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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458125/pluripotent-stem-cells-for-uncovering-the-role-of-mitochondria-in-human-brain-function-and-dysfunction
#1
REVIEW
Annika Zink, Josef Priller, Alessandro Prigione
Mitochondrial dysfunctions are a known pathogenetic mechanism of a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. At the same time, mutations in genes encoding for components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain cause mitochondrial diseases, which commonly exhibit neurological symptoms. Mitochondria are therefore critical for the functionality of the human nervous system. The importance of mitochondria stems from their key roles in cellular metabolism, calcium handling, redox and protein homeostasis, and overall cellular homeostasis through their dynamic network...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457114/a-pediatric-case-developing-critical-abdominal-distension-caused-by-a-combination-of-humidified-high-flow-nasal-cannula-oxygen-therapy-and-nasal-airway
#2
Satoki Inoue, Yumiko Tamaki, Shota Sonobe, Junji Egawa, Masahiko Kawaguchi
Background: We describe a pediatric patient who suffered from critical abdominal distention caused by a combination of humidified, high-flow nasal cannula (HHFNC) oxygen therapy and nasal airway. Case presentation: A 21-month-old boy with a history of chronic lung disease was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Immediately after admission, his airway was established using a tracheal tube and mechanical ventilation was started. Five days after the commencement of mechanical ventilation, finally, his trachea was extubated...
2018: JA Clin Rep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455690/effect-of-cerebral-perfusion-pressure-on-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#3
Sonny Thiara, Donald E Griesdale, William R Henderson, Mypinder S Sekhon
BACKGROUND: Increased cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP)>70 mmHg has been associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Since this reported association, significant changes in ventilation strategies and fluid management have been accepted as routine critical care. Recently, individualized perfusion targets using autoregulation monitoring suggest CPP titration>70 mmHg. Given these clinical advances, the association between ARDS and increased CPP requires further delineation...
February 19, 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455226/respiratory-support-attitudes-among-pediatric-intensive-care-staff-for-spinal-muscular-atrophy-patients-in-saudi-arabia
#4
Mohamad-Hani A Temsah, Fahad M Al-Sohime, Fahad A Bashiri, Ayman A Al-Eyadhy, Gamal M Hasan, Ali A Alhaboob
OBJECTIVE: To explore therapeutic attitude of healthcare providers practicing in pediatric critical care in Saudi Arabia toward patients with Spinal Muscular Atroph (SMA) Type I, and to explore their awareness about the International Consensus statement for SMA care. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in April 2015 during 6th Saudi Critical Care Conference, targeting physicians and respiratory therapists practicing in Pediatric Critical Care. RESULTS: Sixty participants accepted to participate in this survey...
January 2018: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454654/invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-and-influenza-co-infection-in-immunocompetent-hosts-case-reports-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Melisa M Shah, Eric I Hsiao, Carl M Kirsch, Amit Gohil, Supriya Narasimhan, David A Stevens
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is classically considered an illness of severely immunocompromised patients with limited host defenses. However, IPA has been reported in immunocompetent but critically ill patients. This report describes two fatal cases of pathologically confirmed IPA in patients with influenza in the intensive care unit. One patient had influenza B infection, whereas the other had influenza A H1N1. Both patients died despite broad-spectrum antimicrobials, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressor support...
February 2, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452805/perioperative-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-cpet-consensus-clinical-guidelines-on-indications-organization-conduct-and-physiological-interpretation
#6
D Z H Levett, S Jack, M Swart, J Carlisle, J Wilson, C Snowden, M Riley, G Danjoux, S A Ward, P Older, M P W Grocott
The use of perioperative cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to evaluate the risk of adverse perioperative events and inform the perioperative management of patients undergoing surgery has increased over the last decade. CPET provides an objective assessment of exercise capacity preoperatively and identifies the causes of exercise limitation. This information may be used to assist clinicians and patients in decisions about the most appropriate surgical and non-surgical management during the perioperative period...
March 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444340/antipsychotics-delirium-and-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-what-is-the-link
#7
Heather Torbic, Abhijit Duggal
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute inflammatory process that impairs the ability of the lungs to oxygenate and ultimately leads to respiratory failure. Patients who develop ARDS often have prolonged and complicated hospital courses putting them at risk for intensive care unit (ICU) delirium. Patients with ICU delirium often need chemical sedation, mechanical ventilation, prolonged duration of ICU and hospital stays, long-term cognitive impairment, and increased mortality. In a patient with ARDS, ICU delirium further complicates the hospital course and increases the risk of morbidly and mortality...
