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NMDA antibodies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277332/cytokine-chemokine-elevation-during-the-transition-phase-from-hsv-encephalitis-to-autoimmune-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis
#1
Takanori Omae, Yoshiaki Saito, Hirokazu Tsuchie, Koyo Ohno, Yoshihiro Maegaki, Hiroshi Sakuma
A 3-year-old girl suffered from anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis after resolution of herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE). Methylprednisolone pulse and immunoglobulin therapies showed little effect, but the patient completely recovered after six courses of monthly cyclophosphamide pulse therapy and successive maintenance on mycophenolate mofetil for one year. Anti-NMDA receptor antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was minimally detected during the prodromal febrile period and then was seen to be markedly elevated at the onset of second encephalopathy phase...
December 22, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276474/experimental-gene-therapy-with-serine-histogranin-and-endomorphin-1-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-neuropathic-pain
#2
Stanislava Jergova, Catherine E Gordon, Shyam Gajavelli, Jacqueline Sagen
The insufficient pain relief provided by current pharmacotherapy for chronic neuropathic pain is a serious medical problem. The enhanced glutamate signaling via NMDA receptors appears to be one of the key events in the development of chronic pain. Although effective, clinical use of systemic NMDA antagonists is limited by adverse effects such as hallucinations and motor dysfunction. Opioids are also potent analgesics but their chronic use is accompanied by tolerance and risk of addiction. However, combination of NMDA antagonists and opioids seems to provide a stable pain relieve at subthreshold doses of both substances, eliminating development of side effects...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258969/a-case-of-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-revealed-by-insular-epilepsy
#3
Charlotte De Maeseneire, Riem El Tahry, Susana Ferrao Santos
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system that typically manifests predominantly as a psychiatric disorder. However, other manifestations such as epileptic seizures, abnormal movements, and memory or language complications are not unusual. Here, we report the case of a young man who presented with a new-onset epilepsy, with ictal semiology suggestive of insular involvement; this hypothesis was supported by a PET-CT study. Anti-NMDAR antibodies were found in the CSF, confirming the diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis...
December 20, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241651/distinct-roles-of-prelimbic-and-infralimbic-probdnf-in-extinction-of-conditioned-fear
#4
Wei Sun, Xiaoliang Li, Lei An
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been investigated for its positive role in regulation of fear acquisition and memory. The precursor of BDNF, proBDNF, has been identified as different protein from its mature form. The prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) sub-regions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are functionally distinct in fear behavior. However, the role of PL and IL proBDNF in fear memory is unclear. Here, through the infusion of cleavage-resistant proBDNF and its antibody, we identified the dissociable roles of PL and IL proBDNF in fear expression and extinction memory as well as explored proBDNF's potential mechanism of action...
December 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203848/bdnf-release-and-signaling-are-required-for-the-antidepressant-actions-of-glyx-13
#5
T Kato, M V Fogaça, S Deyama, X-Y Li, K Fukumoto, R S Duman
Conventional antidepressant medications, which act on monoaminergic systems, display significant limitations, including a time lag of weeks to months and low rates of therapeutic efficacy. GLYX-13 is a novel glutamatergic compound that acts as an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) modulator with glycine-like partial agonist properties; like the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine GLYX-13 produces rapid antidepressant actions in depressed patients and in preclinical rodent models. However, the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant actions of GLYX-13 have not been characterized...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200116/paraneoplastic-disorders
#6
Eric Lancaster
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes target specific areas of the nervous system with pathogenic autoantibodies or T-cell responses. Each syndrome conveys a risk of particular tumors. Expanded paraneoplastic antibody testing has led to improved diagnosis but created challenges involving appropriate interpretation of test results. RECENT FINDINGS: Peripheral nervous system paraneoplastic disorders such as myasthenia gravis and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome involve pathogenic autoantibodies...
December 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198411/epileptic-spasms-secondary-to-acute-cerebral-and-cerebellar-encephalitis
#7
Tohru Okanishi, Ayataka Fujimoto, Risa Hashimoto, Mitsuyo Nishimura, Sotaro Kanai, Miho Ogawa, Takayuki Suzuki, Hirotaka Motoi, Yukitoshi Takahashi, Hideo Enoki
BACKGROUND: Patients with infection-related acute encephalitis sometimes develop epilepsy in the chronic phase of the disease. Patients with postencephalitic epilepsy usually develop partial seizures due to the lesions generated by the encephalitis. We report a case who developed late-onset epileptic spasms after acute cerebral and cerebellar encephalitis. CASE REPORT: A 5-year-old girl showed severe tremor, gait ataxia, partial or generalized tonic-clonic seizures, hyperactivity, and panic attacks after a mild enterocolitis...
