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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202296/psychosis-in-the-ed-a-case-of-nmda-receptor-antibody-encephalitis
#1
Joseph Fisher, Clifford Ellingson, Noah Tolby
Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate antibody receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a newly recognized disease increasing in diagnostic frequency. A 27-year-old female presented with symptoms of oral dyskinesia, tachycardia, and altered mental status following a three-month history of depression, lethargy, catatonia, and auditory hallucinations. We utilized our facilities neurology and psychiatry consult services, performed a lumbar puncture (LP), and requested NMDAR antibody titers. Following admission the Anti-NMDAR antibody titer was elevated warranting treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), corticosteroids, and later rituximab...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198441/pdi-regulates-seizure-activity-via-nmda-receptor-redox-in-rats
#2
Ji Yang Kim, Ah-Rhem Ko, Hye-Won Hyun, Su-Ji Min, Ji-Eun Kim
Redox modulation of cysteine residues is one of the post-translational modifications of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Protein disulfide isomerases (PDI), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone, plays a crucial role in catalyzing disulfide bond formation, reduction, and isomerization. In the present study, we found that PDI bound to NMDAR in the normal hippocampus, and that this binding was increased in chronic epileptic rats. In vitro thiol reductase assay revealed that PDI increased the amount of thiols on full-length recombinant NR1 protein...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176002/dysfunction-of-the-blood-cerebrospinal-fluid-barrier-and-n-methyl-d-aspartate-glutamate-receptor-antibodies-in-dementias
#3
Mandy Busse, Ralf Kunschmann, Henrik Dobrowolny, Jessica Hoffmann, Bernhard Bogerts, Johann Steiner, Thomas Frodl, Stefan Busse
N-Methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDA-R) antibodies (Abs) could play a role in neurodegenerative disorders. Since, in these diseases, NMDA-R Abs were detected in serum, but only sporadic in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the origin and impact of the Abs are still unresolved. We examined the presence of NMDA-R Abs in serum and CSF using a cell-based immunofluorescence assay as well as the function of the blood-CSF-barrier (B-CSF-B) by determination of Q albumin (ratio of albumin in CSF and serum) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; N = 59) and different types of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD; N = 156), subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD; N = 61), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD; N = 34)...
February 8, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154472/autoantibodies-to-nr2a-peptide-of-the-glutamate-nmda-receptor-in-patients-with-seizure-disorders-in-neuropsychiatric-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#4
Yan Yang, Chao Yuan, Shu-Qun Shen, Xue-Er Wang, Qing-Hua Mei, Wen-Qing Jiang, Qin Huang
Objective. Seizure disorders are one of the most disabling, life-threatening, and the least understood syndromes associated with neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE). N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are a subgroup of the glutamate receptor family, whose NR2A subunit was found on neuronal cells (anti-NR2A) in NPSLE patients with different types of epilepsy. The present study was conducted to determine the serum levels of anti-NR2A antibodies in a large group of SLE patients, to investigate the possible correlation between the presence of the NR2A specific antibodies and NPSLE-related seizure disorders...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131199/first-reported-cases-of-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-in-vietnamese-adolescents-and-adults
#5
Mai Nguyen Thi Hoang, Phu Nguyen Hoan, Tan Le Van, Angela McBride, Nghia Ho Dang Trung, Thanh Tran Tan, Hong Nguyen Thi Thu, Dorothee Heemskerk, Jeremy Day, Angela Vincent, Chau Nguyen Van Vinh, Guy Thwaites
