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Immuno therapy

Rag da Silva, C P Churchward, A V Karlyshev, O Eleftheriadou, A K Snabaitis, M R Longman, A Ryan, R Griffin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The level of cell surface expression of the meningococcal vaccine antigen, Factor H binding protein (FHbp) varies between and within strains and this limits the breadth of strains that can be targeted by FHbp-based vaccines. The molecular pathway dictating expression of FHbp at the cell surface, including its lipidation, sorting to the outer membrane and export, and the potential regulation of this pathway have not been investigated until now. This knowledge will aid our evaluation of FHbp vaccines...
October 26, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Ying Xiong, Li Liu, Jiajun Wang, Wei Xi, Yu Xia, Qi Bai, Yang Qu, Qilai Long, Jiejie Xu, Jianming Guo
BACKGROUND: Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21), a ligand of the chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 7, has recently been identified as an immuno-based anti-cancer molecule for its dendritic cells and T lymphocytes chemoattractant function. The aim of this study was to investigate prognostic values of CCL21 expression in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients treated with targeted therapy. METHODS: This study included 111 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma receiving targeted therapy...
October 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Roberta Cirincione, Federica Maria Di Maggio, Giusi Irma Forte, Luigi Minafra, Valentina Bravatà, Laura Castiglia, Vincenzo Cavalieri, Giovanni Borasi, Giorgio Russo, Domenico Lio, Cristina Messa, Maria Carla Gilardi, Francesco Paolo Cammarata
In recent years, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has emerged as a new and promising non-invasive and non-ionizing ablative technique for the treatment of localized solid tumors. Extensive pre-clinical and clinical studies have evidenced that, in addition to direct destruction of the primary tumor, HIFU-thermoablation may elicit long-term systemic host anti-tumor immunity. In particular, an important consequence of HIFU treatment includes the release of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), the secretion of immuno-suppressing factors by cancer cells and the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity...
October 22, 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Rajarsi Mandal, Yasin Şenbabaoğlu, Alexis Desrichard, Jonathan J Havel, Martin G Dalin, Nadeem Riaz, Ken-Wing Lee, Ian Ganly, A Ari Hakimi, Timothy A Chan, Luc G T Morris
Recent clinical trials have demonstrated a clear survival advantage in advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients treated with immune checkpoint blockade. These emerging results reveal that HNSCC is one of the most promising frontiers for immunotherapy research. However, further progress in head and neck immuno-oncology will require a detailed understanding of the immune infiltrative landscape found in these tumors. We leveraged transcriptome data from 280 tumors profiled by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to comprehensively characterize the immune landscape of HNSCC in order to develop a rationale for immunotherapeutic strategies in HNSCC and guide clinical investigation...
October 20, 2016: JCI Insight
Himanshi Kapoor, Nalini Yadav, Madhu Chopra, Sushil Chandra Mahapatra, Veena Agrawal
Glioblastoma has been reckoned as the prime cause of death due to brain tumours, being most invasive and lethal. Available treatment options, i.e. surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapies are not effective in improving prognosis, so an alternate therapy is insistent. Plant based drugs are efficient due to their synergistic action, multi-targeted approach and least side effects. Present investigation reports the strong anti-tumorous potential of Nardostachys jatamansi rhizome extract (NJRE) on U87 MG glioblastoma cells...
October 19, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
Massimo Nabissi, Maria Beatrice Morelli, Massimo Offidani, Consuelo Amantini, Silvia Gentili, Alessandra Soriani, Claudio Cardinali, Pietro Leoni, Giorgio Santoni
Several studies showed a potential anti-tumor role for cannabinoids, by modulating cell signaling pathways involved in cancer cell proliferation, chemo-resistance and migration. Cannabidiol (CBD) was previously noted in multiple myeloma (MM), both alone and in synergy with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, to induce cell death. In other type of human cancers, the combination of CBD with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was found to act synergistically with other chemotherapeutic drugs suggesting their use in combination therapy...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Marta Polkowska, Edyta Czepielewska, Małgorzata Kozłowska-Wojciechowska
Advanced melanoma is related to a very grim prognosis and fast progression. Until recently, there has been no indicated treatment that would affect the disease's outcome. However, the progress in immunotherapy and molecular therapy has significantly changed the unfavourable prognosis of melanoma progression and its short survival rate. Both approaches have improved patients' outcomes and provided renewed hope for successful treatment. Moreover, in order to further enhance patients' outcomes and to avoid mechanisms of tumour resistance, investigators attempted a combined approach...
