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Immuno therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931845/immuno-oncology-allying-forces-of-radio-and-immuno-therapy-to-enhance-cancer-cell-killing
#1
REVIEW
Jacques Bernier
Besides the local effects of ionizing radiation at the cellular and molecular levels in tumor tissues, the interactions of radiotherapy with the host's immune system are nowadays at the center of many investigations. In some cases, these interactions can be strong enough to immunize the patient against the tumor, leading to a rejection by the host of both the irradiated tumor and distant metastases. In this latter case, the rejection mechanism is called "abscopal effect". Over the last two decades, increasing attention has also been paid to the combination of various forms of immunotherapies with radiation, as an attempt to boost cancer cell killing mechanisms...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930550/role-of-immune-cells-in-pancreatic-cancer-from-bench-to-clinical-application-an-updated-review
#2
Jae Hyuck Chang, Yongjian Jiang, Venu G Pillarisetty
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PC) remains difficult to treat, despite the recent advances in various anticancer therapies. Immuno-inflammatory response is considered to be a major risk factor for the development of PC in addition to a combination of genetic background and environmental factors. Although patients with PC exhibit evidence of systemic immune dysfunction, the PC microenvironment is replete with immune cells. METHODS: We searched PubMed for all relevant English language articles published up to March 2016...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924525/a-three-day-consecutive-fingolimod-administration-improves-neurological-functions-and-modulates-multiple-immune-responses-of-cci-mice
#3
Chuang Gao, Yu Qian, Jinhao Huang, Dong Wang, Wanqiang Su, Peng Wang, Linyue Guo, Wei Quan, Shuo An, Jianning Zhang, Rongcai Jiang
Excessive inflammation after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of secondary TBI. Though several inflammatory biomarkers have been postulated as the risk factors of TBI, there has not been any comprehensive description of them. Fingolimod, a new kind of immunomodulatory agent which can diminish various kinds of inflammatory responses, has shown additional therapeutic effects in the treatment of intracranial cerebral hematoma (ICH), ischemia, spinal cord injury (SCI), and many other CNS disorders...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923825/rational-selection-of-syngeneic-preclinical-tumor-models-for-immunotherapeutic-drug-discovery
#4
Suzanne I S Mosely, John E Prime, Richard C A Sainson, Jens-Oliver Koopmann, Dennis Y Q Wang, Danielle M Greenawalt, Miika J Ahdesmaki, Rebecca Leyland, Stefanie Mullins, Luciano Pacelli, Danielle Marcus, Judith Anderton, Amanda Watkins, Jane Coates Ulrichsen, Philip Brohawn, Brandon W Higgs, Matthew McCourt, Hazel Jones, James A Harper, Michelle Morrow, Viia Valge-Archer, Ross Stewart, Simon J Dovedi, Robert W Wilkinson
Murine syngeneic tumor models are critical to novel immuno-based therapy development but the molecular and immunological features of these models are still not clearly defined. The translational relevance of differences between the models is not fully understood, impeding appropriate preclinical model selection for target validation, and ultimately hindering drug development. Across a panel of commonly-used murine syngeneic tumor models, we showed variable responsiveness to immunotherapies. We employed array comparative genomic hybridization, whole-exome sequencing, exon microarray analysis, and flow cytometry to extensively characterize these models, which revealed striking differences that may underlie these contrasting response profiles...
