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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458072/influence-of-xenorhabdus-gamma-proteobacteria-enterobacteriaceae-symbionts-on-gonad-postembryonic-development-in-steinernema-nematoda-steinernematidae-nematodes
#1
Alexandra C Roder, S Patricia Stock
Steinernema nematodes and their Xenorhabdus partners form an obligate mutualistic association. This partnership is insecticidal to a wide range of insects. Steinernema rely on their Xenorhabdus partner to produce toxins inside the insect cadaver to liberate nutrients from the insect, as well as antimicrobials to sterilize the cadaver, thus creating a suitable environment for reproduction. In return, Steinernema vector their Xenorhabdus between insect hosts. Disruption of this partnership may affect the success of both partners...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456269/effect-of-settled-diatom-aggregates-on-benthic-nitrogen-cycling
#2
Ugo Marzocchi, Bo Thamdrup, Peter Stief, Ronnie N Glud
The marine sediment hosts a mosaic of microhabitats. Recently it has been demonstrated that the settlement of phycodetrital aggregates can induce local changes in the benthic O2 distribution due to confined enrichment of organic material and alteration of the diffusional transport. Here, we show how this microscale O2 shift substantially affects benthic nitrogen cycling. In sediment incubations, the settlement of diatom-aggregates markedly enhanced benthic O2 and NO3- consumption and stimulated NO2- and NH4+ production...
January 2018: Limnology and Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453778/-i-m-happy-to-own-my-implicit-biases-public-encounters-with-the-implicit-association-test
#3
Jeffery Yen, Kevin Durrheim, Romin W Tafarodi
The implicit association test (IAT) and concept of implicit bias have significantly influenced the scientific, institutional, and public discourse on racial prejudice. In spite of this, there has been little investigation of how ordinary people make sense of the IAT and the bias it claims to measure. This article examines the public understanding of this research through a discourse analysis of reactions to the IAT and implicit bias in the news media. It demonstrates the ways in which readers interpreted, related to, and negotiated the claims of IAT science in relation to socially shared and historically embedded concerns and identities...
February 16, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452426/open-access-data-capitalism-and-academic-publishing
#4
Michael Hagner
Open Access (OA) is widely considered a breakthrough in the history of academic publishing, rendering the knowledge produced by the worldwide scientific community accessible to all. In numerous countries, national governments, funding institutions and research organisations have undertaken enormous efforts to establish OA as the new publishing standard. The benefits and new perspectives, however, cause various challenges. This essay addresses several issues, including that OA is deeply embedded in the logic and practices of data capitalism...
February 16, 2018: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451910/the-fruit-and-vegetable-import-pathway-for-potential-invasive-pest-arrivals
#5
Erik Lichtenberg, Lars J Olson
The expansion of international trade in commodities increases the risk of alien species invasions. Invaders are difficult to detect on introduction, so prevention remains the preferred strategy for managing the threat of invasions. Propagule pressure has been shown to be a good predictor of invasion risk. Most studies to date, however, link potential invasive species arrivals with indirect measures of propagule pressure such as aggregate trade volumes. This paper estimates propagule pressure using data that measure actual arrivals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448246/effect-of-mst1-on-endometriosis-apoptosis-and-migration-role-of-drp1-related-mitochondrial-fission-and-parkin-required-mitophagy
#6
Qingdong Zhao, Mingxia Ye, Wen Yang, Min Wang, Mingxia Li, Chenglei Gu, Luyang Zhao, Zhe Zhang, Weidong Han, Wensheng Fan, Yuanguang Meng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mitochondrial homeostasis is implicated in the development and progression of endometriosis through poorly defined mechanisms. Mst1 is the major growth suppressor related to cancer migration, apoptosis and proliferation. However, whether Mst1 is involved in endometriosis apoptosis and migration via regulating the mitochondrial function remains to be elucidated. METHODS: Expression of Mst1 in endometriosis was examined via western blots. Cellular apoptosis was detected via MTT and TUNEL assay...
February 9, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445806/intercalation-of-metformin-into-montmorillonite
#7
Ediana P Rebitski, Pilar Aranda, Margarita Darder, Raffaele Carraro, Eduardo Ruiz-Hitzky
Metformin hydrochloride is an extensively used antidiabetic drug that according to the results reported here is able to spontaneously intercalate layered silicates like the montmorillonite clay mineral following an ion-exchange mechanism. The adsorption isotherm from water solutions shows a great affinity of metformin towards the clay mineral, which can retain about thrice the exchange capacity of the clay. The adsorbed excess was easily removed by washing with water, leading to an intercalation compound that contains 93 meq of metformin per 100 g of montmorillonite, matching the CEC value of this clay...