February 14, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433853/identifying-the-low-risk-patient-in-surgical-intensive-and-intermediate-care-units-using-continuous-monitoring
#8
Holly N Blackburn, Matthew T Clark, J Randall Moorman, Douglas E Lake, J Forrest Calland
BACKGROUND: Continuous predictive monitoring has been employed successfully to predict subclinical adverse events. Should low values on these models, however, reassure us that a patient will not have an adverse outcome? Negative predictive values of such models could help predict safe patient discharge. The goal of this study was to validate the negative predictive value of an ensemble model for critical illness (using previously developed models for respiratory instability, hemorrhage, and sepsis) based on bedside monitoring data in the intensive care units and intermediate care unit...
February 9, 2018: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432405/interhospital-transport-of-critically-ill-children-to-picus-in-the-united-kingdom-and-republic-of-ireland-analysis-of-an-international-dataset
#9
Padmanabhan Ramnarayan, Konstantinos Dimitriades, Lynsey Freeburn, Aravind Kashyap, Michaela Dixon, Peter W Barry, Kathryn Claydon-Smith, Allan Wardhaugh, Caroline R Lamming, Elizabeth S Draper
OBJECTIVES: International data on characteristics and outcomes of children transported from general hospitals to PICUs are scarce. We aimed to 1) describe the development of a common transport dataset in the United Kingdom and Ireland and 2) analyze transport data from a recent 2-year period. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. SETTING: Specialist pediatric critical care transport teams and PICUs in the United Kingdom and Ireland...
February 9, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430450/diagnosis-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-by-exhaled-breath-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Lieuwe D J Bos
The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a complication of critical illness that is characterized by acute onset, protein rich, pulmonary edema. There is no treatment for ARDS, other than the reduction of additional ventilator induced lung injury. Prediction or earlier recognition of ARDS could result in preventive measurements and might decrease mortality and morbidity. Exhaled breath contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs), a collection of hundreds of small molecules linked to several physiological and pathophysiological processes...
January 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430447/mechanisms-involved-in-brain-dysfunction-in-mechanically-ventilated-critically-ill-patients-implications-and-therapeutics
#11
REVIEW
Marc Turon, Sol Fernández-Gonzalo, Candelaria de Haro, Rudys Magrans, Josefina López-Aguilar, Lluís Blanch
Critical illness may lead to significant long-term neurological morbidity and patients frequently develop neuropsychological disturbances including acute delirium or memory impairment after intensive care unit (ICU) discharge. Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a risk factor to the development of adverse neurocognitive outcomes. Patients undergoing MV for long periods present neurologic impairment with memory and cognitive alteration. Delirium is considered an acute form of brain dysfunction and its prevalence rises in mechanically ventilated patients...
January 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430443/electrical-impedance-tomography
#12
REVIEW
Beatriz Lobo, Cecilia Hermosa, Ana Abella, Federico Gordo
Continuous assessment of respiratory status is one of the cornerstones of modern intensive care unit (ICU) monitoring systems. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT), although with some constraints, may play the lead as a new diagnostic and guiding tool for an adequate optimization of mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients. EIT may assist in defining mechanical ventilation settings, assess distribution of tidal volume and of end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) and contribute to titrate positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)/tidal volume combinations...
January 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430441/macrolide-therapy-is-associated-with-reduced-mortality-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-ards-patients
#13
Fabienne D Simonis, Gianfranco de Iudicibus, Olaf L Cremer, David S Y Ong, Tom van der Poll, Lieuwe D Bos, Marcus J Schultz
Background: Macrolides have been associated with favorable immunological effects in various inflammatory disease states. We investigated the association between macrolide therapy and mortality in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods: This was an unplanned secondary analysis of patients with ARDS within a large prospective observational study of critically ill patients in the intensive care units (ICUs) of two university-affiliated hospitals in the Netherlands...
