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Andrew W Yen
Blood transfusion practices for acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage have changed over time. Restrictive strategies, which gave way to more liberal approaches for the greater part of the 20th century, have again gained traction as emerging research suggests restricting transfusion is associated with similar, or possibly better outcomes in UGI bleeding. In a large, retrospective cohort study from an integrated health care system in Taiwan, Chen, et al., report the association between early blood transfusion and clinical outcomes in patients presenting to the emergency department with UGI bleeding, and these findings are discussed in the context of current knowledge and practice...
April 25, 2018: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
Ricardo L Palma
Alexander (1954: 489) recorded a petrel (Aves: Procellariiformes) captured alive on board a ship in the Indian Ocean by Mr W.W.A. Phillips who, after removing some lice, liberated it the following morning. Alexander (1954) identified that petrel as the species "Pterodroma aterrima Bonaparte", now placed in the genus Pseudobulweria. The lice were kept in the collection of the then British Museum (Natural History), now the Natural History Museum, London, England. Jouanin (1955) published a new species of petrel from the Indian Ocean as Bulweria fallax...
April 9, 2018: Zootaxa
Randi Vita, James A Overton, Christopher J Mungall, Alessandro Sette, Bjoern Peters
The Immune Epitope Database (IEDB), at, has the mission to make published experimental data relating to the recognition of immune epitopes easily available to the scientific public. By presenting curated data in a searchable database, we have liberated it from the tables and figures of journal articles, making it more accessible and usable by immunologists. Recently, the principles of Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability and Reusability have been formulated as goals that data repositories should meet to enhance the usefulness of their data holdings...
January 1, 2018: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
Jin-Cheng Liu, Xue-Lu Ma, Yong Li, Yang-Gang Wang, Hai Xiao, Jun Li
The current industrial ammonia synthesis relies on Haber-Bosch process that is initiated by the dissociative mechanism, in which the adsorbed N2 dissociates directly, and thus is limited by Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relation. Here we propose a new strategy that an anchored Fe3 cluster on the θ-Al2 O3 (010) surface as a heterogeneous catalyst for ammonia synthesis from first-principles theoretical study and microkinetic analysis. We have studied the whole catalytic mechanism for conversion of N2 to NH3 on Fe3 /θ-Al2 O3 (010), and find that an associative mechanism, in which the adsorbed N2 is first hydrogenated to NNH, dominates over the dissociative mechanism, which we attribute to the large spin polarization, low oxidation state of iron, and multi-step redox capability of Fe3 cluster...
April 23, 2018: Nature Communications
Mohammad Zaki Shukri, Jia Wei Tan, Worapaka Manosroi, Luminita H Pojoga, Alicia Rivera, Jonathan S Williams, Ellen W Seely, Gail K Adler, Iris Z Jaffe, Richard H Karas, Gordon H Williams, Jose R Romero
The relationship between biological sex and aldosterone on blood pressure (BP) is unclear. We hypothesized that sex would modify the interaction between aldosterone and vascular responses to salt intake and angiotensin II (AngII). To test this hypothesis, in 1592 subjects from the well-controlled Hypertensive Pathotype cohort, we compared responses of women and men to chronic (BP and aldosterone levels in response to dietary salt) and acute (BP, renal plasma flow, and aldosterone responses to AngII infusion) manipulations...
April 23, 2018: Hypertension
Adam J Kingeter, Meredith A Kingeter, Andrew D Shaw
Evidence-based clinical decision making is at the forefront of modern cardiothoracic anesthesia practice. Therefore, as a field, cardiac anesthesiologist should strive to ensure that the available evidence is of the highest possible quality. In this narrative review, 5 important topics that the authors believe require additional investigation in cardiothoracic anesthesia and critical care related to fluid therapy and organ dysfunction are outlined briefly. In particular, the authors believe that the areas of pulmonary artery catheter use, restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategies, cardiopulmonary bypass prime composition, colloid use in resuscitation and its effects on acute kidney injury, and management of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery hold many unanswered questions and opportunities for continued improvement in the specialty of cardiac anesthesia...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Xuzhi Zhang, Xiaoyu Jiang, Qianqian Yang, Xiaochun Wang, Yan Zhang, Jun Zhao, Keming Qu, Chuan Zhao
Herein, we developed an automatic electrical bacterial growth sensor (EBGS) based on multichannel capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C4D). Using the EBGS, up to eight culture samples of E. coli in disposable tubes were online monitored simultaneously with a non-invasive manner. Growth curves with high resolution (on the order of second timescale) were generated by plotting normalized apparent conductivity value against incubation time. The characteristic data of E. coli growth (e.g. growth rate) obtained here were more accurate than those obtained with optical density and contact conductivity methods...