INTRODUCTION: Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is increasingly recognised as an important differential diagnosis in patients with encephalitis of unknown aetiology. We report the first case series of patients diagnosed in Vietnam. METHODS: Samples of CSF from patients with presumed encephalitis but negative microbiological investigations, who exhibited dyskinesia, autonomic instability or psychosis were tested for antibodies against the NR1 subunit of the glutamate (type-NMDA) receptor using an indirect immunofluorescence assay...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121258/anti-nmda-receptor-antibody-positivity-and-presentations-without-seizure-involuntary-movement-hypoventilation-or-tumor-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#6
Bunta Yoshimura, Manabu Takaki
Patients with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis may remain undiagnosed and untreated with immunotherapy. To investigate specific features and responses to immunotherapy of atypical anti-NMDAR antibody positivity patients, the authors reviewed and evaluated previous case reports/series including patients without seizure, involuntary movement, hypoventilation, or tumor. Of 22 patients identified, 21 responded to immunotherapy. Two patients had neurological/motor symptoms with few/no psychiatric/cognitive symptoms, and eight had both...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093190/ghrelin-fibers-from-lateral-hypothalamus-project-to-nucleus-tractus-solitaries-and-are-involved-in-gastric-motility-regulation-in-cisplatin-treated-rats
#7
Yanling Gong, Yang Liu, Fei Liu, Shasha Wang, Hong Jin, Feifei Guo, Luo Xu
Ghrelin can alleviate cancer chemotherapy-induced dyspepsia in rodents, though the neural mechanisms involved are not known. Therefore, ghrelin projections from the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and its involvement in the regulation of gastric motility in cisplatin-treated rats were investigated with a multi-disciplined approach. Retrograde tracing combined with fluoro-immunohistochemical staining were used to investigate ghrelin fiber projections arising from LH and projecting to nucleus tractus solitaries (NTS)...
January 13, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087150/apelin-protects-against-nmda-induced-retinal-neuronal-death-via-an-apj-receptor-by-activating-akt-and-erk1-2-and-suppressing-tnf-%C3%AE-expression-in-mice
#8
Yuki Ishimaru, Akihide Sumino, Daiki Kajioka, Fumiya Shibagaki, Akiko Yamamuro, Yasuhiro Yoshioka, Sadaaki Maeda
Glutamate excitotoxicity mediated by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors is an important cause of retinal ganglion cell death in glaucoma. To elucidate whether apelin protects against retinal neuronal cell death, we examined protective effects of exogenous and endogenous apelin on neuronal cell death induced by intravitreal injection of NMDA in the retinas of mice. An intravitreal injection of NMDA induced neuronal cell death in both the retinal ganglion cell layer and inner nuclear layer, and reduced the amplitudes of scotopic threshold response (STR) in electroretinography studies...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043063/investigation-of-neuronal-auto-antibodies-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients-with-epilepsy
#9
Zerrin Karaaslan, Esme Ekizoğlu, Pınar Tektürk, Ece Erdağ, Erdem Tüzün, Nerses Bebek, Candan Gürses, Betül Baykan
PURPOSE: Epilepsy is an important feature for neuropsychiatric involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with unknown mechanism. Our aim was to investigate the presence of neuronal auto-antibodies (NAbs) in neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE). METHODS: Eighteen SLE patients (17 females, 1 male) experiencing recurrent seizures were enrolled to this study. Their clinical characteristics, EEG and MRI findings and follow-up information were evaluated from their files...
December 14, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040316/ovarian-teratoma-development-after-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-treatment
#10
Taku Omata, Kazuo Kodama, Yoshimi Watanabe, Yukiko Iida, Yoshiaki Furusawa, Akiko Takashima, Yukitoshi Takahashi, Hiroshi Sakuma, Keiko Tanaka, Katsunori Fujii, Naoki Shimojo
BACKGROUND: Anti-NMDA-R receptor encephalitis occurs predominantly in younger women and is often comorbid with ovarian teratoma, a feature that is often absent in children. Here, we report our experience with two pediatric patients, in whom no tumors were present during treatment for encephalitis, but in whom ovarian teratomas developed without encephalitis relapse after treatment was completed. CASES: Patient 1 was a 14-year-old girl who was diagnosed due to characteristic symptoms and anti-NMDA-R antibody...