December 2016: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Claudio Bazzi, Tomoko Usui, Virginia Rizza, Daniela Casellato, Maurizio Gallieni, Masaomi Nangaku
BACKGROUND: The clinical course of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) varies from spontaneous remission of nephrotic syndrome (NS) to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Selecting patients with high risk of progression for immunosuppressive therapy is mandatory. METHODS: 86 IMN subjects were followed for median of 69 months (range 6-253). Receiver operating characteristic curve and Cox proportional hazards model were used to evaluate prognostic factors for progression, defined as ESRD or eGFR reduction ≥50% of baseline...
October 20, 2016: Nephrology
Florian Rouaud, Jean-Luc Boucher, Anny Slama-Schwok, Stéphane Rocchi
Melanoma is one of the most lethal cancers when it reaches a metastatic stage. Despite the spectacular achievements of targeted therapies (BRAF inhibitors) or immuno-therapies (anti-CTLA4 or anti-PD1), most patients with melanoma will need additional treatments. Here we used a photoactive NADPH analogue called NS1 to induce cell death by inhibition of NADPH oxidases NOX in melanoma cells, including melanoma cells isolated from patients. In contrast, healthy melanocytes growth was unaffected by NS1 treatment...
October 14, 2016: Oncotarget
A K S Salama, S J Moschos
BACKGROUND: Cancers escape immune surveillance via distinct mechanisms that involve central (negative selection within the thymus) or peripheral (lack of costimulation, receipt of death/anergic signals by tumor, immunoregulatory cell populations) immune tolerance. During the 1990s, moderate clinical benefit was seen using several cytokine therapies for a limited number of cancers. Over the past 20 years, extensive research has been performed to understand the role of various components of peripheral immune tolerance, with the co-inhibitory immune checkpoint molecules cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), programmed death 1 (PD-1), and its ligand (PD-L1) being the most well characterized at preclinical and clinical levels...
October 13, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Peter Ellmark, Sara M Mangsbo, Christina Furebring, Per Norlén, Thomas H Tötterman
The most important goals for the field of immuno-oncology are to improve the response rate and increase the number of tumor indications that respond to immunotherapy, without increasing adverse side effects. One approach to achieve these goals is to use tumor-directed immunotherapy, i.e., to focus the immune activation to the most relevant part of the immune system. This may improve anti-tumor efficacy as well as reduce immune-related adverse events. Tumor-directed immune activation can be achieved by local injections of immune modulators in the tumor area or by directing the immune modulator to the tumor using bispecific antibodies...
October 6, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Yuting Yang, Xiaowei Tai, Kairong Shi, Shaobo Ruan, Yue Qiu, Zhirong Zhang, Bing Xiang, Qin He
The enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect has been comfortably accepted, and extensively assumed as a keystone in the research on tumor-targeted drug delivery system. Due to the unsatisfied tumor-targeting efficiency of EPR effect being one conspicuous drawback, nanocarriers that merely relying on EPR effect are difficult to access the tumor tissue and consequently trigger efficient tumor therapy in clinic. In the present contribution, we break up the shackles of EPR effect on nanocarriers thanks to their universal distribution characteristic...
2016: Theranostics
Laetitia Cicchelero, Sofie Denies, Katrien Vanderperren, Emmelie Stock, Leen Van Brantegem, Hilde de Rooster, Niek N Sanders
The immunological, anti-angiogenic and clinical effects of metronomic cyclophosphamide and 3 consecutive intratumoral interleukin (IL)-12 gene therapy (electrogene therapy (EGT)) treatments were evaluated in 6 dogs with spontaneous cancer. In all dogs, a decrease in peripheral leukocytes 2 days after IL-12 EGT coincided with erythema and swelling of the tumor. In the tumor, a transient increase in IL-12 levels was measured, whereas a continuous increase in interferon γ (IFNγ) and thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) were determined in contrast to a continuous decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)...
