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Tobias Wiß
Although studies have examined the distribution and conditions of employer-provided work-family arrangements, we still lack a systematic investigation of how these vary for different countries and industries. Based on the European Working Conditions Survey 2010, this study examines the conditions under which firms provide family-friendly working time arrangements and what the differences are across four countries (Austria, Denmark, Italy and the UK) and four industries. The impact of employee representatives, employee involvement, manager support and female managers varies across countries and industries because of the institutional environment (prevailing family model, industrial relations) and workforce composition (gender)...
December 2017: Social Policy & Administration
J G J Huurman
Chris Mol, Arie Querido and Piet Muntendam were three socially and politically active medical doctors in the 20th century. Inspired by different sources (Catholicism, and the social democratic and progressive-liberal movements), these doctors strove to improve public health in the Netherlands. Up to about 1940 they were primarily traditional doctors caring for individual patients. After World War Two their scope widened, eventually to the wider society. The life histories of the three main characters are remarkably intertwined...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Andres R Schneeberger, Bruce J Schwartz
The United States and Switzerland are among the world's wealthiest countries. Both are highly innovative and entrepreneurial, ranking high in global competitiveness and innovation and with similar liberal economies. This column highlights features of the health care system in Switzerland, a country with an exclusively private health insurance system, with federally mandated universal health insurance. Residents can choose from about 58 insurance companies. Switzerland regulates these companies and negotiates reimbursement rates...
December 15, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Tarek Aboul-Fadl, Soliman S Al-Hamad, Ehab A Fouad
Naproxen (nap) is belonging to Non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) group of drugs that characterized by their free carboxylic group. The therapeutic activity of nap is usually accompanied by GI untoward side effects. Recently synthesized naproxen amides of some amino acid esters prodrugs to mask the free carboxylic group were reported. Those prodrugs showed a promising colorectal cancer chemopreventive activity. The current study aims to investigate the fate and hydrolysis of the prodrugs kinetically in different pH conditions, simulated gastric and intestinal fluids with pHs of 1...
December 2, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
Jini Kim, Seungkoo Lee, Dooil Jeoung, Young-Myeong Kim, Jongseon Choe
In spite of the potential importance of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in the germinal center, its underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. COX-2 is the key enzyme generating pleiotropic prostaglandins. Based on our previous findings, we hypothesized that lymphocytes would stimulate COX-2 expression in follicular dendritic cell (FDC) by liberating cytokines. In this study, we examined the effect of tonsillar lymphocytes on COX-2 expression in FDC-like cells by immunoblotting. B but not T cells induced COX-2 protein in a time- and dose-dependent manner...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Konrad J Waluś, Łukasz Warguła, Piotr Krawiec, Jarosław M Adamiec
The high awareness of intensification and frequency of smog phenomenon all over the world in XXI age makes for detailed analyses of the reasons of its formation and prevention. The governments of the developed countries and conscious of real hazards, including many European countries, aim to restrict the emission of harmful gases. In literature, we can find the discussions on the influence of this phenomenon on the health and life of inhabitants of contaminated areas. Some elaborations of prognostic models, descriptions of pollution sources, the manner of their restriction, and the analysis of causal-consecutive correlation are also popular...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kerry Bloom
Cohesin was identified through its major role in holding sister chromatids together. We are learning through analysis of cohesin and other members of the protein family (SMC [structural maintenance of chromosomes]) and their regulators that these ring complexes contribute to chromosome organization and dynamics throughout the cell cycle. We need to consider not only how ring complexes are regulated but how they interact with their fluctuating chromatin substrate.
November 1, 2017: Genes & Development
Bienvenido Ortega, Jesús Sanjuán, Antonio Casquero
The liberalization of capital flows is generally associated with prospects of higher growth. However, in developing countries, opening the capital account may also facilitate the flow of capital out of the country through illicit financial flows (IFFs). Given that IFFs drain the scarce public resources available to finance the provision of public goods and services, the extent of illicit capital flows from developing countries is serious cause for concern. In this context, as a first step in analysing the social costs of IFFs in developing countries, this article studied the relationship between IFFs and infant immunization coverage rates...
December 11, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
Sarah E Crawford, Stephen Lofts, Karsten Liber
Assessment of uranium (U)-contaminated sediment is often hindered by the inability to accurately account for the physicochemical properties of sediment that modify U bioavailability. The goal of this research was to determine whether sediment-associated U bioavailability could be predicted over a wide range of conditions and sediment properties using simple regressions and a geochemical speciation model, the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model (WHAM7). Data from U-contaminated field sediment bioaccumulation tests, along with previously published bioaccumulation studies with U-spiked field and formulated sediments were used to examine the models...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Nilanjan Dey, Satadru Jha, Santanu Bhattacharya
Chromogenic probe with oxidized bis-indolyl scaffold has been synthesized for the detection of a nerve gas mimicking agent, DCNP (diethyl cyanophosphonate) at pH 8.0 in water. The mechanism of interaction was proposed as the release of cyanide ion through the indole group mediating the hydrolysis of phosphorous-hetero atom bond and, thereafter, the Michael addition of the liberated CN- ion to the electron deficient C[double bond, length as m-dash]C bond of the bis-indolyl moiety. The reaction featured a remarkable change in color from red to colorless at ambient condition...