January 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430181/off-label-prescriptions-in-intensive-care-unit-the-chinese-experience
#14
Lin Liu, Hong-Yu Yang, Yan Lou, Jing Miao, Xiao-Yang Lu, Qing-Wei Zhao, Rong-Rong Wang, Sai-Ping Jiang, Xing-Guo Zhang
Background and purpose: Off-label prescriptions for critically ill patients pose several ethical and legal dilemmas for intensive care unit (ICU) clinicians. Yet, few data are available on the prevalence of this practice in critical care environment in China. This nationwide survey was performed to evaluate the conditions of off-label prescriptions in ICU within China. Methods: The survey was performed at the scene of the national ICU conferences in 2016. ICU clinicians attending the congress from 23 provinces across the country were invited...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425465/excess-mucin-impairs-subglottic-epithelial-host-defense-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients
#15
Jason Powell, James Garnett, Michael W Mather, Faye A H Cooles, Andrew Nelson, Bernard Verdon, Jon Scott, Kasim Jiwa, Marie-Hélène Ruchaud-Sparagano, Stephen P Cummings, John D Perry, Stephen E Wright, Janet A Wilson, Jeffrey Pearson, Chris Ward, A John Simpson
RATIONALE: Aspiration of infective subglottic secretions causes ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in mechanically ventilated patients. Mechanisms underlying subglottic colonization in critical illness have not been defined, limiting strategies for targeted prevention of VAP. OBJECTIVES: To characterize subglottic host defense dysfunction in mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). To determine whether subglottic mucin contributes to neutrophil phagocytic impairment and bacterial growth...
February 9, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424188/revolving-door-respiratory-patients-a-rehabilitative-perspective
#16
Massimiliano Polastri, Lara Pisani, Andrea Dell'Amore, Stefano Nava
Rehabilitation is an integral component of care for patients affected by either acute or chronic pulmonary diseases. The key elements of rehabilitation treatment for critical respiratory patients are as follows: weaning from mechanical ventilation, respiratory therapy, physical reconditioning, and occupational therapy. It should be noted that patients affected by pulmonary diseases are prone to hospital re-admission due to frequent exacerbations, especially in cases with more severe stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
September 22, 2017: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422726/audit-of-postoperative-surgical-intensive-care-unit-admissions
#17
Shaili K Patel, Samir M Kacheriwala, Dipesh D Duttaroy
Objective: The objective of this study was to conduct an audit of Surgical Intensive Care Unit (SICU) for identifying the admission risk factors and evaluating the outcomes of postoperative surgical patients. Design: This was a prospective, observational study. Setting: This study was conducted at SICU of a 1500-bedded tertiary care university hospital in Western India. Subject and Methods: Two hundred and forty patients admitted to the SICU postoperatively over a period of 15 months...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415760/mobile-critical-care-recovery-program-m-ccrp-for-acute-respiratory-failure-survivors-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Sikandar Khan, Ashok Biju, Sophia Wang, Sujuan Gao, Omar Irfan, Amanda Harrawood, Stephanie Martinez, Emily Brewer, Anthony Perkins, Frederick W Unverzagt, Sue Lasiter, Ben Zarzaur, Omar Rahman, Malaz Boustani, Babar Khan
BACKGROUND: Patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) with acute respiratory failure (ARF) face chronic complications that can impede return to normal daily function. A mobile, collaborative critical care model may enhance the recovery of ARF survivors. METHODS: The Mobile Critical Care Recovery Program (m-CCRP) study is a two arm, randomized clinical trial. We will randomize 620 patients admitted to the ICU with acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation in a 1:1 ratio to one of two arms (310 patients per arm) - m-CCRP intervention versus attention control...
February 7, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413508/weaning-failure-and-respiratory-muscle-function-what-has-been-done-and-what-can-be-improved
#19
REVIEW
Paulo A F Magalhães, Carlos A Camillo, Daniel Langer, Lívia B Andrade, Maria do Carmo M B Duarte, Rik Gosselink
INTRODUCTION: Respiratory muscle dysfunction, being a common cause of weaning failure, is strongly associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation (MV) and prolonged stay in intensive care units. Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been described as an important contributor to the treatment of respiratory muscle dysfunction in critically ill patients. Its effectiveness is however yet controversial. OBJECTIVE: To discuss evidence for assessment of readiness and the effectiveness of interventions for liberation from MV, with special attention to the role of IMT...
January 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411494/post-pyloric-feeding-tube-placement-in-critically-ill-patients-extending-the-scope-of-practice-for-australian-dietitians
#20
Rosalie Yandell, Marianne Chapman, Stephanie O'Connor, Alison Shanks, Kylie Lange, Adam Deane
AIM: To determine whether the placement of a post-pyloric feeding tube (PPFT) can be taught safely and effectively to a critical care dietitian. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study conducted in an adult intensive care unit (ICU). The intervention consisted of 19 attempts at post-pyloric intubation by the dietitian. The 10 'learning' attempts were performed by the dietitian under the direction of an experienced (having completed in excess of 50 successful tube placements) user...
February 2018: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
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