September 28, 2016: Cancer Letters
Ryszard Grenda, Wioletta Jarmużek, Joanna Latoszyńska, Sylwester Prokurat, Jacek Rubik
SIOD is rare disorder related to SMARCAL1 or SMARCAL2 gene mutation, including (among other comorbidities) T-cell immunodeficiency, nephrotic syndrome, and renal failure. Up to 22% of primary patients may develop various autoimmune disorders. We report the case of 11-year-old male with SIOD, who presented ITP at 2 years after renal transplantation with decrease in platelet count (from normal) to 56 000/μL and then (gradually) to 2000/μL. There was no effect of iv. methylprednisolone/dexamethasone. As the presence of antibodies against GPIIb/IIIa, GPIb, and GPIaIIa platelet glycoproteins was confirmed, patient was given 50 g of IVIG and then was put on plasmapheresis; however, both showed poor direct effect...
September 26, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Francesco Schettini, Mario Giuliano, Sabino De Placido, Grazia Arpino
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for ∼10-20% of breast cancers and is associated with relatively poor prognosis, earlier disease recurrence and higher number of visceral metastases. Despite an increasing understanding of the molecular heterogeneity of TNBC, clinical trials of targeted agents have thus far been disappointing; chemotherapy, in particular with anthracycline and taxanes, remains the backbone medical management for both early and metastatic TNBC. Nab-paclitaxel is a solvent-free, albumin-bound, nanoparticle formulation of paclitaxel and represents a novel formulation of an established, effective chemotherapeutic agent...
September 12, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Ralph E Parchment, Andrea Regier Voth, James H Doroshow, Jay A Berzofsky
Immunotherapy has become a major modality of cancer treatment, with multiple new classes of immunotherapeutics recently entering the clinic and obtaining market approval from regulatory agencies. While the promise of these therapies is great, so is the number of possible combinations not only with each other but also with small molecule therapeutics. Furthermore, the observation of unusual dose-response relationships suggests a critical dependency of drug effectiveness on the dosage regimen (dose and schedule)...
August 2016: Seminars in Oncology
J Galon, B A Fox, C B Bifulco, G Masucci, T Rau, G Botti, F M Marincola, G Ciliberto, F Pages, P A Ascierto, M Capone
The fifth "Melanoma Bridge Meeting" took place in Naples, December 1-5th, 2015. The main topics discussed at this meeting were: Molecular and Immuno advances, Immunotherapies and Combination Therapies, Tumor Microenvironment and Biomarkers and Immunoscore. The natural history of cancer involves interactions between the tumor and the immune system of the host. The immune infiltration at the tumor site may be indicative of host response. Significant correlations were shown between the levels of immune cell infiltration in tumors and patient's clinical outcome...
2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Bo Yang, Fan He, Chen Dai, Rumeng Tan, Dongxia Ma, Zhimin Wang, Bo Zhang, Jincheng Feng, Lai Wei, Hua Zhu, Zhishui Chen
Acute allograft rejection is a serious and life-threatening complication of organ transplantation. Th17 cells induced inflammation has been described to play an important role in allograft rejection. Since there is a plenty of evidence indicating that transcriptional factor BATF regulates the differentiation of Th17 and follicular T helper cells both in vitro and in vivo, we investigated whether is BATF involved in acute rejection and allograft survival by injecting lentivirus containing BATF shRNA through tail vein before the cardiac transplantation operation...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Nafees N Malik, Matthew B Durdy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Drug Discovery Today
Leiming Zhang, Junlin Ren, Hangyu Zhang, Gang Cheng, Yanming Xu, Shuangwu Yang, Chao Dong, Dandong Fang, Jianning Zhang, Angang Yang
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), which is associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality, is among the most malignant and treatment-refractory neoplasms in human adults. As GBM is highly resistant to conventional therapies, immunotherapies are a promising treatment candidate. HER2 is an attractive target for GBM immunotherapy, as its expression is highly associated with various types of GBM. We previously reported that a novel HER2-targeted recombinant protein e23sFv-Fdt-casp6 has an antitumor effect on HER2-positive gastric cancer cells...
September 12, 2016: Oncology Reports
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