December 6, 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917369/management-of-multiple-myeloma-and-usage-of-bortezomib-perspective-from-india-and-ukraine
#5
Amit Garg, Mykhaylo Morgunskyy, Yogesh Belagali, Namita Gupta, Shyam Prasad Akku
Novel treatment strategies have remarkably improved the multiple myeloma (MM) patients' survival, with associated increased costs. A joint panel meet of international experts from India and Ukraine was held in New Delhi on May 19, 2016 focusing on MM management, bortezomib role, unmet medical needs, and current challenges. The health-care system for oncology in India is majorly private vs. government-based in Ukraine. In India, electrophoresis, serum-free light chain assays, bone marrow tests, and X-rays are available modes of diagnosis...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913510/frontline-therapy-and-role-of-high-dose-consolidation-in-mantle-cell-lymphoma
#6
Simon Rule
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare and aggressive form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is predominantly a disease of older individuals, with a median age at presentation of ∼70 years. For the majority of patients, the management revolves around immuno-chemotherapy often followed by maintenance rituximab, and at relapse, a range of options are available. For the younger patient, it is possible to be more intensive with therapy, consolidate responses with high-dose procedures, and in a few there might be the prospect of a cure...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907201/tumor-necrosis-factor-like-weak-inducer-of-apoptosis-promotes-hepatic-stellate-cells-migration-via-canonical-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mmp9-pathway
#7
Mingcui Xu, Feng Zhang, Aixiu Wang, Chen Wang, Yu Cao, Ming Zhang, Mingming Zhang, Min Su, Xiaoping Zou, Guifang Xu, Yuzheng Zhuge
In the liver, the signal and function of tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) have mainly been assessed in association with liver regeneration. However, the effects of TWEAK on liver fibrosis have not been fully elucidated. To investigate the effects of TWEAK on human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and to explore the relevant potential mechanisms, human HSCs line-LX-2 were cultured with TWEAK. Cell migration was detected by transwell assay; cell viability was evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8; the expression of MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, MMP7, MMP8, MMP9, MMP10, MMP11, MMP12, MMP13 gene was identified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting; the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was tested by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay; small interfering RNA transfection was applied for depletion of MMP9 and p65...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903272/inhibition-of-bromodomain-and-extra-terminal-bet-proteins-increases-nkg2d-ligand-mica-expression-and-sensitivity-to-nk-cell-mediated-cytotoxicity-in-multiple-myeloma-cells-role-of-cmyc-irf4-mir-125b-interplay
#8
Maria Pia Abruzzese, Maria Teresa Bilotta, Cinzia Fionda, Alessandra Zingoni, Alessandra Soriani, Elisabetta Vulpis, Cristiana Borrelli, Beatrice Zitti, Maria Teresa Petrucci, Maria Rosaria Ricciardi, Rosa Molfetta, Rossella Paolini, Angela Santoni, Marco Cippitelli
BACKGROUND: Anti-cancer immune responses may contribute to the control of tumors after conventional chemotherapy, and different observations have indicated that chemotherapeutic agents can induce immune responses resulting in cancer cell death and immune-stimulatory side effects. Increasing experimental and clinical evidence highlight the importance of natural killer (NK) cells in immune responses toward multiple myeloma (MM), and combination therapies able to enhance the activity of NK cells against MM are showing promise in treating this hematologic cancer...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899804/casein-kinase-2-controls-the-survival-of-normal-thymic-and-leukemic-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-via-promotion-of-akt-signaling
#9
S T Ribeiro, M Tesio, J C Ribot, E Macintyre, J T Barata, B Silva-Santos
The thymus is the major site for normal and leukemic T-cell development. The dissection of the molecular determinants of T-cell survival and differentiation is paramount for the manipulation of healthy or transformed T cells in cancer (immuno)therapy. Casein Kinase 2 (CK2) is a serine-threonine protein kinase whose anti-apoptotic functions have been described in various hematological and solid tumors. Here we disclose an unanticipated role of CK2 in healthy human thymocytes that is selective to the γδ T-cell lineage...
November 30, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899774/-a-review-multigene-assays-for-clinical-utility-in-breast-cancer
#10
Kazuhiro Araki, Yoshinori Ito
Multigene assays that simultaneously measure the expression of various breast cancer genes have been developed to guide the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in early breast cancer. The efficacy of adjuvant therapies depends on the recurrence risk for an individual patient. As a result, accurate prediction of the recurrence risk is vital for precise adjuvant chemotherapy in individual breast cancer patients. The recurrence risk as typically assessed by conventional examination of histological data of immuno-histological biomarkers(ER, PR, HER2, and Ki-67)is not sufficient to select subsets of patients...