April 24, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Pepita Barlow
Scholars have long argued that trade liberalization leads to lower rates of child mortality in developing countries. Yet current scholarship precludes definitive conclusions about the magnitude and direction of this relationship. Here I analyze the impact of trade liberalization on child mortality in 36 low- and middle-income countries, 1963-2005, using the synthetic control method. I test the hypothesis that trade liberalization leads to lower rates of child mortality, examine whether this association varies between countries and over time, and explore the potentially modifying role of democratic politics, historical context, and geographic location on the magnitude and direction of this relationship...
April 6, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Kai Han, Zhaoyu Ma, Xinxin Dai, Jin Zhang, Heyou Han
Tumor targeted drug delivery in vivo remains a significant challenge in tumor therapy. In this article, we fabricated a steric shielding protected/tumor acidity-activated chimeric peptide for tumor targeted photodynamic therapy. This amphiphilic chimeric peptide could form spherical nanoparticles at neutrally physiological environment with the shielding of biotin molecule (tumor target ligand). When in tumor acidic microenvironment, acidity-sensitive dimethylmaleic amide was rapidly hydrolyzed, resulting in subsequent liberation of (Lys)8 and the recovery of intramolecular electrostatic interaction between (Lys)8 and (Glu)8 ...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Teri L Hernandez, Archana Mande, Linda A Barbour
With the global rising prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM), an adaptable, economical approach to nutrition therapy that effectively controls maternal glycemia while promoting normal fetal growth will have far-reaching implications. The conventional focus has been to rigidly limit all types of carbohydrate. While controlling glucose, this approach fosters maternal anxiety and is a primary barrier to adherence. Many mothers substitute fat for carbohydrate, which may unintentionally enhance lipolysis, promote elevated free fatty acids (FFA), and worsen maternal insulin resistance (IR)...
April 18, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Lorene Zerah, Lucile Dourthe, Judith Cohen-Bittan, Marc Verny, Mathieu Raux, Anthony Mézière, Frédéric Khiami, Cendrine Tourette, Christian Neri, Yannick Le Manach, Bruno Riou, Hélène Vallet, Jacques Boddaert
OBJECTIVES: To compare the association between a restrictive transfusion strategy and cardiovascular complications during hospitalization for hip fracture with the association between a liberal transfusion strategy and cardiovascular complications, accounting for all transfusions from the emergency department to postacute rehabilitation settings. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Perioperative geriatric care unit. PARTICIPANTS: All individuals aged 70 and older admitted to the emergency department for hip fracture and hospitalized in our perioperative geriatric care unit (N=667; n=193 in the liberal transfusion group, n=474 in the restrictive transfusion group) from July 2009 to April 2016...
April 20, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Julia Meisters, Birk Diedenhofen, Jochen Musch
For decades, sequential lineups have been considered superior to simultaneous lineups in the context of eyewitness identification. However, most of the research leading to this conclusion was based on the analysis of diagnosticity ratios that do not control for the respondent's response criterion. Recent research based on the analysis of ROC curves has found either equal discriminability for sequential and simultaneous lineups, or higher discriminability for simultaneous lineups. Some evidence for potential position effects and for criterion shifts in sequential lineups has also been reported...
April 20, 2018: Memory
I Cortés-Puch, B M Wiley, J Sun, H G Klein, J Welsh, R L Danner, P Q Eichacker, C Natanson
AIM: To evaluate the risks of restrictive red blood cell transfusion strategies (haemoglobin 7-8 g dL-1 ) in patients with and without known cardiovascular disease (CVD). BACKGROUND: Recent guidelines recommend restrictive strategies for CVD patients hospitalised for non-CVD indications, patients without known CVD and patients hospitalised for CVD corrective procedures. METHODS/MATERIALS: Database searches were conducted through December 2017 for randomised clinical trials that enrolled patients with and without known CVD, hospitalised either for CVD-corrective procedures or non-cardiac indications, comparing effects of liberal with restrictive strategies on major adverse coronary events (MACE) and death...