December 28, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027456/immunohistochemical-localization-of-ionotropic-glutamate-receptors-in-the-rat-red-nucleus
#11
Zehra Minbay, Sema Serter Kocoglu, Duygu Gok Yurtseven, Ozhan Eyigor
In this study, we aimed to determine the presence as well as the diverse distribution of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA glutamate receptor subunits in the rat red nucleus. Using adult Sprague-Dawley rats as the experimental animals, immunohistochemistry was performed on 30 µm thick coronal brain sections with antibodies against α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (GluA1-4), kainate (GluK1, GluK2/3, and GluK5), and NMDA (GluN1 and GluN2A) receptor subunits. The results showed that all ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits are expressed in the red nucleus...
December 21, 2016: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018466/a-young-child-of-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-presenting-with-epilepsia-partialis-continua-the-first-pediatric-case-in-korea
#12
Eun-Hee Kim, Yeo Jin Kim, Tae-Sung Ko, Mi-Sun Yum, Jun Hwa Lee
Anti-N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis, recently recognized as a form of paraneoplastic encephalitis, is characterized by a prodromal phase of unspecific illness with fever that resembles a viral disease. The prodromal phase is followed by seizures, disturbed consciousness, psychiatric features, prominent abnormal movements, and autonomic imbalance. Here, we report a case of anti-NMDAR encephalitis with initial symptoms of epilepsia partialis continua in the absence of tumor. Briefly, a 3-year-old girl was admitted to the hospital due to right-sided, complex partial seizures without preceding febrile illness...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003505/bortezomib-for-treatment-of-therapy-refractory-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis
#13
Franziska Scheibe, Harald Prüss, Annerose M Mengel, Siegfried Kohler, Astrid Nümann, Martin Köhnlein, Klemens Ruprecht, Tobias Alexander, Falk Hiepe, Andreas Meisel
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the therapeutic potential of the plasma-cell-depleting proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in severe and therapy-refractory cases of anti-NMDA receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis. METHODS: Five severely affected patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis with delayed treatment response or resistance to standard immunosuppressive and B-cell-depleting drugs (corticosteroids, IV immunoglobulins, plasma exchange, immunoadsorption, rituximab, cyclophosphamide) who required medical treatment and artificial ventilation on intensive care units were treated with 1-6 cycles of 1...
January 24, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920282/nmda-receptor-encephalitis-and-other-antibody-mediated-disorders-of-the-synapse-the-2016-cotzias-lecture
#14
Josep Dalmau
Investigations during the last 10 years have revealed a group of disorders mediated by antibodies against ion channels and synaptic receptors, which cause both neurologic and psychiatric symptoms. In this review, I discuss the process of discovery and immunologic triggers of these disorders, and use anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis to emphasize the importance of understanding the underlying physiopathologic mechanisms in those diseases. A better knowledge of these mechanisms reveals points of convergence with other disorders (e...
December 6, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913085/anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-and-rasmussen-like-syndrome-an-association
#15
Kevin Gurcharran, Shefali Karkare
BACKGROUND: N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an immune-mediated condition that has a broad spectrum of manifestations, including seizures, coma, psychosis, and focal neurological deficits. Although usually a diffuse process, unihemispheric involvement mimicking early stages of Rasmussen encephalitis can occur. Rasmussen's encephalitis is a unique syndrome characterized by progressive hemiplegia, drug-resistant focal epilepsy, cognitive decline, and hemispheric brain atrophy contralateral to the hemiplegia...
January 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899309/repeated-misdiagnosis-of-a-relapsed-atypical-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-without-an-associated-ovarian-teratoma
#16
Weihe Zhang, Li Yan, Jinsong Jiao
We present an atypical case of relapsed anti-NMDAR encephalitis in a young female patient without an associated ovarian teratoma. She presented with recurrent seizure attacks with muscle weakness, psychosis, dyskinesia, autonomic failure and insomnia. She was first misdiagnosed as mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) then Hashimoto's encephalopathy due to diffuse cerebral lesions, elevated serum lactic acid concentration, increased amount of thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies in serum and diffuse lesions of the thyroid gland...