November 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895398/dysregulation-of-innate-immunity-in-ulcerative-colitis-patients-who-fail-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-therapy
#11
Angela C Baird, Dominic Mallon, Graham Radford-Smith, Julien Boyer, Thierry Piche, Susan L Prescott, Ian C Lawrance, Meri K Tulic
AIM: To study the innate immune function in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients who fail to respond to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy. METHODS: Effects of anti-TNF therapy, inflammation and medications on innate immune function were assessed by measuring peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytokine expression from 18 inflammatory bowel disease patients pre- and 3 mo post-anti-TNF therapy. Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and cytokine production post TLR stimulation was assessed in UC "responders" (n = 12) and "non-responders" (n = 12) and compared to healthy controls (n = 12)...
November 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893999/ebola-virus-disease-an-update-on-current-prevention-and-management-strategies
#12
REVIEW
M A Trad, W Naughton, A Yeung, L Mazlin, M O'sullivan, N Gilroy, D A Fisher, R L Stuart
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is characterised by systemic viral replication, immuno-suppression, abnormal inflammatory responses, large volume fluid and electrolyte losses, and high mortality in under-resourced settings. There are various therapeutic strategies targeting EVD including vaccines utilizing different antigen delivery methods, antibody-based therapies and antiviral drugs. These therapies remain experimental, but received attention following their use particularly in cases treated outside West Africa during the 2014-15 outbreak, in which 20 (80%) out of 25 patients survived...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879974/nivolumab-dose-selection-challenges-opportunities-and-lessons-learned-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#13
Shruti Agrawal, Yan Feng, Amit Roy, Georgia Kollia, Brian Lestini
BACKGROUND: Immuno-oncology (I-O) therapies target the host immune system, providing the potential to choose a uniform dose and schedule across tumor types. However, dose selection for I-O agents usually occurs early in clinical development and is typically based on tumor response, which may not fully represent the potential for improved overall survival. Here, we describe an integrated approach which incorporates clinical safety and efficacy data with data obtained from analyses of dose-/exposure-response (D-R/E-R) relationships, used to select a monotherapy dose for nivolumab, a programmed death-1 inhibitor, in clinical studies of different tumor types...
2016: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872742/systemic-front-line-therapy-of-follicular-lymphoma-when-to-whom-and-how
#14
REVIEW
Francesca Pavanello, Sara Steffanoni, Michele Ghielmini, Emanuele Zucca
The natural history of follicular lymphoma is usually characterized by an indolent course with a high response rate to the first line therapy followed by recurrent relapses, with a time to next treatment becoming shorter after each subsequent treatment line. More than 80% of patients have advanced stage disease at diagnosis. The time of initiation and the nature of the treatment is mainly conditioned by symptoms, tumor burden, lymphoma grading, co-morbidities and patients preference. A number of clinical and biological factors have been determined to be prognostic in this disease, but the majority of them could not show to be predictive of response to treatment, and therefore can't be used to guide the treatment choice...
2016: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865367/circulating-tumor-stem-like-cells-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-an-unresolved-paradox
#15
Shanaya Patel, Kavan Shah, Sheefa Mirza, Kanisha Shah, Rakesh Rawal
OBJECTIVE: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are increasingly gaining importance due to their immense potential in enhancing diagnosis, prognosis and response to therapy in solid malignancies. Therefore, we aimed to comprehend the molecular diversity and critical role of this disseminated tumor population in OSCC. METHODOLOGY: CD44+ subpopulation was isolated using immuno-magnetic cell separation and their purity was validated using flow cytometry. Characterisation of self renewal potential and resistance to chemotherapy was assessed using tumor sphere forming and cytotoxicity assay...
November 2016: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858991/management-of-central-nervous-system-involvement-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia-a-retrospective-cohort-of-30-patients
#16
Anne Wanquet, Rudy Birsen, Charlotte Bonnet, Marouane Boubaya, Sylvain Choquet, Jehan Dupuis, Stephane Lepretre, Daniel Re, Jonathan Fahri, Anne-Sophie Michallet, Loïc Ysebaert, Richard Lemal, Thierry Lamy, Richard Delarue, Xavier Troussard, Florence Cymbalista, Vincent Levy, Pierre-Yves Dietrich, Veronique Leblond, Therese Aurran-Schleinitz
Central nervous system involvement (CNSi) is a rare and poorly reported complication of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Establishing cause and effect between the CLL and the neurological symptoms remains challenging. We have analysed a retrospective cohort of 30 CLL patients with CNSi, documented by lymphocytic infiltration either by flow cytometry of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; n = 29) or CNS biopsy (n = 1). Neurological symptoms were heterogeneous. At the time of CNSi, less than half of the patients had a progressive CLL and 20 had never been treated for CLL...