February 15, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444846/differential-immune-gene-expression-in-sperm-storage-organs-of-leaf-cutting-ants
#8
Sarah Chérasse, Boris Baer, Morten Schiøtt, Jacobus J Boomsma
Leaf-cutting ant queens mate with multiple males during a single nuptial flight and store sperm for up to two decades. During mating, males transfer sperm from their accessory testes to the queen bursa copulatrix from where it enters the spermatheca, an insect sperm storage organ that has become highly specialised in long-lived ant queens who never re-mate later in life. Long-term storage without the possibility to obtain new sperm creates an immune defence dilemma, because recognition of non-self cells eliminates infections but may also target irreplaceable sperm and reduce lifetime reproductive success...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442432/investigation-of-corneal-endothelial-changes-post-selective-laser-trabeculoplasty
#9
Kate E Leahy, Michele C Madigan, Maria Sarris, Stephanie L Watson, Peter McCluskey, Andrew Jr White
IMPORTANCE: Transient corneal endothelial changes are routinely noted on slit-lamp examination immediately following selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT). BACKGROUND: To determine the mechanism of the transient corneal endothelial changes observed following SLT. DESIGN: University laboratory based observational study SAMPLES: Ten corneas from six human cadaveric donors. METHODS: Corneas were treated with SLT, direct laser, or peroxide, or used as controls...
February 14, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442381/fostering-caring-relationships-suggestions-to-rethink-liberal-perspectives-on-the-ethics-of-newborn-screening
#10
Simone van der Burg, Anke Oerlemans
Newborn screening (NBS) involves the collection of blood from the heel of a newborn baby and testing it for a list of rare and inheritable disorders. New biochemical screening technologies led to expansions of NBS programs in the first decade of the 21st century. It is expected that they will in time be replaced by genetic sequencing technologies. These developments have raised a lot of ethical debate. We reviewed the ethical literature on NBS, analyzed the issues and values that emerged, and paid particular interest to the type of impacts authors think NBS should have on the lives of children and their families...
March 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441838/in-your-face
#11
Johnathan Caleb Peterson, Carly Jacobs, John Hibbing, Kevin Smith
Research suggests that people can accurately predict the political affiliations of others using only information extracted from the face. It is less clear from this research, however, what particular facial physiological processes or features communicate such information. Using a model of emotion developed in psychology that treats emotional expressivity as an individual-level trait, this article provides a theoretical account of why emotional expressivity may provide reliable signals of political orientation, and it tests the theory in four empirical studies...
February 14, 2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440643/dissection-and-function-of-autoimmunity-associated-tnfaip3-a20-gene-enhancers-in-humanized-mouse-models
#12
Upneet K Sokhi, Mark P Liber, Laura Frye, Sungho Park, Kyuho Kang, Tania Pannellini, Baohong Zhao, Rada Norinsky, Lionel B Ivashkiv, Shiaoching Gong
Enhancers regulate gene expression and have been linked with disease pathogenesis. Little is known about enhancers that regulate human disease-associated genes in primary cells relevant for pathogenesis. Here we use BAC transgenics and genome editing to dissect, in vivo and in primary immune cells, enhancers that regulate human TNFAIP3, which encodes A20 and is linked with autoimmune diseases. A20 expression is dependent on a topologically associating subdomain (sub-TAD) that harbors four enhancers, while another >20 enhancers in the A20 locus are redundant...
February 13, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440235/do-patients-with-blunt-thoracic-aortic-injury-present-to-hospital-with-unstable-vital-signs-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Jordan Bade-Boon, Joseph K Mathew, Mark C Fitzgerald, Biswadev Mitra
BACKGROUND: Blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI) is an uncommon diagnosis, usually developing as a consequence of high-impact acceleration-deceleration mechanisms. Timely diagnosis may enable early resuscitation and reduction of shear forces, essential to prevent worsening of the injury prior to definitive management. Death is commonly due to haemorrhagic shock, but clinical features may be absent until sudden and massive haemorrhage. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review was to determine the proportion of patients with BTAI who present with unstable vital signs...
