen across a broad array of tumor types. There are several lines of evidence supporting the development of an immune targeted approach in breast cancer. Emerging data of early clinical trials evaluating monotherapy checkpoint inhibition have shown modest activity in breast cancer, in particular high grade and aggressive subtypes such as triple negative, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive and luminal B breast cancers...
April 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
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