November 11, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848888/immunotherapy-in-liver-diseases-a-balance-between-immunity-and-tolerance
#17
Alaknanda Mishra, Pramod K Upadhyay, Perumal Nagarajan
In today's context when liver diseases have spread across countries and people of all ages, it is of high importance to consider novel methods of non-toxic and long lived therapeutics. Among various therapies, immunotherapy for acute and chronic liver diseases is rapidly moving to the forefront among treatment options in hepatology medicine. Liver has a unique immuno- biological advantage which is utilized to maintain a balance between immunity and tolerance. This intricate balance of hepatic immune cells can be modulated to effect treatments in various liver diseases...
November 16, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847926/the-brain-gut-axis-dysfunctions-and-hypersensitivity-to-food-antigens-in-the-etiopathogenesis-of-schizophrenia
#18
REVIEW
Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Michał Dzikowski, Agnieszka Pelczarska, Izabela Dzikowska, Dariusz Juchnowicz
Despite over 100-year history of research on schizophrenia, its etiology is still not fully understood, which might be due to the significant heterogeneity in terms of both its course, as well as the etiopathogenesis. One of the best-proven mediating mechanisms in the development of schizophrenia is the immuno-inflammatory response, the sources of which are believed to be the dysfunctions of brain-gut axis and pathological processes occurring in the intestines. This paper is a review of the literature on this subject which presents factors both involved in the functioning of brain-gut axis and important for the development of schizophrenia, i...
2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846884/future-perspectives-in-melanoma-research-meeting-report-from-the-melanoma-bridge-napoli-december-1st-4th-2015
#19
Paolo A Ascierto, Sanjiv Agarwala, Gerardo Botti, Alessandra Cesano, Gennaro Ciliberto, Michael A Davies, Sandra Demaria, Reinhard Dummer, Alexander M Eggermont, Soldano Ferrone, Yang Xin Fu, Thomas F Gajewski, Claus Garbe, Veronica Huber, Samir Khleif, Michael Krauthammer, Roger S Lo, Giuseppe Masucci, Giuseppe Palmieri, Michael Postow, Igor Puzanov, Ann Silk, Stefani Spranger, David F Stroncek, Ahmad Tarhini, Janis M Taube, Alessandro Testori, Ena Wang, Jennifer A Wargo, Cassian Yee, Hassane Zarour, Laurence Zitvogel, Bernard A Fox, Nicola Mozzillo, Francesco M Marincola, Magdalena Thurin
The sixth "Melanoma Bridge Meeting" took place in Naples, Italy, December 1st-4th, 2015. The four sessions at this meeting were focused on: (1) molecular and immune advances; (2) combination therapies; (3) news in immunotherapy; and 4) tumor microenvironment and biomarkers. Recent advances in tumor biology and immunology has led to the development of new targeted and immunotherapeutic agents that prolong progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of cancer patients. Immunotherapies in particular have emerged as highly successful approaches to treat patients with cancer including melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), bladder cancer, and Hodgkin's disease...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842576/synthesis-and-bio-molecular-study-of-n-acetyl-%C3%AE-amino-acid-dehydroabietylamine-derivative-for-the-selective-therapy-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#20
Muhammad Ayaz Mustufa, Cigdem Ozen, Imran Ali Hashmi, Afshan Aslam, Jameel Ahmed Baig, Gokhan Yildiz, Shoaib Muhammad, Imam Bakhsh Solangi, Naim Ul Hasan Naqvi, Mehmet Ozturk, Firdous Imran Ali
BACKGROUND: The purpose of present work is to synthesize novel (+)-Dehydroabietylamine derivatives (DAAD) using N-acetyl-α-amino acid conjugates and determine its cytotoxic effects on hepatocellular carcinoma cells. METHODS: An analytical study was conducted to explore cytotoxic activity of DAAD on hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. The cytotoxicity effect was recorded using sulforhodamine B technique. Cell cycle analysis was performed using Propidium Iodide (PI) staining...
November 14, 2016: BMC Cancer
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