January 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895551/oct4-methylation-mediated-silencing-as-an-epigenetic-barrier-preventing-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-dedifferentiation-in-a-murine-model-of-retinal-injury
#17
Luis I Reyes-Aguirre, Monica Lamas
Müller glia (MG) is the most abundant glial type in the vertebrate retina. Among its many functions, it is capable of responding to injury by dedifferentiating, proliferating, and differentiating into every cell types lost to damage. This regenerative ability is notoriously absent in mammals. We have previously reported that cultured mammalian MG undergoes a partial dedifferentiation, but fails to fully acquire a progenitor phenotype and differentiate into neurons. This might be explained by a mnemonic mechanism comprised by epigenetic traits, such as DNA methylation...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831563/tissue-type-plasminogen-activator-controls-neuronal-death-by-raising-surface-dynamics-of-extrasynaptic-nmda-receptors
#18
Flavie Lesept, Arnaud Chevilley, Julie Jezequel, Laurent Ladépêche, Richard Macrez, Margaux Aimable, Sophie Lenoir, Thomas Bertrand, Laëtitia Rubrecht, Pascale Galea, Laurent Lebouvier, Karl-Uwe Petersen, Yannick Hommet, Eric Maubert, Carine Ali, Laurent Groc, Denis Vivien
N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are ion channels whose synaptic versus extrasynaptic localization critically influences their functions. This distribution of NMDARs is highly dependent on their lateral diffusion at the cell membrane. Each obligatory subunit of NMDARs (GluN1 and GluN2) contains two extracellular clamshell-like domains with an agonist-binding domain and a distal N-terminal domain (NTD). To date, the roles and dynamics of the NTD of the GluN1 subunit in NMDAR allosteric signaling remain poorly understood...
November 10, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826871/anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-after-herpes-simplex-virus-associated-encephalitis-an-emerging-disease-with-diagnosis-and-therapeutic-challenges
#19
Flora Schein, Amandine Gagneux-Brunon, Jean-Christophe Antoine, Sylvie Lavernhe, Sylvie Pillet, Stéphane Paul, Anne Frésard, Claire Boutet, Rémi Grange, Céline Cazorla, Frédéric Lucht, Elisabeth Botelho-Nevers
INTRODUCTION: Morbidity and mortality of Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) remain high. Relapses of neurological signs may occur after initial clinical improvement under acyclovir treatment. METHODS: We report here a case of post-HSE anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-mediated encephalitis in an adult and perform a systematic search on PubMed to identify other cases in adults. RESULTS: We identified 11 previously published cases, to discuss diagnostic and therapeutic management...
November 8, 2016: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791020/essential-protective-role-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-2-in-neurodegeneration
#20
Yun Dong, Roman Fischer, Petrus J W Naudé, Olaf Maier, Csaba Nyakas, Maëlle Duffey, Eddy A Van der Zee, Doortje Dekens, Wanda Douwenga, Andreas Herrmann, Eric Guenzi, Roland E Kontermann, Klaus Pfizenmaier, Ulrich L M Eisel
Despite the recognized role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in inflammation and neuronal degeneration, anti-TNF therapeutics failed to treat neurodegenerative diseases. Animal disease models had revealed the antithetic effects of the two TNF receptors (TNFR) in the central nervous system, whereby TNFR1 has been associated with inflammatory degeneration and TNFR2 with neuroprotection. We here show the therapeutic potential of selective inhibition of TNFR1 and activation of TNFR2 by ATROSAB, a TNFR1-selective antagonistic antibody, and EHD2-scTNFR2, an agonistic TNFR2-selective TNF, respectively, in a mouse model of NMDA-induced acute neurodegeneration...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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