April 19, 2018: Transfusion Medicine
Chika Tsuboi, Hiromichi Naito, Shingo Hagioka, Hiroaki Hanafusa, Takahiro Hirayama, Yoshinori Kosaki, Atsuyoshi Iida, Tetsuya Yumoto, Kohei Tsukahara, Naoki Morimoto, Atsunori Nakao
The primary toxicity of hydrogen peroxide results from its interaction with catalase, which liberates water and oxygen. We report the case of a 14-year-old Japanese girl with portal venous gas that was caused by oxygen liberated from intentionally ingested hydrogen peroxide. Although she had a past history of atrial septal defect, recovery without cardiac or neurological sequelae was achieved using hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Emergency physicians must be aware of the danger of liberated oxygen due to hydrogen peroxide ingestion...
April 2018: Acta Medica Okayama
Egemen Savaskan, Daniel Summermatter, Clemens Schroeder, Hartmut Schächinger
Faces are among the most relevant social stimuli revealing an encounter's identity and actual emotional state. Deficits in facial recognition may be an early sign of cognitive decline leading to social deficits. The main objective of the present study is to investigate if individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment show recognition deficits in facial identity. Thirty-seven individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, multiple-domain (15 female; age: 75±8 yrs.) and forty-one healthy volunteers (24 female; age 71±6 yrs...
2018: PloS One
Yanchun Zhou, Xiuhua Meng, Shaoying Chen, Wei Li, Delin Li, Robert Singer, Wei Gu
BACKGROUND: Long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) represent a class of widespread and diverse endogenous RNAs that can posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression through the interaction with RNA-binding proteins and micro RNAs (miRNAs). Here, we report that in breast carcinoma cells, the insulin-like growth factor 2 messenger RNA binding protein (IMP1) binds to lncRNA urethral carcinoma-associated 1 (UCA1) and suppresses the UCA1-induced invasive phenotype. METHODS: RT-qPCR and RNA sequence assays were used to investigate the expression of UCA1 and miRNAs in breast cancer cells in response to IMP1 expression...
April 18, 2018: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Raminta Daniulaityte, Mussa Y Zatreh, Francois R Lamy, Ramzi W Nahhas, Silvia S Martins, Amit Sheth, Robert G Carlson
AIMS: The purpose of this paper is to analyze characteristics of marijuana concentrate users, describe patterns and reasons of use, and identify factors associated with daily use of concentrates among U.S.-based cannabis users recruited via a Twitter-based online survey. METHODS: An anonymous Web-based survey was conducted in June 2017 with 687 U.S.-based cannabis users recruited via Twitter-based ads. The survey included questions about state of residence, socio-demographic characteristics, and cannabis use including marijuana concentrates...
April 11, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Roni Porat, Maya Tamir, Michael J A Wohl, Tamar Gur, Eran Halperin
A careful look at societies facing threat reveals a unique phenomenon in which liberals and conservatives react emotionally and attitudinally in a similar manner, rallying around the conservative flag. Previous research suggests that this rally effect is the result of liberals shifting in their attitudes and emotional responses toward the conservative end. Whereas theories of motivated social cognition provide a motivation-based account of cognitive processes (i.e. attitude shift), it remains unclear whether emotional shifts are, in fact, also a motivation-based process...
April 18, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Haijian Tu, Kun Lin, Yongzhi Lun, Liuming Yu
A digital detection strategy based on a portable personal glucometer (PGM) was developed for the simple, rapid, and sensitive detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA, involving the release of glucose-loaded nanoliposomes due to coupling-site-specific cleavage by the endonuclease BamHI. The glucose-loaded nanoliposomes were synthesized using a reversed-phase evaporation method and provided an amplified signal at the PGM in the presence of HCV RNA. Initially, a 21-mer oligonucleotide complementary to HCV RNA was covalently conjugated to a magnetic bead through the amino group at the 5' end of the oligonucleotide, and then bound to a glucose-loaded liposome by typical carbodiimide coupling at its 3' end...
April 17, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Tomoya Uehara, Miki Yokoyama, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Hirofumi Hanaoka, Yasushi Arano
PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to evaluate the renal radioactivity levels of a newly designed 67 Ga-labeled antibody fragment with a linkage cleaved by enzymes present on the brush border membrane (BBM) lining the lumen of the renal tubule. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: 67 Ga-labeled S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (SCN-Bn-NOTA) was conjugated with an antibody Fab fragment through a Met-Val-Lys linkage (67 Ga-NOTA-MVK-Fab) considering that a Met-Val sequence is a substrate of enzymes on the renal BBM and 67 Ga-NOTA-Met is excreted from the kidney into the urine...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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