December 13, 2017: Analyst
Else Vogel
In this article, I describe the processes through which patients diagnosed with 'morbid obesity' become active subjects through undergoing obesity surgery and an empowerment lifestyle programme in a Dutch obesity clinic. Following work in actor-network theory and material semiotics that complicates the distinction between active and passive subjects, I trace how agency is configured and re-distributed throughout the treatment trajectory. In the clinic's elaborate care assemblage - consisting of dieticians, exercise coaches and psychologists - the person is not only actively involved in his/her own change, the subject of intervention is the self as 'actor': his/her material constitution, inclinations and feelings...
December 12, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
Glenda Wall
A focus on early brain development has come to dominate expert child rearing advice over the past two decades. Recent scholars have noted a reinvigoration of the concept of attachment in this advice and changes in the ways that attachment is framed and understood. The extent to which the concept of attachment is drawn on, the way it is framed, and the consequences for mothers, families and parent-child relationships is examined through a discursive analysis of a current Canadian parental education campaign...
December 12, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
Michael J Green, Haley Stritzel, Chelsea Smith, Frank Popham, Robert Crosnoe
Childhood poverty is associated with poorer adolescent health and health behaviours, but the importance of the timing of poverty remains unclear. There may be critical or sensitive periods in early life or early adolescence, or poverty may have cumulative effects throughout childhood. Understanding when poverty is most important can support efficient timing of interventions to raise family income or buffer against the effects of low income, but answers may vary across social contexts. The US and the UK are a useful comparison with similar liberal approaches to cash transfers, but very different approaches to healthcare provision...
December 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
Graham C McCracken, Jane Montgomery
BACKGROUND: Guidance on pre-operative fluids fasting policy continues to evolve. Current European guidelines encourage the intake of oral fluids up to 2 h before the induction of general anaesthesia. From October 2014, Torbay Hospital Day Surgery Unit commenced an unrestricted fluid policy, encouraging patients to drink clear fluids up until the time of transfer to theatre. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting before and after the change to the unrestricted pre-operative clear oral fluids...
December 11, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Barak Cohen, Benjamin Meilik, Ahuva Weiss-Meilik, Aviv Tarrab, Idit Matot
BACKGROUND: Several preoperative factors have been shown to influence outcome of body contouring surgeries. The effect of intraoperative features, including fluid volume administered, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters, and body temperature on postoperative complication, has not been reported to date. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All subsequent patients undergoing body contouring surgery in the Tel Aviv Medical Center between 2007 and 2012 were enrolled. Demographic and intraoperative data were collected and analyzed for possible associations with postoperative complications, including formation of seroma, hematoma/bleeding, other surgical site complications (infection, adhesiolysis, or need for debridement), formation of a hypertrophic scar, any documented, infection or a composite outcome of any of the previously mentioned...
January 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
Emily B Martin, Angela Williams, Tina Richey, Craig Wooliver, Alan Stuckey, James S Foster, Stephen J Kennel, Jonathan S Wall
BACKGROUND: Systemic amyloidoses comprise diseases characterized by the deposition of proteinaceous material known as amyloid. Currently, without performing multiple biopsies, there is no way to ascertain the extent of amyloid deposition in patients-a critical piece of information that informs prognosis and therapeutic strategies. We have developed pan-amyloid-targeting peptides for imaging amyloid and recently have adapted these for use as pre-targeting agents in conjunction with immunotherapy...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
Lorena R R Gianotti, Janek S Lobmaier, Cinzia Calluso, Franziska M Dahinden, Daria Knoch
Direct eye gaze is a powerful stimulus in social interactions, yet people vary considerably in the range of gaze lines that they accept as being direct (cone of direct gaze, CoDG). Here, we searched for a possible neural trait marker of these individual differences. We measured the width of the CoDG in 137 healthy participants and related their individual CoDG to their neural baseline activation as measured with resting electroencephalogram (EEG). Using a source-localization technique, we found that resting theta current density in the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and adjacent posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) was associated with the width of CoDG...
December 7, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Rahi Abouk, Scott Adams
BACKGROUND: Several countries and many U.S. states have allowed, for cannabis to be used as therapy to treat chronic conditions or pain., This has increased the use of cannabis, particularly among older people.Because cannabis has been linked to adverse cardiac events in the medical literature, there may be unintended consequences on increased use among older people. METHODS: We analyze cardiac-related mortality data from the U.S. National Vital Statistics System for 1990-2014...
December 8, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
Lucía Álvarez-Miguel, Héctor Barbero, Adriana Sacristán-Martín, José M Martín Álvarez, Alfonso Pérez-Encabo, Celedonio M Álvarez, Raúl García-Rodríguez, Daniel Miguel
CuCl2·2H2O and Cu(ClO4)2·6H2O are able to promote aldol addition of pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde (pyca) with acetone, acetophenone, or cyclohexenone under neutral and mild conditions. The general and simple one-pot procedure for the aldol addition to Cu(II) complexes accesses novel Cu complexes with a large variety of different structural motifs, from which the aldol-addition ligand can be liberated by treatment with NH3. Neutral heteroleptic complexes in which the ligand acts as bidentate, or homoleptic cationic complexes in which the ligand acts as tridentate can be obtained depending on the copper salt used...
December 11, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
G V Oosthuizen, J De Wet, J L Bruce, D L Clarke
BACKGROUND: Rib fractures and flail chests have traditionally been treated nonoperatively. Current literature suggests that it is not only safe and feasible but also desirable to perform fixation of severe rib fractures. Our unit in the Pietermaritzburg public sector adopted rib fracture fixation in 2014 and in this audit we assess its feasibility in our setting. METHODS AND RESULTS: We audited our first nine cases of rib fracture fixation performed to date, of which seven were males...
November 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
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