November 29, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183618/encephalitis-associated-with-antibodies-against-the-nmda-receptor
#8
REVIEW
Mar Guasp, Josep Dalmau
The encephalitis associated with antibodies against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is characterized by the presence of antibodies against the GluN1 subunit of this receptor, resulting in symptoms that are similar to those observed in models of genetic or pharmacologic reduction of NMDARs. Patients are usually young adults, predominantly women, and children who develop, in a sequential manner, rapidly progressive symptoms including psychosis, abnormal movements, autonomic dysfunction, and coma. Epileptic seizures are variable and can occur throughout the course of the disease...
November 25, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141829/cerebral-cortical-encephalitis-followed-by-recurrent-cns-demyelination-in-a-patient-with-concomitant-anti-mog-and-anti-nmda-receptor-antibodies
#9
Lei Zhou, Jingzi ZhangBao, Haiqing Li, Xiaoyang Li, Yongheng Huang, Min Wang, Chongbo Zhao, Jiahong Lu, Chuanzhen Lu, Yuxin Li, Chao Quan
We report the case of a patient who initially presented with fever, headache and seizure. MRI revealed a fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) high-intensity lesion involving the right temporal, parietal and occipital cortex. Afterwards, the patient developed three recurrent episodes, manifested as brainstem encephalitis, optic neuritis and ADEM-like illness successively, indicating demyelination. Both of his serum anti-MOG and CSF anti-NMDAR antibodies were proved positive by transfected cell based assays...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126954/quantitative-analysis-of-kynurenine-aminotransferase-ii-in-the-adult-rat-brain-reveals-high-expression-in-proliferative-zones-and-corpus-callosum
#10
Chang Song, Sarah M Clark, Chloe N Vaughn, James D Nicholson, Kelley J Murphy, Ta-Chung M Mou, Robert Schwarcz, Gloria E Hoffman, Leonardo H Tonelli
Kynurenic acid, a metabolite of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation, acts as an endogenous antagonist of alpha7 nicotinic and NMDA receptors and is implicated in a number of neurophysiological and neuropathological processes including cognition and neurodegenerative events. Therefore, kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II/AADAT), the enzyme responsible for the formation of the majority of neuroactive kynurenic acid in the brain, has prompted significant interest. Using immunohistochemistry, this enzyme was localized primarily in astrocytes throughout the adult rat brain, but detailed neuroanatomical studies are lacking...
November 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116427/cart-neurons-in-the-lateral-hypothalamus-communicate-with-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-via-glutamatergic-neurons-in-paraventricular-thalamic-nucleus-to-modulate-reward-behavior
#11
Amit G Choudhary, Amita R Somalwar, Sneha Sagarkar, Abhishek Rale, Amul Sakharkar, Nishikant K Subhedar, Dadasaheb M Kokare
Paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) serves as a transit node processing food and drug-associated reward information, but its afferents and efferents have not been fully defined. We test the hypothesis that the CART neurons in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) project to the PVT neurons, which in turn communicate via the glutamatergic fibers with the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), the canonical site for reward. Rats conditioned to self-stimulate via an electrode in the right LH-medial forebrain bundle were used...
November 7, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103424/autoantibody-associated-movement-disorders-in-children-proven-and-proposed
#12
Harvey S Singer
Movement disorders secondary to autoantibodies in children represent a rapidly expanding group of conditions. Once considered to be limited to poststreptococcal Sydenham's chorea or rare cases of childhood systemic lupus erythematosus, a variety of antibody-related movement abnormalities are now seen as part of noninfectious autoimmune encephalitis or within an expanding list of postinfectious disorders. In this article, several proposed autoantibody-mediated movement disorders in children are reviewed. In each one, there is a hypothesized antibody biomarker that is believed to be pathogenic and cause the clinical symptoms...
August 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075658/improving-the-antibody-based-evaluation-of-autoimmune-encephalitis
#13
Lindsey McCracken, Junxian Zhang, Maxwell Greene, Anne Crivaro, Joyce Gonzalez, Malek Kamoun, Eric Lancaster
OBJECTIVE: We tested whether antibody screening samples of patients with suspected autoimmune encephalitis with additional research assays would improve the detection of autoimmune encephalitis compared with standard clinical testing alone. METHODS: We examined 731 samples (333 CSF, 182 sera, and 108 pairs) from a cohort of 623 patients who were tested for CNS autoantibodies by the University of Pennsylvania clinical laboratory over a 24-month period with cell-based assays (CBAs) on commercially obtained slides of fixed cells for antibodies to NMDA receptor (NMDAR), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR), γ-aminobutyric acid-B receptor (GABABR), leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1), contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Caspr2), and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65)...