February 9, 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438596/early-discontinuation-of-montelukast-treatment-a-danish-nationwide-utilization-study
#14
Rahmo Ibrahim Farah, Per Damkier, Anders Christiansen, Daniel Pilsgaard Henriksen
Montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, was marketed in 1998 as an oral supplementary treatment to patients with mild to moderate asthma. The aim of this study was to describe the early discontinuation pattern among montelukast users in Denmark in the period of 1 March 1998 to 31 December 2016, and to identify demographic characteristics possibly associated with early discontinuation. This nationwide drug utilization study was based on data collected from three nationwide Danish registers. All montelukast users who redeemed at least one prescription in the study period were identified...
February 13, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436754/reversible-hydrogen-activation-by-a-pyridonate-borane-complex-combining-frustrated-lewis-pair-reactivity-with-boron-ligand-cooperation
#15
Urs Gellrich
A pyridone borane complex that liberates dihydrogen under mild conditions is described. The reverse reaction, dihydrogen activation by the formed pyridonate borane complex, is achieved under moderate H2 pressure (2 bar) at room temperature. DFT and DLPNO CCSD(T) computations reveal that the active form of the pyridonate borane complex is a boroxypyridine that can be described as single component Frustrated Lewis Pair (FLP). Significantly, the boroxypyridine undergoes a chemical transformation to a neutral pyridone donor ligand in the course of the hydrogen activation...
February 13, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436552/real-time-multiplexed-pcr-using-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy-in-a-thermoplastic-chip
#16
S M Restaino, I M White
Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has the potential to enable point-of-care sensing across the spectrum of chemical and biological analytes. In diagnostic assays, SERS has been demonstrated to increase the multiplexing density while reducing the burden of fluorescence hardware. One particular application of interest is the use of SERS to provide a multiplexed optical read-out following polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To date, however, the reported PCR-SERS assays require endpoint mixing with a plasmonic nanoparticle solution for detection, thus adding manual steps and preventing real-time, quantitative PCR...
February 13, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434545/an-updated-survey-on-statistical-thresholding-and-sample-size-of-fmri-studies
#17
Andy W K Yeung
Background: Since the early 2010s, the neuroimaging field has paid more attention to the issue of false positives. Several journals have issued guidelines regarding statistical thresholds. Three papers have reported the statistical analysis of the thresholds used in fMRI literature, but they were published at least 3 years ago and surveyed papers published during 2007-2012. This study revisited this topic to evaluate the changes in this field. Methods: The PubMed database was searched to identify the task-based (not resting-state) fMRI papers published in 2017 and record their sample sizes, inferential methods (e...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432753/establishment-of-potent-and-specific-synthetic-substrate-for-dipeptidyl-peptidase-7
#18
Takayuki K Nemoto, Toshio Ono, Yuko Ohara-Nemoto
Bacterial dipeptidyl-peptidase (DPP) 7 liberates a dipeptide with a preference for aliphatic and aromatic penultimate residues from the N-terminus. Although synthetic substrates are useful for activity measurements, those currently used are problematic, because they are more efficiently degraded by DPP5. We here aimed to develop a potent and specific substrate and found that the kcat/Km value for Phe-Met-methylcoumaryl-7-amide (MCA) (41.40 ± 0.83 μM-1 s-1) was highest compared to Met-Leu-, Leu-Leu-, and Phe-Leu-MCA (1...
February 9, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432729/functional-characterization-and-quantitative-expression-analysis-of-two-gnrh-related-peptide-receptors-in-the-mosquito-aedes-aegypti
#19
Alireza Oryan, Azizia Wahedi, Jean-Paul V Paluzzi
To cope with stressful events such as flight, organisms have evolved various regulatory mechanisms, often involving control by endocrine-derived factors. In insects, two stress-related factors include the gonadotropin-releasing hormone-related peptides adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and corazonin (CRZ). AKH is a pleiotropic hormone best known as a substrate liberator of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. CRZ has been shown to have roles in pigmentation, ecdysis or act as a cardiostimulatory factor although a universal function has not yet been elucidated...
February 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430972/the-behaviour-of-pelvic-floor-muscles-during-uterine-contractions-in-spontaneous-and-oxytocin-induced-labour
#20
Nazan Karahan, Hediye Arslan, Çetin Çam
Term pregnant women were divided into oxytocin infusion and control groups. The electrical activities of pelvic floor muscles (PFM) were recorded at rest and during contractions electromyographically. The beginning and the end of each contraction were marked on the recorded electromyographic trace. A trace was regarded as 'negative' if no increase in electrical activity was observed and 'positive' if increased electrical activity was observed during the contractions. To evaluate the relative frequency of the areas of electrical activity during uterine contractions (UC) a 'positive electrical activity percentage' was used and calculated as: (total count of positive electrical activity areas)/(total count of UC) × 100...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
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