November 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061509/monoacylglycerol-lipase-inhibitor-jzl184-prevents-hiv-1-gp120-induced-synapse-loss-by-altering-endocannabinoid-signaling
#14
Xinwen Zhang, Stanley A Thayer
Monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) hydrolyzes 2-arachidonoylglycerol to arachidonic acid and glycerol. Inhibition of MGL may attenuate neuroinflammation by enhancing endocannabinoid signaling and decreasing prostaglandin (PG) production. Almost half of HIV infected individuals are afflicted with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), a neuroinflammatory disease in which cognitive decline correlates with synapse loss. HIV infected cells shed the envelope protein gp120 which is a potent neurotoxin that induces synapse loss...
October 20, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050531/anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-still-unknown-and-underdiagnosed-by-physicians-and-especially-by-psychiatrists
#15
Tine Hermans, Patrick Santens, Celine Matton, Kristine Oostra, Gunter Heylens, Sarah Herremans, Gilbert M D Lemmens
Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder confirmed by the presence of antibodies against the NMDA-receptor in serum or CSF. This case report describes a young woman with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, who presented with prominent psychiatric symptoms. There was a crucial delay in diagnosis and necessary treatment due to the fact that the clinical presentation was diagnosed and treated as a first psychotic episode. Physicians and especially psychiatrists, should consider the possibility of an autoimmune encephalitis in their differential diagnosis in every new onset psychotic episode with rapid progression, the presence of pathognomonic orofacial dyskinesia, the lack of psychiatric history, and the non-responding to psychopharmacological treatment...
October 19, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993251/hypoxia-ischemia-modifies-postsynaptic-glun2b-containing-nmda-receptor-complexes-in-the-neonatal-mouse-brain
#16
Fuxin Lu, Guo Shao, Yongqiang Wang, Shenheng Guan, Alma L Burlingame, Xuemei Liu, Xiao Liang, Renatta Knox, Donna M Ferriero, Xiangning Jiang
The N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR)-associated multiprotein complexes are indispensable for synaptic plasticity and cognitive functions. While purification and proteomic analyses of these signaling complexes have been performed in adult rodent and human brain, much less is known about the protein composition of NMDAR complexes in the developing brain and their modifications by neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury. In this study, the postsynaptic density proteins were prepared from postnatal day 9 naïve, sham-operated and HI-injured mouse cortex...
October 6, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986881/development-of-a-computational-approach-model-to-explore-nmda-receptors-functions
#17
A Florence Keller, Jean-Marie C Bouteiller, Theodore W Berger
Modern laboratory techniques allow studying NMDA receptors (NMDAR) either anatomically with specific antibodies coupled to sophisticated confocal microscopy, or physiologically by live imaging or electrophysiological techniques. However, NMDARs are not fixed in time and space and changes in their composition and/or distribution on the post-synaptic membrane may significantly impact the synaptic strength and overall function. The computational modeling approach therefore constitutes a complementary tool for investigating the properties of biological systems based on the knowledge provided by the lab experiments...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948076/peripheral-neuropathy-in-limbic-encephalitis-with-anti-glutamate-receptor-antibodies-case-report-and-systematic-literature-review
#18
Yi-Chia Wei, Chin-Chang Huang, Chi-Hung Liu, Hung-Chou Kuo, Jainn-Jim Lin
INTRODUCTION: Autoantibodies to the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor are known to be the causes of autoimmune encephalitis particularly limbic encephalitis. The involvement of the peripheral nervous system is rarely reported. METHODS: We analyzed the serial nerve conduction studies of a previously reported case of anti-AMPA receptor encephalitis, who was presented with conscious disturbance and quadriplegia...
September 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947675/nmda-receptor-antibodies-are-found-in-a-small-subgroup-of-patients-with-first-episode-psychosis-but-their-clinical-relevance-is-unknown
#19
EDITORIAL
Morten Schou, Sverre Georg Saether
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 25, 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899640/status-epilepticus-in-pregnancy-etiology-management-and-clinical-outcomes
#20
Keni Ravish Rajiv, Ashalatha Radhakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Status epilepticus (SE) in pregnancy carries significant risk to both mother and fetus. There is limited literature available on SE occurring in pregnancy world-over, with majority being from obstetric centers. METHODS: All women who developed SE related to pregnancy (gestation, labor, or puerperium) between January 2000 and December 2016 were included in the study. Data were collected from our SE registry, maintained, and archived in the institute. The variables influencing the maternal and fetal outcome were compared using Student's t-test for continuous variables and Fisher's exact test for discrete variables...
September 9, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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